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Agriculture, Manufactures, Mechanic Arts, Internal Im^ 
provement, Commerce, 



Agriculture and the Meehanic Arts are the basis of Civilization. 



Vol XL, O. S.— Vol. V., N. S. 












Railroad to the Pacific. '• 1 

Mississippi Valley Exhibition at St. Louis 41 

The Influence of War and Public Improvements on Prices. 77 

Commercial Record 125, 204, 266, 350, 434 

Social and Commercial Aspects.. 157 

Juvenile Reform Schools. Memorial to Congress 186 

National Finance: Report of the Secretary of the Ireasury U. S 189 

Weston and St. Louis Railroad and North Mo. R. R 210 

Excessive Trading 233 

River and Harbor Improvements by the States. 309 

Pacific Railroad: The Senate Bill. 385 


Railroads in Arkansas 51 

Iron Mountain Railroad 52 

Fragment of Faust, from the German of Goethe.. > 75 

Manufactures vs. Land Speculations.. 285 

Rene, from the French of Chateaubriand 291, 372, 447 

Fragment of Faust, from the German of Goethe 308 

Manufacture of Missouri Iron 370 

My Heart, A Song translated from the German 384 

Missouri Railroad Iron. 442 

The Iron State.. 444 


Valley of the Ohio. By Mann Butler, Esq., of Mo. 56, 141, 224, 305, 379, 

Thoughts on Self Intellectual Culture. By a Member of the Keokuk 
[Iowa] Bar 60, 134, 219, 297 

Rene. From the French of Chateaubriand. By Isaac W. Taylor, Esq., 
St. Louis, Mo. 68 

The Dead Man's Race. By Wm. Gardner Blackwood, Esq, of St. 
Louis, Mo 147 

Exploration of the River Amazon. A sketch from Lieut. Herndon's 

Travels. By Mann Butler, Esq., St. Louis, Mo... 342 

The First Settlement of Kentucky. By Mann Butler, Esq. 392 

The Mississippi. An imaginary sketch. By Mrs. Mary E. Hall, of 

Keokuk, Iowa, 453 


index to Volume X\. 



Agriculture : Address of Chancellor 
Lathrop before the State Agricultural 
Society of Wisconsin, 17. 
Agriculture: Address of t ; riel Wright 
before the State Agricultural Society 
of Missouri, 106, 1"3. 
Alton and New York Railroad Connec- 
tion, 54. 
Amazon River : Lieut. Herndon's Ex- 
plorations, 342. 
Appleton, Samuel, Biographical Sketch, 

Arkansas Railroads, 51. 
Aspects: Social and Commercial, 157. 
Atmospheric Railway; anew plan, 249. 
Aubrey's Journey from California to 
New Mexico, 84. 
Bank of Missouri, Report for 1853, 272. 
Banks and Banking in Massachusetts, 

Banks of New York City, Weekly Re- 
ports, 129, 208, 268, 356, 438. 
Benton, Mo., Railroad Convention, 212. 
Birds of Illinois, 397. 
Boone, Daniel; his first trip to, and ad- 
ventures in Kentucky, 305. 
Bridge over the Mississippi at Rock Is- 
land, 42. 

Capital invested in manufactures in the 

U. S., 290. 
Cast Iron Rails for Railroads, 324. 
Cities of Missouri: Independence, 31. 
Chicago and Rock Island Railroad op- 

ened, tariff', &c, 369. 


Cincinnati Iron Trade, 
&c, 182. 

Coal Trade of Pittsburg, 259. 

Coal Trade of Great Britain, 262. 

enue of the U. S. for the year ending 
30th June, 1853, 55. Imports and Ex- 
ports at New York from 1850 to 1853 
inclusive, ib. Deposites at the Phila. 
Mint from 1S;")1 to 1853 inclusive, ib. 
Receipts of Gold from California, ib. 
Commerce Oj St. Louis. Amount and 
kind of foreign imports ; amount of 
duties paid, Hospital Money paid,&c. 
at the Port oi St. Louis in 1853, 270. 
Imports of domestic produce, &c, at 
St. Lonis for 5 years ending 31st of 
December, 1853, 358. Comparative 
monthly prices of leading articles for 
1852 and 1853, 361. Vide Commercial 
Commercial and Social Aspects, 157. 
Commercial Record, 125, 204, 266, 350, 

Congress, List of Names of Members of 
33d Congress, 229. 

Convention at Benton, Mo. [Railroad] 

Convention, [Railroad] at Lacon, Ills., 


Cotton Trade, Statistics of Crops, Con- 
sumption, &.C., 315. 
Dead Man's Race, A Poem, 147. 
Debt of the U. S. Report of the Secret- 
ary of the Treasury, 192. 
Debt, Funded Debt of Railroads, 279. 
Debts of the States, and of Corpora- 
tions of the U. S. owned in foreign 
Countries Report of the Secretary 
of the Treasury, 412. 
Deposits of Gold, &c, at the Mint, 55. 
Desmoines River Improvements, 217. 


Excessive Trading, 233. 
Exchange, Domestic end Foreign, 129, 

268, 356, 437. 
Exporl and Production of the Precious 
metals, 130, 208. 
Faust, A Fragment, 75, 308. 
Finances of the U. S., 189. Vide Com- 
mercial Record, 125, &c. 
Flax Culture, 241. 
Flour. Vide Commerce of St. Louis, 

Commercial Record, &c. 
Flowers: Artificial Fecundation of, 408. 
Fort Madison and Bloomfield Railroad, 

Fort Wayne and Platte ValleyRailroad, 

Freight: River, Coastwise and Foreign. 

Vide Commercial Record, 125, &c. 
Funded Debt owned by foreigners, 412. 

Gold and Silver Deposited at the Mint, 
and Gold received from California, 
Gold and Silver produced by the Mines 

of America from 1492 to 1848, 96. 
Gold Mining in New Mexico, 263. 

Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad. Fin- 
ancial arrangement. 53. 
Han od, James: Pioneer of Ky., 307. 
Hemp. Vide Commerce of St. Louis, 

Commercial Record, 125, &c. 
Hemp Trade, 267. 
Henderson & Co., Grants of land from, 

in Ky., 305, &c. 
Hernddn, Lieut., Explorations of the 

Amazon, 342. 
Hickman &, Obion Railroad, 119, 367. 
Hog Statistics for the year 1853-4, 435. 
Hybridizing of Plants, 331. 

Independence, Mo.: Statistics, &c, 31. 
Intellectual Self Culture, 60, 134, 219, 

Index to Volume X. 


Iron Mountain Railroad : right of way, 
52. Let to contract, 363. 

Iron and Zinc. Manufacture of Iron 
from Lake Superior ore, 8. 

Iron Manufacture of Great Britain, 16. 

Iron : Cost of making wrought iron di- 
rect from the ore, 16. 

Iron trade of Great Britain, 131. 

Iron mines and iron trade of Ohio and 
Cincinnati, 182, 

Iron trade of Mo. at Ste. Genevieve, 

Iron: produced in Mo. Location of ores, 
works, &c, 370. 

Iron State, 444. 


Juvenile Reform Schools. Memorial to 
Congress, 186. 


Kentucky, first settlement of, a narrat- 
ive of 1778, 392. 

Lake Erie, Wabash and St. Louis R. 
R., history of, 122. 

Lathrop, Chancellor, Address on agri- 
culture, 17. 

Lead : quantity produced at Galena; 
prices, &c, from 1841 to 1852, 127. 

Locomotives: cost of repairs, 253. 

Manufactures vs. Land Speculation, 

Mapes, Professor, on the manufacture 
of wrought iron direct from the ore, 

Memphis and Charleston R. R., right 
of way, through Mississippi, 368. 

Mining Magazine, 383. 

Mississippi, 453. 

Mississippi Valley Exhibition, 41. 

Mississippi & Atlantic R. R., charter, 
&c, 365. 

Mississippi, The, An imaginary sketch, 
a poem. 453. 

Missouri Railroad Iron, 442. 

Music, 384. 

My Heart, A Song, from the German, 


Natural History: Birds of Illinois, 397. 

New Jersey, Capacities of, 444. 

North Missouri Railroad, 53, 210. 

Ohio and Mississippi Railroad open to 
Lebanon, 366. 


Pacific Railroad, Mo., Vote of St.Louis 
county, 54. Location of route west 
of Jefferson City, 117. Annual Re- 
port March, 1851, 439. 

Pittsburg Coal Trade, 259. 

Railroad to the Pacific ocean, N. Y. 
Company, 1, Tabular statement of 
cost of transportation on R. R., 43 

Railroad meeting at Charleston, Mo.' 
46. Railroads in Arkansas, 51. Iron 
Mountain R. R., 52. Hannibal and 
St. Joseph R. R., 53. North Mo. R. 
R., 53, 210. Pacific R. R. Mo., vote 
of St Louis county, 54. Route located 
west of Jefferson city, 117. Annual re- 
port, March 1854, 439. Alton & New 
York R. R. connection, 54. Warsaw 
& Rockford R. R., 114. Hickman & 
Obion R. R., 119, 368. St. Louis & 
JNew Orleans R. R. via New Madrid, 
121. Lake Erie, Wabash and St. 
Louis R. R., history, &c, 122. New 
plan of constructing railways, by A. 
P. Robinson, 163. Weston and St. 
Louis R. R., 210, 367. Proceedings 
of R. R. convention at Benton, Mo , 
212. Fort Wayne, Laoon and Platte 
Valley R. R. convention, 215. Fort 
Madison. Westpoint, Keosauqua and 
Bloomington R. R., 217. Western 
border R R. convention at Fort 
Smith, 218. Atmospheric Railway, 
new plan, 249. Names ol roads and 
number of miles open in the U. S., 1. 
Jan., 1854, 275. Number of miles 
open in each State. Capital paid in, 
lunded debt, cost of roads, gross and 
nett earnings, dividends and price of 
stock, 279. Pacific R. R. through 
Texas, charter, 331. St. Louis and 
Iron Mountain R. R. let to contract, 
363. Mtssissippi & Atlantic R. R., 
charter, 365. Ohio and Mississippi 
R. R. opened to Lebanon, 366. Mem- 
phis and Charleston R. R., right of 
way through Mi., 368. Great West- 
ern [Canada] R. R. open, cost, &c, 
369. Chicago and Rock Island R.R. 
opened, tariff; &c, 369. Pacific R. 
R., Senate Bill, 385. Railroad debt 
funded and owned by foreigners, 412 . 
Railroad iron from Mo. ore, 442. 

Rene, irom the French of Chateaubri- 
and, 68, 291, 372. 447. 

Revenue of the U. S., 55. 189. 

River and Harbor Improvements by the 
States, 309. 

Robinson, A P., New plan for con- 
structing railroads, 163. 

St. Louis and New Orleans R. R., via 
New Madrid, 121. 

St. Louis commerce, and commercial 
statistics, 270, 358 to 362. 

Self Intellectual Culture, 60, 134, 219, 

St. Louis & Iron Mountain R. R. let to 
contract, 363. 

Social and commercial aspects, 157. 

Southern Quarterly Review, 152. 

Steamboat arrivals at St. Louis in 1853, 


Index to Volume XL 


Tobacco Trade. Vide Commercial Re- 
cord, 351. 
Texas, Pacific R. R.. charter, 331 

The Mississippi: 

An imaginary sketch, 

Valley of the Ohio : Its conquest & set- 
tlement by Americans, 56, 141, 224, 

305, 379, 419. 
Vineyards of Ohio, 321. 

War: Its influence on prices, &c, 77. 
Warsaw and Rockford R. R., 114, 
Weston and St. Louis Railroad, 310 

and 367. 
Western Border Railroad Convention at 

Fort Smith, 218. 



Sl « • n » 

<wb SgSttrtCtfttk 

VOL. XI. October, 1853. No. I. 

Article I, 
Railroad to the Pacific Ocean. 

The policy of connecting the shores of the Atlantic and Pacific 
oceans by a railroad is so generally approved, and its consumma- 
tion so universally desired, that it would be a useless waste of time 
to discuss the merits of the enterprise. This great project has 
been long before the people, and it is obvious that public sentiment 
in all parts of the Union demands the immediate commencement 
and vigorous prosecution of the work under the auspices of the 
General Government. But before it can be commenced, there are 
many important details to be settled by legislation; upon the ad- 
justment of which the final success of the enterprise will, in a great 
measure, depend. 

The location of the route will present the first, the most import- 
ant, and, withal, the most embarrassing point to be adjusted by 
the national legislature. Local interests, sectional prejudices and 
individual speculations, will all be brought to bear in full force 
upon this point; and hence we deem it our duty, as public journal- 
ists, to counteract as far as practicable, the influence of these ad- 
verse elements. 

As if resolved to repudiate the reports of the engineers now en- 
gaged in exploring the several routes ordered to be surveyed by 
the Executive, conductors of the press, in almost every section of 
the country, have engaged in advocating certain routes and in op- 
posing others. Nearly every railroad running westwardly, which 
has been proposed between the Gulf of Mexico and the Falls of St. 
Anthony, is claimed by their projectors to be a section of the great 
trunk line which is to convey the commerce between Europe and 
Asia across our continent. One might suppose that the absurdity 

Railroad to the Pacific Ocean. 

of some of these claims would make them ridiculous and harmless; 
but let us not be deceived : they have doubtless been set up and 
urged upon the people along the respective lines for the purpose 
of giving character and strength to local enterprises ; and we are 
persuaded that most of the railroad schemes which have been de- 
vised within the last swo years for the construction of lines in a 
westerly direction, are based upon the idea of their ultima te^con- 
nection with the shores of the Pacific. Hence it is to be appre- 
hended that no route can be proposed which will not be met by 
strong and, perhaps, uncompromising opposition, that will prevent 
its adoption. 

This is a result anticipated by certain speculators who have been 
and are now actively engaged in bringing it about, with a view to 
obtain for their own benefit the control and emoluments of the 
most stupendous and important enterprise ever achieved or under- 
taken by any nation. And this they hope to accomplish, not by 
the investment of their own money, but by means to be obtained 
in part from the General Government, and in part from other re- 
sources than their own exchequers. The first overt movement look- 
ing to this object was made in Boston, in 1849; and though the or- 
iginators of that scheme proposed to commence their road at St. 
Louis, we promptly objected to their plan, and, as we believe, suc- 
cess ully exposed the enormous speculations meditated by those 
who conceived the "Boston project."* It would seem that the 
Boston projectors had taken no steps to prepare the public mind 
for their movement; but based their expectation of success upon a 
sudden and bold proposition endorsed by the calculating talent and 
energy of that enterprising city. The New York company chart- 
ered with a capital of $100,000,000, have adopted a different 
system of tactics. They break ground so far from the point of at- 
tack, and operate at points apparently so disconnected, that few, 
except those initiated into the mysteries of the scheme, understand 
the main object designed to be accomplished by their movements. 

The New York Company, though but recently organized, may 
be traced back to the Memphis Convention, held in 1849, where it 
was shadowed forth by a resolution recommending the survey of a 
southern route. Disconnected from all views of speculation, this 
resolution was so reasonable that scarce any one who desired to 

• VhIp Western Journal, vol. II, pa^e 313. Vol. Ill, page 1 to 12. Ibid. 
1 '.»:,' to 201. 

Raihoad to the Pacific Ocean. 

see the road built, could object to it ; but it was a strong point 
gained; from that time the idea of a southern route became a na- 
tional fact established by a convention representing fourteen States 
of the Union. That resolution was followed up, after the adjourn- 
ment of the convention, by a very long and elaborate address from 
Lieutenant Maury, the gentleman who presided over its delibera- 
tions, in which he undertook to establish the claims of a southern 
route over all others. In his address the author labored to asso- 
ciate the measure of building the southern road with the construc- 
tion of a ship-canal across the Isthmus. This was designed, as it 
may be supposed, to bring the strength of New York and other 
eastern States to aid in carrying out the scheme of a southern 
railroad. We believed at the time that lieutenant Maury's ad- 
dress was calculated to injure the prospects of a railroad to the 
Pacific, and expressed qur apprehensions upon that ooint in a re- 
view of his communication, which was published in the "Western 
Journal."* But we have never imagined, nor do we now intend 
to intimate, that he had any design of defeating the work as a na- 
tional measure, or of assisting a company of speculators to obtain 
control of the road for their own benefit. 

During tb,e state of excitement between the North and the South 
which succeeded the Memphis convention, the Pacific railroad re- 
ceived but little attention in Congress ; but the southern scheme 
was continually kept before the public as a national measure. And 
it was not until the time approached, when it was obvious that pub- 
lic opinion would compel Congress to act definitely upon the sub- 
ject, that the speculators began to uncover themselves, Their first 
public movement was to clothe themselves with corporate privil- 
eges? D y virtue whereof they now generously propose to build a 
railroad from some point in the Valley of the Mississippi to the 
Pacific ocean. \i will require no argument to show that this 
charter places the corporators in an attitude antagonistic to the 
action of Congress upon aryy route except that proposed by them- 
selves ; and we think we are warranted in the conclusion that, 
without being aware of it, many conductors of the public press and 
small politicians have already been enlisted in behalf of the New- 
York company. 

The arguments against the power of Congress to create corpoiv 
ations have been revived, and are undergoing discussion, in con,- 

* Vide Western Journal; yol, III, page 351. 

Railroad to the Pacific Ocean. 

nectionwith the assumed inefficiency on the pai*t of the General Gov- 
ernment in prosecuting public works. Now if the N. York company 
can bring the public and Congress to coincidewithtnemon these two 
points, it is but reasonable for them to expect that the enterprise will 
naturally fall into their hands. But they are too cautious and shrewd 
to rest their case upon these grounds without fortifying their posi- 
tion at all points. Hence we may expect opposition to the organ- 
ization and settlement of Nebraska, with a view of embarrassing 
the construction of a road commencing on the western boundary of 
any of the States north of Texas. As we understand their plan$ 
they propose to build the road through the State of Texas to the 
Rio del Norte, without the aid of the General Government; and to 
add force to this generous proposition, the policy of reducing the 
tariff is again brought up, and will, in all probability, be made to 
bear with tremendous effect on the Pacific railroad question. We 
feel assured that this view of the subject will not be regarded as 
unwarranted, when it is remembered that the champion of free 
trade is a subscriber for $10,000,000 of stock in this brilliant 

But the people are resolved upon having a railroad to the Paci- 
fic, and may doubt whether the company can raise the money to 
accomplish a work which is not likely to pay remunerating divid- 
ends to stockholders. It happens, however, very opportunely, that 
Mr. Septimus Norris, Civil and Mechanical Engineer of Phila- 
delphia, has furnished the public with a statement calculated to ob- 
viate all doubts on this point. This is the most wonderful achieve- 
ment of civil engineering that has come to our knowledge: for the 
author seems to have found no difficulty in estimating the cost of 
constructing and operating a railroad, 2000 miles in length, over 
a country which he does not claim to have seen, and declaring div- 
idends to stock without leaving his office. 

If such statements can gain credit with the people, it is obvious 
that all who have constitutional scruples respecting the power of 
the General Government to create corporations; and those who be- 
lieve the Government cannot accomplish the work in as short a 
time and for as small a sum as can individuals; and all who desire 
the reduction of the tariff, will cease to look to Congress for the 
means of building the road. 

But notwithstanding Mr. Norris has shown that the road will 
pay large dividends, yet, we understand that the New York Com- 

Railroad to the Pacific Ocean. 5 

pany expect to obtain a sufficient quantity of land from Texas to 
build the road to the Rio del Norte, and look to the General Gov- 
ernment or Mexico for the means to complete the road to the Pa- 

Placing the enterprise in this view, the subscription of $10,- 
000,000 by the Hon. R. J. Walker may be regarded as quite mod- 
est, and indicative of great liberality towards his associates ; espe- 
cially when, as it seems, he enjoyed the privilege of being the first 
subscriber. Many individuals, in like circumstances, would have 
been strongly tempted to take the lion's share. Holding so large 
an interest in this enterprise, it would be unreasonable to insist 
upon nis proceeding on a mission to China, until the plans of the 
company shall have been recognized and sanctioned by Congress. 

But we are told that the New York Company propose to com- 
mence their road at St. Louis. Doubtless they would agree to 
commence even at St. Paul, and build the Mississippi valley rail- 
road for us, if the Government would give them a sufficient quan- 
tity of land, and they could thereby secure the support of the Mis- 
souri and Iowa delegation in Congress. We trust, however, that 
Missouri will not be entrapped by a scheme so replete with mis- 
chief. For ourselves, before we can consent to favor the N. York 
project, we must be convinced that no practicable route to the Pa- 
cific can be found north of Ei Paso, and be assured, moreover, 
that the company will not claim or receive dividends on the means 
invested in the road by the General Government. 

We stand upon the same ground which we occupied in 1849 : 
we are the advocates of a National Road. A road to be con- 
structed by the aid of the General Government. National in its 
location, and strictly national in respect to the benefits to be de- 
rived from it; and the practicable route nearest the center of our 
territory, other considerations being equal, is, in our opinion, the 
one best calculated to secure these objects. Nor should the pro- 
ductive capacity of the uninhabited region, traversed by the route, 
be overlooked by those whose duty it will be to make the location. 

We frankly admit that there is much force in the argument of 
those who insist that a company of individuals can accomplish the 
work in a shorter time and at less cost than can the General Gov- 
ernment. Nor would we insist upon the creation of a corporation 
by Congress, when a respectable portion of the people hold the 
opinion that such an act would be constitutional. 

Railroad to the Pacific Ocean. 

We believe that a corporation created by some one of the States 
with power to build the road by the consent of the States and Ter- 
ritories through which it should pass, would be the most efficient 
and certain plan of accomplishing the work. Such a company 
should be prohibited from holding any real estate not necessary 
for the construction, and convenience of operating the road ; and 
should be limited in its reception of dividends to ten per cent, per 
annum on the amount actually invested by the corporators. A 
company incorporated and organized upon these principles should 
be authorized to receive sixty thousand dollars in money or stock 
from the General Government for each sum of forty thousand dol- 
lars advanced by itself. 

This plan, we believe, would ensure the accomplishment of the 
work in as short a time as a prudent regard to the economy of its 
construction would authorize. And while the amount appropriated 
by Congress would ensure remunerating dividends to the stockhold- 
ers, the limit to their dividends would cheapen the transportation 
of persons and merchandize, and in this way remunerate the na- 
tion for its investment. Indeed, the transportation of the mails, 
troops and public property, free of charge, may be regarded as a 
fair remuneration to the Government for the investment of sixty 
thousand dollars* 

But it may be objected that the company would have no induce- 
ment to equip and operate the road to a greater extent than would 
be necessary to enable it to earn the ten per cent, dividend. This 
objection may be removed by a provision in the charter limiting 
the charges of transportation, and compelling the company to re- 
ceive and transport, without delay, all persons who may desire to 
travel, and all property which maybe offered for transportation. 

It will be obvious to the intelligent reader, that we have only 
aimed to sketch the outlines of a plan. Many details will be re- 
quired which have not been noticed; and it maybe found upon ex- 
amination that those suggested will require modifications. But we 
feel a strong conviction in the soundness and efficiency of the plan 
proposed, and are persuaded that it would be regarded with favor, 
could it be generally and fully discussed before the American peo- 
ple. It is calculated, 1st, to prevent Scheming speculators from 
plundering the public, and enriching themselves out of the prop- 
erty of the nation; 2nd, to separate the Pacific railroad from all 
political questions, and enable the true friends of the measure to 

Railroad to the Pacific Ocean. 

try it upon its merits; and 3d, to secure to the nation a reasonable 
pecuniary remuneration for the amount of money appropriated. 

Now, if we should be sustained in these views by intelligent and 
well-judging men, we respectfully ask, why the Pacific railroad 
company, incorporated by the General Assembly of Missouri, 
should not make an effort to place itself in a condition to extend 
its work across the continent? We are aware that its charter does 
not contain the provisions and limitations contemplated in our 
plan; but if the plan should meet with sufficient approbation from 
the public to authorize such a step, the Legislature might be con- 
vened for the purpose of amending the charter so as to enable the 
company to go before Congress with an honest scheme: one that 
would command the favorable consideration and respect of the na- 
tion, and defeat the speculators in railroads, national appropria- 
tions and politics. 

We give no opinion respecting the practicability of any route 
which has been suggested. We are content to abide by the re- 
ports to be made by men of science, after they shall have made 
their surveys and estimates. But, in the mean time we propose 
to keep a watchful eye upon the movements of scheming speculat- 
ors and trading politicians, and we admonish all true friends of 
this great work to guard themselves against being led off from 
the main points by entering into unprofitable discussions respect- 
ing routes. 

It is a part of the policy of the enemies of a national road to 
encourage these discussions for the purpose of strengthening the 
prejudices which already exist between different sections of the 
country, and to divert the attention of the public from their own 

We reiterate what we have said in another place : we have no 
ambition to be known as projectors or the originators of new meas- 
ures. We study and labor for the country, and look for our re- 
ward in its prosperity. Hence we claim the right to ask of our 
readers to give the views we have taken of this important subject 
a careful examination. The grandeur of the enterprise, and the 
results to be expected from its accomplishment, are sufficient to 
awaken the most intense interest in the mind of every individual 
susceptible of emotions of national pride and patriotism. 

A road located on the route proposed by the New York Com- 
pany, would be totally deficient in many of the elements which 

8 Iron and Zinc. 

should enter into a national work. It can afford no facilities for 
the settlement of the extensive region lying between the States and 
the Pacific ocean. Indeed, the projectors seem studiously to avoid 
entering upon the territory belonging to the United States; and if 
their road should be built upon the line contemplated, it will not 
satisfy the demands of commerce, or the social wants of a large 
portion of the American people. Consequently, if a practicable 
route should be found farther north, the Government will be urged 
and compelled in time to make an appropriation for a second 
route. This state of things should be guarded against ; and may 
be avoided by the construction of a great trunk line, to be lo- 
cated as near the center of our oivn territory as the physical 
character of the country 10 ill admit; and in favor of such a route 
we earnestly invoke the co-operation of all who desire to promote 
the commercial prosperity and moral grandeur of our broad re- 

Article II. 

[From the Mining Magazine.] 

Iron and Zinc. 


To W. J. Tenney, Editor of the Mining Magazine. 

I will give you my impressions regarding the iron region and 
the manufacture of iron from the Lake Superior ores, though I 
have hitherto avoided giving publicity to opinions opposed as mine 
have always been to the popular and extravagant statements, that 
have been spread abroad through the papers on this object. 

The Lake Superior iron ores belong to the variety of ores known 
as specular iron — a combination of iron and oxygen, of which 
the metallic proportion cannot exceed by weight seventy- two and 
a small fraction per centum. Magnetic iron ore accompanies 
the specular, and the two are frequently mixed. The greatest pro- 
portion of iron ever obtained from this mixture cannot exceed sev- 
enty-five per centum. No reliable analysis of the Lake Superior 
ores has ever given so high a yield as this. Statements o'l a greater 
yield prove their own falsity, and the ignorance of the operator. 
Such ores are not peculiar to the Lake Superior region. They 
are almost or quite as abundant in Missouri; and similar ores are 
extensively worked on the shores of Lake Champlain ; in Orange 
co , New York, und in New Jersey. New Hampshire and Georgia, 
both contain in mountain masses varieties little differing from them. 

Iron and Zinc. 9 

Some of the Andover ore of New Jersey cannot be distinguished 
from the choicest of the Lake Superior ores; and if made into bar 
iron direct, with the same care as were the samples for trial pre- 
pared from this ore, there is no question but it would exhibit the 
same remarkable strength; the pig-iron manufactured from it, 
though made with anthracite, possesses the strength of the best 
charcoal iron. 

Being very free from earthy matters, these ores are well adapted 
for working in bloomery fires. They require a preparatory roast- 
ing, stamping and screening, by which they are subjected to some 
loss, and finally yield about a ton of metallic iron to two of ore as 
taken from the mine. More or less is lost in the cinder, accord- 
ing to the skill of the workmen, the purity of the ores and the ad- 
aptedness of the apparatus. 

The bloomery process is a convenient one, where the ores are of 
this rich character, and charcoal is abundant. The charcoal made 
from the hard maple and birch of this region, is especially well 
adapted for this process. It is of remarkable soundness and dens- 
ity, owing to the great hardness of the wood. The same cause 
adds materially, however, to its cost. Each bloomery fire, worked 
by two bloomers and two ordinary workmen, turns out about a ton 
of blooms in twenty-four hours. The wages amount to eight dol- 
lars, and the consumption of coal, including waste, and all really 
paid for, can seldom be estimated at much less than 8U0 bushels. 
Of the charcoal, such as I saw at the works, 250 bushels ought to 
be enough. The expenses of manufacture may then be estimated 
as follows: — 

Estimated cost of a ton of blooms made on the Lake Shore. 

2 tons of ore, quarrying and hauling 12 miles, at $2 $4 00 

Roasting same, at $1 2 00 

Stamping and screening, at 50 cents 1 00 

250 bushels Charcoal, at 8 cents (actual cost) 20 00 

2 bloomers at $3, 2 helpers at $1, or same amount as by 

actual contract 8 00 

Repairs $1, Superintendence $1, Interest $1 3 00 

General Expenses 2 00 

Cost on Lake Shore $40 00 

Shipping, freight, carting, storage and commission, say... 15 00 

Cost when sold at Cleveland $55 00 

This cost calculated upon a small operation, with large allowance 
for transportation, may be considerably reduced by running twen- 
ty or thirty fires in the same establishment, and by the construc- 
tion of a rail or plank road from the mines to the Lake shore. But 
there are several points requiring careful consideration before one 
could be justified in pronouncing upon the success of such an un- 
dertaking. In the first place, no business is so wholly in the hands 

10 Iron and Zinc. 

of skillful workmen as that of manufacturing blooms. For every 
ton made in twenty-four hours, two men are required, who have 
served a regular apprenticeship, and acquired their ability only by 
long practice. Their places cannot be filled with men picked up 
any where. The success of the business is dependent wholly upon 
their skill and good will. Strikes are common among them, and 
are frequently disastrous to the works. This is especially to be 
feared in a remote district, shut off a large portion of the year 
from all communication with other places where this manufacture 
is carried on. It is probable that this cause, more t*han any other, 
has kept back the spread of large bloomeries in New York and 
New Jersey, and limited the business, with few exceptions, to small 
works, conducted by the proprietors, who were once bloomers them- 

Again to carry on a large establishment, powerful machinery is 
required, and this must be kept in steady running order. Bat such 
machinery is liable to accidents and breakages, to repair which re- 
course must be had to complete machine shops, foundries and 
large forges. Now these must either be provided at the works, 
and competent mechanics kept employed at them, or delays of a 
whole winter may be involved. 

Then again, for six or seven months in the year the products of 
the works are accumulating without a possibility of getting them 
to market. Opportunities are lost of taking advantage of high 
prices. The capital lying dead, adds materially to the expenses. 

Such considerations as these, together with others arising from 
the great expenses of introducing and supporting the population 
required for carrying on this business at Lake Superior, have led 
me to look with incredulity upon the large estimates of profits to 
arise so soon from the manufacture of blooms in this region. 

Still I am very far from questioning the great value oi : these 
rich ores — with few exceptions the only iron ores from the country 
east of the Alleghanies to the Mississippi River, north of Tennes- 
see, that have been or will be discovered, suitable for the manu- 
facture of the best boiler-plate iron, wire, car- axles, car wheels, 
and other work of refined or cast-iron, requiring the greatest 
strength. The demand for them will be immense. The great Lakes 
already < raw enormous supplies of iron from the eastern portion 
of the Atlantic States; much ol the best of it, after it had passed 
through the mills at Pittsburg, and been mixed and deteriorated 
with the poorer western iron; some of its supplies have crossed the 
Atlantic, and in the state of Scotch pig finds no serious competi- 
tion in Wisconsin and Illinois, after having passed around a fourth 
of the circumference of the globe. The Lake Superior mines are 
destined to change the course of this trade, and supply better iron 
than is now generally found about the great Lakes. But can this 
be done by a process which requires the slow labor of four men to 
make a ton of iron in twenty-four hours, besides all those employed 

Iron and 'Mnc-. 11 

in the various other departments of the work? For many purposes, 
iron made direct from the ore will be preferred to that first made 
into pig-iron and then refined; and the comparatively small quan- 
tity so prepared will find a profitable sale in a prosperous state of 
the iron market. But the great demands of the trade must be 
met, as they are now, by iron produced from blast furnaces. It 
is the establishment of these, judiciously located, in connection 
With large rolling mills, forges, nail factories, &c„, that will first 
really develope the resources of the iron region, and realize the 
profits that its mines are capable of producing. 

To work these ores successfully in the blast furnace, they re- 
quire mixing with other leaner ores. It may be there ar^ varieties 
in the same region, that will bring down the percentage of the 
whole to about 50 of cast iron, and afford the materials (with such 
limestone as is already discovered in the country, or may be car- 
ried there as return freight,) for a fluid-running, glassy cinder — 
the first requisite in making pig-iron. It is more likely the coun- 
try below can furnish a better variety of these poorer materials. In 
the same way the ores of Lake Champlain are now most advant- 
ageously worked on the Hudson river, where they meet other prim- 
ary ores from the Highlands and the hematites of Massachusetts 
and Connecticut. 

By the mixture, made with judgment, the objectionable qualities 
of one kind are neutralized by the opposite qualities of the others, 
which by themselves would be equally objectionable. 

In this way the poor ores are made profitable, and produce good 
iron. So the bog ores of lower Michigan and Ohio, and the clay 
iron-stones of the coal formation may be turned to good account 
worked with the rich ores of Lake Superior ; and according to the 
different mixtures many desirable varieties of iron may be obtained. 

The canal past the Saut once completed, the expense of trans- 
porting the ore below to be there smelted, seems to be of little 
moment in comparison with the expenses and difficulties conse- 
quent on the running of blast furnaces in the upper country, These 
in their present improved construction and heavy machinery, are 
still more dependent than bloomeries for their uninterrupted run- 
ning, which is essential to their success, on convenient access to 
machine shops. This is one reason why they are now more gen- 
erally found close to large cities, than as formerly in remote dis- 
tricts, near the mines. Here, too, the works are at all times sure 
of workmen, and the proprietors are not compelled to clear lands, 
build houses, cultivate farms, and import stock and other supplies 
for their support. At all times they are under the eye and control 
of the parties interested. The products of the works are at once 
in the market, and they are varied to meet the immediate demand. 
This ability to fill orders is almost as essential for the omplete 
success of blast furnaces as of rolling mills. It is not improbable 
that the additional cost of transportation of ore (to Detroit for in- 

12 Iron and Zinc. 

stance), would be more than met by the cheapness of charcoal, 
which must always be obtained on the shores of the lower lakes. 
In Baltimore there are seven or eight blast furnaces, all of which 
are supplied with fuel brought to them from the wooded country 
around Chesapeake Bay. Lake St. Clair, in this respect, is to 
Detroit what the Chesapeake is to Baltimore. Wood to both is 
furnished for about two dollars per cord and no fears need be en- 
tertained that the supplies will ever be exhausted. The wood is 
brought to the furnace dock and charred in kilns containing from 
fifty to sixty cords each. At two dollars per cord, charcoal will 
cost, thus prepared, less than six cents per bushel. The vast coun- 
try supplying the wood keeps up a healthy competition ; the sup- 
plies are certain, and there is little variation in the prices. To 
one familiar with charcoal furnaces, and the great difficulty of 
stocking them, this will present itself as a consideration of the 
highest importance. It wovdd certainly debar any prudent man 
from rashly attempting to make pig -iron in the lake country, with 
its present population. 

At all well managed blast furnaces, it is customary to keep a 
large stock of ore on hand. It is benefitted by lying a year ex- 
posed to the weather. There is hence no unnecessary use of ca- 
pital in getting down during the summer the ore for a year or 
more, as there is in keeping a winter's stock of iron on hand in 
the upper country. 

Many people have a mistaken notion that the best iron can only 
be made direct from the ore; others, that charcoal iron made with 
cold blast is the only pig-iron suitable for making the strongest 
refined iron. Yet the hot-blast iron of the Housatonic valley has 
always found a good market at the forges where car- axles are 
made, and it is selected for the bars which Collins orders for his 
axes, and which, perhaps, arc as carefully scrutinized and subject- 
ed to as severe tests as iron for any other purposes. And so great 
are the modern improvements in the manufacture of pig-iron, even 
that made with anthracite from the Andover ores and puddled, 
produces bar iron little inferior to the best charcoal blooms. There 
can, therefore, be no reasonable objection to working the Lake 
Superior ores in charcoal blast furnaces, on the score of their mak- 
ing poorer iron. Though success has not attended the attempts 
to use our bituminous coals for making pig-iron on a large scale, 
there is more reason in looking to these as the fuel that will prob- 
ably be hereafter employed for tin reduction of the Lake Superior 
ores, than now to find fault with charcoal furnaces. 

As the iron business is now conducted, the profits of the -mailer 
establishments bear no comparison with those laid out on a liberal 
scale — supplied with the most thorough machinery, and of the lat- 
est and most approved designs. The size of the furnaces has 
greatly increased the last few years, and the production or some 
of them has far exceeded in proportion, their increased capacity. 

Iron and Zinc. 13 

— At Hudson, N.Y., are two anthracite furnaces of 1G feet across 
the boshes, which make over 180 tons, each one, of pig-iron per 
week. The manager of these works, C. C. Alger, Esq., has prob- 
ably produced the greatest results in proportion to their size with 
these furnaces of any in the world. His success with the Stock- 
bridge charcoal blast furnace, of ten feet bosh, was almost as re- 
markable, running it repeatedly at the rate of 90 tons per week. 
The two furnaces of Messrs. Cooper & Hewitt, which are run with 
the Andover ores, are twenty feet across the boshes, and have pro- 
duced about 220 tons each per week. These great results are 
ascribed mostly to a steady and efficient blast, of much greater 
pressure than has ever before been used. — The machinery to ob- 
tain this requires a large outlay of capital. The two furnaces at 
Hudson complete cost about $175,000, and the other two some- 
what over this sum. 

Charcoal furnaces would be considerably less expensive, but 
though it might be expedient to begin with only one or two, an 
engine or blowing apparatus ought to be provided sufficient for a 
larger number. The cost of manufacture, supposing there are two 
furnaces of the most approved construction located at Detroit, 
should not vary materially from the following estimate, the com- 
pany being supposed to own the mine, as in the former estimate 
of the cost of blooms: 

Estimated cost of making Charcoal Pig Iron at Detroit, in large 
blast furnaces, railroad to the mines, and canal built. 

If tons of ore at $4- ••• $7 00 

ISO bushels charcoal at 4 cents. » 5 20 

Flux 50 cents, labor $2 2 50 

Repairs 50 cents, superintendence 50 cents • 1 00 

Interest, general expenses •••• • 1 00 

$16 70 

Having written already much more than I intended, I will leave 
it for others to calculate the cost of puddling this iron and rolling 
it into bars, and to determine the extent and cost of refineries that 
should be added to the furnaces. One point only of interest I 
would not fail to call attention to. 

On the Island of Elba are found large bodies of ore similar to 
those of Lake Superior. The furnaces for smelting them are on 
the opposite shore of Tuscaney. They are small, and of very pe- 
culiar construction, different from any other furnaces, but by their 
extraordinary yield they have proved to be extremely well adapted 
for smelting this kind of ore. 


The study of the gasses formed in blast-furnaces, with which 
these authors have been engaged for some years, has shown that 
the use of carbonate of lime as a flux is attended with great loss, 

14 Iron and Zinc, 

and likewise that this loss may be obviated by using burnt limo in- 
stead. The gases were taken from a blast-furnace, 54 feet high, 
at Ougree, at thirty-two places, 1 foot apart, and the percentage 
of carbonic acid determined, 

According to calculation, 8000 kilogrms. carbonic acid require 
for conversion into carbonic oxide 2173 kilogrms. of carbon, and 
the quantity of heat developed in the combination of this quantity 
of carbon with 1 equiv. of oxygen, is 2173-1386==3,011, 778 heat 
units. At the same time, however, these 8000 kilogrms. of car- 
bonic acid are reduced to 5092 kilogrms. of carbonic oxide by the 
action of the carbon, a change which is accompanied by the ab- 
sorption of a quantity of heat equal to that developed by the com- 
bustion of the latter gas, i. e. ? 5092-2488=12,607,896 heat units. 
Consequently, deducting the 3,011,778 heat units developed in 
the oxidation of carbon from the total number of heat units ab- 
sorbed in the reduction of carbonic acid to carbonic oxide, there 
still remains a loss of temperature equal to 9,656,118 heat units, 
equivalent to the heat developed by the combustion of 1609 kilo- 
grms. of coke. 

These considerations led the authors to employ burnt lime in 
working blast-furnaces, and thus to obviate the loss of heat. The 
experiment was commenced at Ougree in July, 1849. During the 
first few days the results were unsatisfactory, the management of 
the furnace was difficult, and the slags black and pasty. Subse- 
quently, when taking into account the impurities of ordinary lime- 
stone, 63 parts of burnt lime were substituted for 100 parts' of 
limestone: the working of the furnace, until it was let out at the 
beginning of 1851. was continually regular and good; during these 
eighteen months the most satisfactory results were obtained. The 
saving of coke and increase of production were, as the experiment- 
ers anticipated, very evident; moreover, the raw iron was of better 
quality, and all the interior parts of the furnace, especially the 
tymp stone, remained in a much better state of preservation than 
when limestone was used. The following table gives the quantities 
of coke consumed, in the production of 100 kilogrms. raw iron, in 
the above-mentioned furnace, during the four months before and 
the four after the alteration of the charging, all other conditions 
remaining the same: 

With limestone. With burnt lime. 

1849. March 150-0 kilogr. 1849. July I 12 kilogr, 

April 145-5 " August..- -138 " 

May. 156-5 " September. 13,3 " 

June. 151-5 " October..-- 139 " 

Average quantity 153- 2 kilogr. Average quantity 137-75 kilogr. 
Average quantity consumed with limestone 153-20 or 100 p. c. coke. 
Average quantity consumed with burnt lime 137-75 or 90 p. c. coke. 

Difference 15*45 or 10 per cent. 

The practical saving is therefore 10 per cent., which corresponds 
tolerably well with the theoretical result. 

Iron and Zinc. 


The experiment was repeated in 1850, in a second blast-furn- 
ace, with the same favorable result of increased production, saving 
of fuel, and easier working. The following table shows the quant- 
ity of coke consumed for every 100 kilogrms. of raw iron, and the 
production during the first six months, (reckoned at twenty-eight 
days). The figures in the first column refer to the furnace in 
which limestone alone was used ; the second column to the first- 
mentioned furnace, in which burnt lime alone was used ; and the 
third column to the second furnace, in which limestone was used 
for three months, and burnt lime for the next three months. All 
three furnaces are constructed alike, smelt the same ore, and pro- 
duce the same kind of iron : 

June • 



September- •• 


Av.f -AptoJun 
fr. July to S°p 

Quantity of Coke in 

Kilogr. consumed for 

100 Kilo:;, raw iron. 



2 3 

With With 

burnt lime Limestone 





Burnt lime 

Reduction during 'l'vveuty-eignt 
Days in Kilogrammes. 








Burnt lime 



60 1 .000 







Burnt lime 








577 ,000 





The very regular and uniform results given in this table, show 
that by the use of burnt lime the consumption of coke for every 
100 kilogrms. of raw iron was reduced by 14 to 15^ kilogrms., 
while at the same time the production of iron increased within a 
certain period as much as 22 or 24 per cent. 

Hitherto the opinion of metallurgists with regard to the use of 
burnt lime was rather unfavorable than otherwise ; but since the 
above experiments were made at Ougree, it has been employed 
with good results in England and Wales, among other places at 
Abershyne, where the results obtained were still more satisfactory 
than at Ougree, inasmuch as the saving of coke affected by this 
means amounted to 13 kilocrms. for every 100 kilogrms. of lime- 
stone which was replaced by 03 kilogrms. of burnt lime. 

New lime-kilns have recently been built at Ougree ; burnt lime 
has been employed there two years and a half, and with uniform 
results, for which reason the authors recommend its general appli- 
cation, from a thorough conviction of the advantage to be gained. 
The entire saving, inclusive of the expense of burning the lime- 
stone, is stated by them to amount to 30,000 francs annually for 
each furnace. — [Zeitschr/fl des oestcrr. Ingenieurvereines y 
1852, p. 145-150. Translated for the Polytechnic Journal. 

±6 Iron and Zinc. 


The produce of the iron manufacture of Great Britain in 1750, 
was only about 80,000 tons; in 1800 it had increased to 180,000 
tons ; in 1825 to 600,000 ; and in 1832 the product of pig-iron 
was estimated at 2,701,000 tons. This estimate of the yield was 
made only upon those furnaces in blast, as follows : — 



Scotland 113 

South Wales 135 

Ditto Anthracite 12 

South Staffordshire 127 

North Staffordshire 17 

North Wales. 6 

Shropshire. 27 

Durham 18 

Northumberland 7 

Yorkshire and Derbyshire • • 35 


Pig Tron. 


































Total 497 158 645 2,701,000 

The shipments of pig iron from Scotland to the United States 
for the last seven years, have been as follows : — 

1846 13,918 tons 

1847 44.994 " 

1848 90.235 « 

1849 94^212 « 

1850 57.509 tons 

1851 80,019 '• 

1852 100,700 " 

The shipments of manufactured iron from Liverpool to New- 
York, Boston and Philadelphia during the last seven years, have 
been as follows : — 

Rails. Bars, &c. Hoops, &c. Total. 

Tons. Ton?. Tons. Tons. 

1846 12.514 12.807 1.686 27.007 

1847 12,635 37,543 7,195 57,37*3 

1848 50,188 33.621. 7.237 94,046 

1849 33,849 57,136 13,203 104,187 

1850 29.808 66,338 19,486 115.632 

1851 78,199 64,301 19.293 16!. UK', 

1852 74, 168 72,064 22,196 J 68,728 

Of which during the year 1852, New York received 135,290 
tons, Boston 24,411 tons, and Philadelphia the balance. 


A brief report was made in the last number of the Mining 
Magazine (Vol. I. No. 2) respecting the establishment of Messrs. 
Davis of Cincinnati, for the manufacture of wrought-iron direct 
from the ore. The process adopted is that of James Renton, of 
Newark, New Jersey. The ore is taken in its raw state, and after 
being stamped, and prepared by an admixture of carbon, it is put 
in a series of close tubes, placed in a chamber, the outer surface 
of the tubes being exposed to the waste heat of the furnace for 
several hours, when it is sufficiently dcoxydized. It is then dis- 
charged, as required, into the furnace, where it is readily worked 
up into balls weighing about one hundred pounds, and taken to 

Chancellor Lathrop on Agriculture. 17 

the hammer, averaging two balls every hour. The process is con- 
tinuous and uniform. 

A company with a large capital has been successfully carrying 
on this process at Newark for a considerable time. Their iron has 
been introduced for manufactures, and with high commendation. 
We have seen their works in operation. 

The cheapness of the process is worthy of attention. The fol- 
lowing is a statement of the cost of a ton of blooms at Newark, 
with one furnace : — 

From two to two and a half tons of ore, at $4 ..$10 00 

One and a half tons of coal, at $4,25 6 38 

Puddling and welding, per ton 5 00 

Hammering 1 50 

Labor. 3 00 

Coal for carbon 1 25 

Half ton of coal for engine, at $4 2 00 

Making the cost of a ton of blooms about $29 63 

Any description of fuel — wood or coal, both anthracite and bitum- 
inous, can be employed for heating the furnace, and with nearly 
equal advantage. 

Article III. 

Address of John H. Lathrop, IL. D., Chancellor of the University of 
Wisconsin, before the State Agricultural Society. 

Mr. President, and Gentlemen of the State Agricultural Society: 

The extreme division of labor and of employments, concerned in 
the production of material wealth, by reason of which a greatly multiplied popu- 
lation is sustained at a far more elevated standard of enjoyment and of culture, 
both of body and of mind, is the distinction of modern civilization. 

Indeed, all civilization implies a departure from the personal isolation and 
independence of the purely savage state — it implies social arrangement and clas- 
sification, fitted more or less discreetly to the production of proposed social ends; 
be those ends political or economical — and the character as well as the perman- 
ence of the system, depends, ultimately and properly, on the adaptation of its 
arrangements to the real and permanent wants of men — on the wisdom of its 
means, and the benevolence of its ends. 

In most of the ancient forms of civilization, the artificial arrangements of so- 
ciety were for the benefit of a governing body, who wielded the civil power, and 
directed the military arm of the State, while the labor which sustained the whole, 
was fixed in its position at the base of the social pyramid, by the hereditary dis- 
abilities of caste; or under the more crushing weight of territorial serfdom, or of 
domestic servitude. 

Under social conditions like these, which divorced the intellect of the State 
from its productive arm, there is no ground for surprise at the brilliant results 
wrought out by the governing mind, in an Egyptian, a Greek, or a Roman 

18 Chancellor Lathrop on Agriculture. 

We might expect to see, as we do see, the Fine Arts approximating towards 
the perfect ideal of the beautiful and the grand — the breathing marble, the col- 
umn with its lofty capital, surmounted by the dome and the arch. 

It is not strange that the free intellect of the happily born should have luxu- 
riated in the attractive field of the liberal sciences, guiltless of any intended bear- 
ings on the useful or the practical ; that geometry and astronomy had their votar- 
ies'* that music, statuary and painting had their triumphs; that a literature should 
have sprung into being, recording the utterings of the genius of history , the in- 
spirations of the poetic muse ; and the profounder, though scarcely less imagin- 
ative speculations, of a metaphysical philosophy. 

It is not strange that eloquence should have poured its full tide from the 
Bema and the Rostrum — or that "the pride, the pomp and circumstance of glor- 
ious war," should have fired many a gifted mind with the strange ambition, to 
swell the catalogues of those who have lived only to desolate and to destroy. 

But while the Liberal Arts were thus expanding into being through the irre- 
pressible ener«y of the free and the governing mind, unincumbered, as it was, by 
the burden of "productive toil; the Useful Arts, inspired by no such living en- 
ergy, abandoned to the practice of those whose adequate qualification was deemed 
to^be the stron°" arm, the bowed and submissive spirit, and the unfurnished head, 
were destined To no corresponding development. 

Roman history hands down to us, indeed, one Cincinnatus, who soiled his 
patrician fingers with the touch of the plough — but, though careful to record his 
military glories, fails to inform us that Agriculture was at all benefitted by the 
contact. In the light of the present age, I am afraid we must set down the fabled 
Triptolemus as a very poor farmer; the Cyclops as indifferent blacksmiths ; and 
even Drerfalus himself, not very much of a mechanic. 

Under such conditions of the social system, political and economical, was 
constructed that high wall and deep ditch, which for long centuries of duration, 
and through various phases of society, continued to separate, broadly and invidi- 
ously the Liberal from the Useful Arts — and I need not add that the traces of 
this discrimination are not yet obliterated. There lingers in our midst even yet, 
such a thing as professional pride; as traditional disdain of the industrial avoca- 

t 10ns the Tattered remains of that robe of disparagement, which once shrouded 

the manly form, and embarrassed the strong arm of brown industry. 

But it is the glory of modern civilization, that its tendency is to exalt every 
social valley; to bring down from its pride of elevation, every mountain of priv- 
ilege • to demolish every wall of partition between the Liberal and Useful Arts : 
to she'd the light of Science on the industrial processes, and to bring all the hon- 
est avocations of men, productive of social and individual good, into harmonious 
and efficient action. It proposes, ultimately and for ever, to do away with every 
social distinction dependent on birth, class, or employment— am! while it will 
multiply incalculably the aggregate amount of good wrought out by the unproved 
mechanism of human society, it proposes to throw the good thus elaborated open 
to equal and honorable competition ; and to make the share each may vindicate 
to himself to depend, not as under the older forms of civilization, on the birth, 
rank or calling of the individual, but on his personal character, and personal 

merit on his precise individual value in the social system. 

In order to fix the destined position, the value, and the duties of the Agricul- 
turist in the economy of society, it will be needful to glance at the interior 
mechanism of modern civilization. 

"In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat thy bread," is the Scriptural annun- 
ciation of the great law of humanity, that Labor is necessary to the acquisition 
and enjoyment of physical, intellectual, or moral good. 

The resulting good, however, depends on the degree of wisdom with which 
human industry is diiectcd. # ■ . ; 

The earth rs capable of sustaining but a sparse population, and that at alow 
standa-d of physical comfort, as well as of intellectual and moral culture, where 
the labor of each individual is directed to the supply of precisely those articles, 
and those only, which meet his own wants. ..,..•",.., 

In the aspects of modern civilization, on the other hand, as ha': been already 
hinted nothing is more characteristic than the very dense population which the 
eaith 'is able to sustain, at a vastly more exalted standard of physical comfort, 
and a still higher standard of intellectual and moral cultivation ; and nothing is 
more essential to the introduction of those invaluable results, than that division or 
labor and of EMPLOYMENTS, which we observe to obtain in all civilized com- 

Chancellor L&throp on Agriculture*. 19 

reunifies, with a minuteness and distinctness, corresponding exactly with the type 
and the degree of the civilization which there prevails. 

In the production of material wealth, in its thousand departments, Agricul- 
tural and Manufacturing, by confining skilled labor to its habitual and well 
known processes, the aggregate product of human industry destined to the supply 
of human wants, is increased beyond calculation, and time is saved, and means 
furnished to the individual, for the purposes of intellectual, moral and social m\- 

But, again; the division of employments in the various departments of the 
Agricultural and Mechanic Arts, begets the necessity of exchange — and if each 
producer were bound to effect his own exchanges, at home and abroad, a large 
portion of his time and means would, be consumed, and a large amount be thus 
substracted from the aggregate production of the community, 

By separating, then, the business of exchanges from the business of produc- 
tion — by setting up the class of merchants — the producer is no longer withdrawn 
trom the creation of values — -the increase in the aggregate production of the com- 
munity pays, in the shape of commercial profits, for the skilled labor of the mer- 
cantile profession— leaving a balance in the hands of producers far exceeding 
their whole productioa, provided they turn aside to act the merchant for them«. 
selves-^the physical wants of all are better supplied, and time and means are 
furnished for an advanced stage of intellectual and moral cultivation. 

But our economical analysis of society may be carried stili further. In order 
to the greatest aggregate production of physical values, the health of the produc- 
ing and the exchanging classes, including all ages and conditions, must be pro- 
vided for, and thus a demand is created for skilled labor in the healins art. 
But if each individual were bound to acquire this skill for himself, and to seek 
out and compound his own simples, production must be suspended the while ; 
the skill comes too late ; the race is dying out, not only of disease, but of starva- 
tion. It is sound economy, therefore, to sustain a medical profession, as a distinct 
and, independent employment — for the consequent enlargement of the aggregate 
wealth of the community, will pay the charges of the profession, leaving the 
producer with ampler means, and sounder health, and unbroken time, to provide, 
not only for the gratification of his physical wants, but also for the more exalted 
purposes of his being 

But. again^ it is essential to the progress of a community in physical wealth, 
and other forms of social well-being, that the rights of men in the civil state, 
should be ascertained, declared, defended, and vindicated; and the call for skilled 
labor in this department must be met, or the law of the strongest will prevail; vi- 
olence will take the place of social order, and civilization is at an end. 

Shall this call for skilled labor in the law, be met by each producer for him- 
self? Or is it scjund economy that he should meet it by Attorney? That a profes- 
sion of those learned in the law should be sustained, to do that service whicli the 
individual cannot do for himself without ruinous neglect of the processes of pro- 
duction and exchange? Civilization and economy return their united answer, thai 
the Bar must be sustained as a distinct and independent profession. 

Again; that righteousness exalteth a nation, is the scriptural anuunciation of 
the general principle, that the sentiments of reciprocity and benevolence, pervad- 
ing the common mind, constitute the broad and deep foundation on which re- 
poses the structure of civil society. The sentiment of justice, pervading the com- 
mon mind, gives to beneficent legislation its vitality and its strength: it lies at the 
foundation of the right of property: without it, production and accumulation are at 
an end, and civilization is. but an empty name. 

How divinely then is the pulpit adapted to imbue the common mind with 
that righteousness which exalteth a nation. It inculcates a perfect rule of life, 
the fountain of all just legislation; and what is vastly more important, it enforces 
that rule, not like the human legislator, by sanctions drawn from this present life 
only, but by those which respect our immortal being, our relations to God, the 
Judge of all, and to the community of spiritual intelligence throughout eternal 
ages — ; the sanctions, namely, of the Christian faith, without which, as the expe- 
rience of man, in all ages has shown, the best constituted and most perfectly 
balanced social structures have tended uniformly to decay and dissolution. 

These ministrations of the pulpit require skilled labor. Sound policy and 
sound economy therefore demand that these ministrations be committed to the 
clergy, as a distinct and independent profession. Give thyself wholly to these 
things^ is the apostolic injunction. 

20 Chancellor Lathrop on Agriculture* 

Such is a very brief analysis of the economy of civilized society, as we now 
see it. 

The producing classes, throughout the various subdivisions of the agricult- 
ural and mechanic arts, create all the values destined to the supply of the physical 
wants, and to the gratification of the tastes of the whole community. 

The mercantile classes produce nothing; but by transfer and exchange make 
such a disposition of existing products, as to benefit producers, to enlarge the 
volume of production, and minister to the well being of all. 

The professions, strictly so called, terminate their industrial processes, not 
on physical products 5 but on those conditions of society, which give to producing 
and exchanging agents the power and the disposition to contribute in the highest 
degree to the general good, and to their own profit, through the more efficient and 
beneficial action of the various industrial agencies. The results of professional 
labor, are the health, the order, and the morality of the community. 

But there is another element in modern civilization 5 which our analysis has 
not yet reached, whose office it is to qualify, and mould and fashion all the rest 
— I mean the great work of free and universal education. 

The agency of the educator terminates not on physical products, nor yet di- 
rectly on social conditions, but on the man himself. His raw material is the 
young mind, the unformed intellect of the community. His resulting product is 
the finished man, prepared by varied knowledge and intellectual discipline, to act 
well his part, as an agriculturist, as an artizan, as a merchant, as a physician, as 
a lawyer, as a divine; to be useful in the varied relations of private life ; useful 
in the civil state, and in those more exalted relations, which concern him as a 
member of the human family, and a subject of the universal empire of God. 

It is quite obvious, then, that the educator, whether of the school or the 
press, stands at the point of power, and applies the moving force to the mechan- 
ism of human society. For the successful action of this mechanism, intelligence 
is necessary at every point — on the farm, in the manufactory, in the counting- 
house, in the practice of the healing art, at the bar, and in the sacred desk. 

There is not a single employment, within the scope of our economical anal- 
ysis of society, whose results would not be rendered, by an increase of intelli- 
gence, more beneficial to the community, and more honorable and profitable to 
the industrial agents concerned in it. Reason teaches us, that the communities 
which are the better educated at every point, must be the more wealthy, tho 
more powerful, as well as the more respectable. 

The experience of the civilized world abundantly verifies this conclusion. We 
see that the more intelligent the industrial agents, the more ample and valuable 
the resulting production, throughout the whole economy of society. 

The wny is now prepared, to state with more distinctness, the nature, posi- 
tion, and office-work of Agriculture in the social economy. 

In the beginning, man was alone with Nature. Without arts, without ca- 
pital, without implements, he took his sustenance from the bosom of the earth, 
as the common mother of the race. 

Agriculture, in the most restricted signification of the term, implies a depart- 
ure from this condition. Man was sent into the world with a commission, not 
merelv to share with bis fellow animals, the spontaneous productions of nature, 
but with a cbargp to search out the physical elements, to determine their capab- 
ilities — to make the needful combinations — to bring into action their productive 
powers, not only to supply the animal wants, and minister to the pleasures of his 
organic nature, but to render them tributary to his intellectual, moral, and social 
development, and his ultimate spiritual elevation and well being. 

In the discharge of this grett commission, every avocation of man has its 
work to perforin. It is the province of Agriculture to begin the process, by the 
tilling of the ground, as the term imports — by stimulating and guiding the produc- 
tive cmrjries of the physical elements to results infinitely transcending, in quant- 
ity and quality, the yield of these same elements, unaided by human agency. 

The gross results of Agriculture constitute, what, in the language of econ- 
omy, is denominated raw material; and they are so called, precisely because, with 
almost the single exception of fruits and green vegetables, material products do 
not come from the hands of the agriculturist, prepared for human use. They are 
gross and incomplete, the proper material which the Arts are to take, and to 
mould and fashion into forms of utility and beauty, adapted in fhe finished state, 
to the satisfaction of the physical wants, and the gratification of the tastes of 

Chancellor Lathrop on Agriculture. 21 

In the three great classes of our physical wants, food, clothing, and shelter, 
few indeed are the commodities which come from the hands of the Agriculturist 
ready for the consumer ! 

Men want not. wheat, but bread — therefore the crop, as raw material, must 
be subjected to the manufacturing processes of the miller and the baker. 

M'in want not woo!, but clothes — therefore the ileece must undergo succes- 
sive changes, in the hands of the carder, the spinner, the weaver, the fuller, and 
the dyer, before it reappears in the form of cloth. And what doe3 the cloth 
avail, till tailor, with his divine art, finishes — the man. 

So men want not timber or stone, but houses, barns, ships, temples of edu- 
cation, and temples of religion ; and here, again, the yield of the Agriculturist 
must be subjected to the almost numberless mauufacturing processes, of mason- 
ry and architecture. 

It is obvious to remark, therefore, that it is the distinction of Agriculture, 
that it furnishes the material for all the manufacturing and exchanging processes 
■ — that there is nothing in the hands of the Artizan, or the Merchant, that has not 
been in the hands of the Farmer. Agriculture thus lies at the foundation of the 
economical structure of society. 

But it is entirely proper here, to submit the caution, that too much of relative 
dignity and importance must not be assumed to Agriculture, in consequence of 
this distinction. To him who enjoys the final product, the initial, the medial, 
and the finishing processes, are all equally important. 

It is true, that without the raw material furnished by the Agriculturist, the 
occupation of the Artizan, and the Merchant, is gone for ever. But without the 
processes of art and of exchange, without the Merchant and the Artizan, what 
would be the value of the raw material? Would it be produced at all? It is true, 
that the structure cannot stand without the foundation. But what is the value of 
the foundation, if no superstructure is to be erected upon it? Would the founda- 
tion be laid at all ? 

It is no disparagement to Agriculture, that it cannot say to Manufacture, I 
have no need of thee. It is no disparagement to both, that they cannot say to 
Commerce, We have no need of I lice. Neither is it any disparagement of these 
three industrial interests of society, that they cannot sa_y to the Professions, 
We have no need of you. Nor yet, does it disparage all these — aye, it ennobles 
them all — that they cannot say to Education, We have no need of thee. 

The truth is, we are members, one of another, with mutual uses and depend" 
encies. As in the natural, so there is a divine harmony running through 
the whole structure of the body economical. One member cannot suffer with- 
out all the other members sirffer with it. 

But to elaborate this thought more thoroughly and minutely: 

I. Agriculture is interested in the prosperity and improvement of the man- 
ufacturing interest throughout the whole circle ol the Useful Arts : 

In the first place, manufacture takes the raw materia] of Agriculture, and 
Agriculture takes in return the perfected product of manufacture. A commercial 
process may intervene : but the essence of the whole transaction between Agri- 
culture and tyfanufaeture is, when completed, a barter of the products of the one 
for the products of 'he other. The existence of the Arts, creates a demand for 
the products of the farm. Were all men agriculturists, the market would disap- 
pear, and the surplus of the farmer would lose its exchangeable value. As the 
number and the prosperity oi those interested in the manufacturing and mechanic 
arts increases, the demand enlarges, and remunerating prices of Agricultural pro- 
ducts reward the industry and skill of the farmer. 

But not only does the farmer thus secure the advantage of an intenser de- 
mand for his own surplus, but the prosperity of the Arts is attended with new 
applications of Science, the introduction of new machinery, the more minute and 
methodical division of labor, and a greatly increased facility and skill in the ex- 
ecutive processes. All this works a saving in the cost of production, and a dim- 
inution of the price of the manufactured article to the Agricultural consumer. 
The prosperity of the Arts, therefore, works a double advantage to the farmer in 
the intenser demand tor his own surplus, and a greatly enlarged reward in the 
shape of finished products, which be is able to command in return for it — in th« 
enhancer! value of the raw material on the one hand, and the reduced price of the 
perfected article on the other. 

But agiin, the progress of discovery and improvement in the Arts, and the 
increased demand for raw material, is sure to regenerate Agriculture itself, by 

2'2 "Chancellor Lathrop on v9gricufture-> 

prompting to a broader and deeper cultivation, by the introduction of new arii'des 
of produce; by stimulating to the adoption of more approved processes, and to 
new combinations of the physical elements — to a more judicious division and me- 
thodical arrangement of the different departments of field labor, to greater facil- 
ity and skill in all the executive operations, and finally to the habitual improve- 
ment of Agricultural implements, from the most simple to the most complicated, 
until the larm comes to vie with the shop itself, in the number of its inventions, 
and the perfection and productive power of its mechanism. 

It is in perfect accordance with these views, that England, transcending all 
other nations in the variety and perfection of her Arts, is unrivalled in her Agri- 
culture. It is an equally apt illustration of the truth of our doctrine, that Po- 
land, an annual exporter of grain, hut without Arts, is the poorest country 
of Europe. 

In the early settlement of wild tracts of the earth's surface, by the aggressive 
march of civilisation, Agriculture is not only the dominant interest, but from thfe 
nature of the case, it may be said to be almost the only interest. 

In such conditions, it has not unfrequently happened, that the Agricultural 
habit and sentiment have been so exclusively and intensely cherished, as to amount 
to a sort of economical bigotry, scarcely tolerant of the introduction of a disturb 
ing social element, in the form of Manufactures and the Arts. Some of the plant- 
ing States of this Union have hugged themselves into poverty, while sneering at 
the '"lords of the power loom and the spinning jenny.*' 

Georgia, the banner State of the South, is nobly redeeming herself from ttre 
thraldom of this sentiment. The loom and the spindle have already brought her 
into honorable competition with the industrial agencies of the ff orth, and are 
awakening her Agriculture to an energy and a thrift, which follow only in the 
train of Art. 

Let me say, then, to the Farmers of Wisconsin, whose voice is potential in 
the councils of the State, that they can confer no greater boon on Agriculture, 
than to invite the Arts in all their variety, to come and make their permanent 
abode in our midst. By a system of liberal, just, and wise legislation, affording 
facilities for permanent investment, closing the avenues to fraud, and enforcing 
rigidly the performance of contracts, manufacturing capital will be induced to 
break away from its moorings abroad, and come and cast anchor,, without dis- 
trust, upon our shores. 

Agriculture could do nothing more suicidal, nothing more calculated to re- 
tard the growth and maturity of Wisconsin, than to countenance that narrow pol- 
icy which would deny to capital, on our own groundj that facility of combina- 
tion and that permananee of arrangement, which long experience, elsewhere, has 
demonstrated to be needful to the full and profitable development of the useful 


II. The proposition next in order, in the discussion of this part of the sub- 
ject, is. that Agriculture, in common with the Arts, is interested in the prosper- 
ity of Commerce. 

It is a fact easily apprehended, that all the items of physical wealth, thatis, 
all produced values, are the remits of Agricultural and Manufacturing agency, 
Agriculture and Manufacture cover the whole ground of the production of 

But the extreme division of labor and of employments, the secret of the stu- 
pendous production of modern times, begets the necessity of an extended :-ystem 
of exchanges, for the mutual benefit of the producers : and owing to the different 
and sometimes distant localities of production, tranvporlatiov, for the most part 
precedes exchange. 

To effect.this transportation and exchange — lo take commodities from the 
hands of the producer, and place them in the hands of the consumer — is the pre- 
cise office work of Commerce. Of the whole produced value of Agriculture and 
Manufacture, Commerce then, must take to itself that share which is. on an av- 
erage, a fair remuneration for this service; leaving in the hands of producers a 
balance far exceeding in amount and value their whole production, provided the 
produders were obliged to effect transportation and exchanges for themselves. 

But, although on the principle of the division of labor and of employments, 
the setting up of the mercantile class, thus re-acts upon production, enlarging its 
volume, and enriching the producers themselves ; still, it is an ultimate and fixed 
fact, which ought to be distinctly understood, that Commerce is a charge on 
Agriculture and Manufacture — that the whole cost of the commercial machinery 

Chancellor Lathrop on Agriculture. 23 

must withdraw just so much of the gross value produced, from the hands of the 

If the commercial processes be clumsily and expensively performed, the pro- 
ducer suffers; he retains less of his value produced, and is so far forth less pros- 

If the commercial processes be skilfully, expeditiously and cheaply perform- 
ed, the producer has the benefit of it; he retains more of his value produced, and 
is so far forth more prosperous. 

The manifest inference is, that the Farmer is interested in every improve- 
ment of the commercial processes, which will diminish the expenses of transpor- 
tation and exchange — as truly so as he is in those improvements in manufacture 
which diminish the cost of production. 

The improvements in ocean navigation, costly as the steamship is, by cheap- 
ening' freights, are enriching producers on both sides of the Atlantic. 

The immense array of steamboats which float upon our inland waters, as a 
part of the machinery of our internal trade, with their frequent loss, and destruc- 
tion of property, would seem to constitute an enormous charge upon the indus- 
trial interests of the country. 

But to banish steam from our lakes and rivers, and to return to the raft and 
flat boat, and other forms of the time consuming, and labor consuming naviga- 
tion of the last half century, would be To impoverish and desolate the interior — 
for the simple reason that the enormous amount of our present lake and river 
trade, far transcending our foreign commerce, could not be carried by a craft like 
that of the past generation, without a tenfold expenditure of time, labor and 
money — and at whose charge ? At the charge of the producer. 

If the produce of the Farmer should go forward to market, the compensation 
of the commercial agency would absorb the whole value, leaving no balance for 
the producer. If the manufactured commodities necessary to meet the wants of 
civilized men, were brought into the interior from the commercial mart, they 
would come to the cultivator of the ground at a price which would place them 
essentially beyond his reach. 

It is obvious enough, that under such conditions, production and trade would 
fall together, and a greatly reduced standard of enjoyment and civilization would 
prevail throughout a sparsely populated interior. 

Without the steamboat, what would have been the condition of the great 
basin of the St. Lawrence, and of the great valley of the Mississippi, on this very 
day? Well assured am I, that the last track of the moccasin would not have dis- 
appeared from the ground where we are now standing, surrounded by the em- 
blems and the garniture of civilization. 

Again; canals and railroads, constitute now, a great part of the commercial 
machinery of modern civilization, transporting a large and annually increasing 
portion of the travel and the merchandize of the whole country. 

When we contemplate the vast extent of this net- work of internal improve- 
ment, the stupendous expense of the construction, and the corresponding outlay 
for the motive power, for the boat and car ; and the more especially, when we 
sum up into one great aggregate, the annual receipts of the system, of which ag- 
gregate the Erie canal alone furnishes a yearly item of more than $3,000,000, 
well may we wonder at the miracle, that the shoulders of Agriculture and Ma- 
nufacture are broad enough to sustain, uncrushed and unbent, the whole burden 
of the charge. 

And yet they do sustain it. Not a dollar of freight goes into the treasury of 
these improvements, which is not taken from the produced values of those who 
are ultimately the mutual parties interested in the exchange, and in the consump- 
tion of the commodities transported. The gross values of the producer are dim- 
inished, aye, taxed, if you please, to this amount — and the farmer pays his por- 
tion of the tax. But is he oppressed by it ? 

If the farmer of Western New York thinks so, let him by all means eschew 
the canal and the railroad — he is under no compulsion t > use them — let him call 
up from an unbroken slumber of a quarter of a century, the teaming gear of his 
older brother; let him haul his agricultural surplus to the good old Albany of his 
brother's recollection, and his domestic stores back again to his home ; and let 
him, on the next rainy day, sit down and reckon up his savings. How will his 
tax account stand then? Why, gentlemen, the penny wisdom and pound folly of 
such a farmer, would be the scoff and the jeer of his neighborhood. 

24 Chancellor Lathrop on Agriculture. 

And what shall we say of the economy and thrift of a State, which, by con- 
stitutional provisions incapacitates itself from fostering, encouraging, and aiding 
works of the most manifest utility, and of the very greatest importance to the 
prosperity of the farmer — and by its jurisprudence and general course of policy, 
so relaxes the obligation of contracts, as to render foreign capital too distrustful 
of individual and company securities to answer the loud call of the suffering pro- 
ducers, ' ; come over and help us." 

The permanent economical benefit of the canal and railroad to the farmer, is 
three fold : — 1. In consequence of the reduction of freight, his produce is worth 
more on his farm. — 2. The merchandize which he needs cpsts less at his own 
door, for the same reason. — And 3. Because the commercial agency thus takes 
away a smaller portion of his produced values, leaving a larger balance in his 
hands, he is affected precisely as if his land had become more productive; there- 
fore his real estate rises in value. 

The impo-tance of this last item of advantage may be illustrated by a single 
case. The Erie canal cost originally $ 10,000,000. A rise of two dollars per 
acre, throughout a border of both banks of the canal, thirteen miles wide, would 
cover the whole cost of construction ! — and where is the acre of feasible land 
within those limits, which is not worth, to-day, five, ten, fifteen, perhaps twenty 
dollars more, than if the work were undone? 

Perhaps you will say, if this be so, the farmers of New York could have af- 
forded to construct the canal themselves. — And so they might. But had they the 
needful information? Had they the unanimity, the confidence, the courage, the 
capital, or the credit to command the capital ? Could any voluntary company 
have been formed, with the adequate courage, and capital and credit, to crapple 
successfully with the gigantic difficulties of the work ? 

No, Gentlemen, — had not the energies — the capital — and the credit of the 
State, been enlisted and consecrated, in trembling hope, to the accomplishment 
of the then unparalleled enterprise, it would have remained probably unattempt- 
ed, certainly unaccomplished, down to the present day. 

And it was the genius of Clinton, that inspired this trembling hope — that 
nursed it into firm resolve — that bore aloft that firm resolve, high above the op- 
position of the trading politician, the scoff of the blasphemer, and the ridicule of 
the sceptic, to a magnificent and triumphant completion. While Uuis engraving 
his own memorial, in a long line of glory, on the soil of his native State, he was 
making his mark on the age. The power of his great example was felt through- 
out the length and breadth of the land. The din of improvement, in its progress, 
has been extending from State to State, awakening Agriculture to a new life and 
a new thrift, till there is scarce a hill top in our country, whose horizon does not 
bear some testimony to the beneficence of the far-reaching policy of Clinton, and 
whose weary industry has not been cheered and refreshed by the shadow of his 
areat nair.e. 

But who will say that the Erie and Champlain canals were more important 
to the trade of New York and the great basin of the St. Lawrence, in 1816, than 
the Milwaukee and Mississippi, and the Rock River railroads are, at this mom- 
ent, to the trade of W-iscorjsin and of the vallies of the Upper Mississippi, the 
Upper Missouri, and the Red River of the North. 

And who will say that what was wisdom in New York then, would be folly 
in Wisconsin now ? Where, then, is the Clinton of Wisconsin ? And do the bar- 
rieis of your constitution send back a cheerless echo to the voice of your in- 
quiry ? 

Farmers of Wisconsin ! you cannot afford to let these great enterprises 
languish and die. If private credit cannot seasonably build the roads, public 
credit can. Your potential voice makes the laws ; it makes constitutions — aye, 
and unmakes thern too. I do not say thai you can find a Clinton — such a man is 
God's benison on an a»e — but you have the roads. Where there is an iron will, 
there is an iron way ! 

But again ; Agriculture is not only interested in the reduction of the cost of 
the trantportation of commodities, but i< equally so in cheapening that other op- 
eration of commerce denoted by the term oi exchange. 

The most obvious mode of effecting exchanges is, of course, by the direct 
barter of the one commodity for the other. But on" difficulty in the way of bar- 
ter as a system of exchanges is, that commodities or products, are not mutually 
and universally receivable. 

Chancellor Lathrop on Agriculture. 25 

For example, the shoemaker wants a coat, but the tailor does not want shoes. 
Perhaps the shoes may be bartered for hats, but the tailor does not want hats.— 
Perhaps the shoes may be bartered for corn, but the tailor does not want corn. 
And there is no predicting the number of exchanges, and the waste of time ne- 
cessary to enable the shoemaker to find some commodity which he can barter 
for the cost. 

The difficulty lies in bringing together parties who will be mutually bene- 
fitted by the barter. And this difficulty becomes aggravated by every step of ad- 
vancement in the division of labor and of employments. 

Barter, then, is obviously compatible, only with a low state of civilization, 
and the necessity is early suggested, of providing some commodity which shall 
be universally receivable, which the producer may obtain, directly, for his sur- 
plus, and with which he may obtain directly? the commodity which he needs j 
and thus enable him to remedy the difficulty in question and diminish the expense 
of barter. S ich a commodity is money — it is universally receivable. 

There is another difficulty with respect to barter, which requires to be stat- 
ed, in this connexion; that, namely, of adjusting to each other the values to be 
exchanged. The farmer, for example, takes his horse to market, desirous of re- 
ceiving in return various articles of smaller value, in the hands of different indi- 
viduals. As the horse cannot, from the nature of the case, be bartered, a part 
here, and a part there, the series of transactions is altogether impracticable. 

Ths commodity money, then, in order to do away with the inconveniences 
and the impossibilities of barter, must, in addition to the fact of being universally 
receivable, be capable of division and subdivision, so as to adjust it to all possible 

Gold and Silver coin embodying these two qualities of universal receivabil- 
ity, and divisibility at will, has been adopted, by common consent, anc 1 the action 
of civil governments, as the money of the commercial world ; and is as distinctly 
a part of the machinery of commerce, as is the railroad or the steamboat. 

It is the office of the railroad, to facilitate and cheapen transpo -tation, and 
this constitutes its whole value as a railroad; so it is the office of coined money to 
facilit?te and cheapen exchanges, and this constitutes its whole value as money. 
Were barter entirely convenient and economical, money would have no office to 
perform — no necessity would have suggested it? creation — fs presence in the 
business of the world be without meaning — it would never have been thought of. 

But when we consider that the exch in<res of this country require a currency 
of some $300,000,000, and that the annual charge for this expensive commercial 
agent is the yearly interest of this sum. with the addition of (he annual cost of 
the coinage, the loss by wear, by shipwreck and otherwise, well may it be asked 
again, are the shoulders of Agriculture and Manufacture broad enough to sustain 
the burden of this charge. 

The answer is at hand: they certainly do sustain it — and that, with incalcul- 
able advantage and profit to the producer. For the simple reason that money, al- 
though itself an expensive asrent, so facilitates and cheapens exchanges, as to re- 
lieve agriculture and manufacture from the far greater cost of making those same 
exchanges through the time consuming and labor consuming processes of barter. 

The cost of the medium is, if you please, a tax on the producers of value, 
and the farmer pays his portion of the tax— but he finds a manifold compensa- 
tion, in the relief from the incalculably greater tax, which the system of barter 
would entail upon him. 

Enough has now been said on the part that money plays in the phenomena 
of commercial exchanges, to prepare the way for the proper understanding tha 
assertion, that the fanners of Wisconsin, as well as i he farmer^ every where, are 
deeply intereste in -tting up and maintaining that form of the circulating med- 
ium which will work L he greatest reduction of the cost of the whole commercial 
machinery, and all the operations of trade. 

Metallic money facilitates exchanges, obviates the inconveniences of barter, 
and cheapens the commercial processes; it is sound economy, therefore, for pro- 
ducers to introduce and maintain a large and costly volume of metallic money. 

If a currency of representative values will facilitate exchanges in a still high- 
er degree, will obviate the inconveniencs of metallic money, and cheapen still 
further the commercial processes, it will be equally good economy for producers 

26 Chancellor Lathrop on Agriculture. 

to set up, for the use of commerce, a currency of representative values, with all 
the safeguards suggested by the experience of the past. 

And this brings us to the precise question to be submitted, at the" coming 
election, to the people of Wisconsin— a question, of no trifling interest to the 
farmers of the State. 

If it be true, that the merchant can serve you more economically with a cur- 
rency of representative values, than with the agency of metallic money, then, if 
you compel the merchant to use the latter, he must idemnify himself by paying 
less for ycur produce, and charging more for the merchandize he sells you. If 
you allow him the use of the former, he will be able to pay you more for your 
produce, and will charge less tor merchandize. 

It this be so, the policy that v ould send you back from a currency of con- 
vertible paper, to a pure metallic circulation, would send you back from the rail- 
road to the turnpike, and from the steamboat to the sloop, or the flat boat. Do 
you say that the paper currency has its risks and its losses ? — so has the steam- 

The inquiry which lies at the bottom of all these cases is, whether the al- 
leged improvement does, or does not, in point of fact, after allowing for all its 
unavoidable imperfections, work a diminution of the cost of the commercial ma- 
chinery. If it does, the saving enures to the benefit of the producer, just as surely 
as a stone in mid air falls to the ground— and the farmer has his full share of the 

As the time and occasion do not permit me to state my views, fully, on the 
currency question here presented, I shall not enter upon its discussion at all. I 
only present the naked point on which the whole question turns, and leave the 
decision "where t e Constitution leaves it— with the people. 

Farmers of Wisconsin < On the question of authorizing the issue, within the 
State of a currency of representative values, if you believe that the introduction 
of the' proposed system with the proper safeguards will facilitaleand cheapen the 
processes of trade, and thus enable you to do your whole commercial business at 
less cost, to yourselves, you wi'l, at the approaching election say aye — if you do 
not believe this, you will say nay. It is a question of great import to Wiscon- 
sin God grant 'that you may decide the question wisely. 

But afain, Agriculture is interested in the growth and prosperity of large 

A* town or city may be regarded, philosophically, as a part of the business 
machinery of the country. It is, in part, a manufacturing agent, and in part a 
commercial agent. In both these capacities, it enjoys such a concentration of 
capital enterprize, and intelligence, as to ensure the economical advantages of a 
minute'division of labor, the perfection of the executive processes, and all the 
helps attendant on the invention and skillful use of machinery. 

All these larger operations of manufacture and trade are carried on at im- 
mense advantage overthe smallerjbutif the laws favor the association of the smaller 
capitalist-* by general acts of incorporation, there is no danger ofmonopojy. The 
principle of competition is more active in the large town, and the consumer will 
have the benefit of the diminution of the cost of the manufactured article, and of 
merchandize generally. _ 

For this consumption, however, without winch the large town cannot exist, 
it looks to the country, that is, in the main, to the agricultural producer. The 
town and the country" are mutually markets to each other, and the citizen is as 
much interested to penetrate the interior with canals and railroads, as the farmer 
is to find these avenues for the transportation of his produce to the mart. We 
present interests here that are not antagonistical, hut are mutual and harmonious. 
The town ives by the growth and prosperity of the country, and the country 
bv the growth and prosperity of the town. 

All this is manifest — and yet it is no more strange than true that in some agri- 
cultural communities, there has sprung up a narrow jealousy of the town, grudg- 
ing its prospentv, ripening info settled hostility— tainting, perhaps, the legisla- 
tion of the State, by unequal taxation, and bv denial ofthose facilities of produc- 
tion and trade, which are essential to the healthy development of the town. 

Farmers of Wisconsin ! the towns which line your borders, and dot the inter- 
ior live not for themselves alone, but for you— they grow with your growth— tbey 
are your credil abroad, and your profit at home. An enlightened self interest, on 
your part, demands that your policy towards them shall be conceived in a liberal 
and comprehensive spirit. 

^Chancellor Lathrop on Agriculture. -2Y 

The railroad is a swift witness of the identity of the reciprocal interests of 
town and country. It brings the rural districts under the very gates of the city j 
and it lodges the merchant and artizan at home, scores of miles, perhaps, from the 
scene of his daily toil. This indefinite expansion of towns, with their capital, in- 
telligence and enterprise — this amalgamation, as it were, of the city and the coun- 
try, is destined to play, henceforth, a '.distinguished part in the advancement of 

III. But once more. Agriculture in common with Manufactures and Com- 
merce, is interested in the prosperity of the Professions. 

It is conceded that the sustaining of the professions is a charge on the pro- 
ducers of value. — But it is also to be conceded, that without the agency of the pro- 
fessions — without the sound social conditions of health, order and morality, 
production would be at an end. So much for the mere economical argument. 

But when we consider the intrinsic importance of these social conditions them- 
selves, we can hardly over-estimate the obligat.ons of productive agency to pro- 
fessional sei vice. Here, as in the arts and in commerce, "Live and let live," is a 
maxim addressed not so much to the magnanimity and generosity, as to the econ- 
omical and social interest of the cultivators of the ground. 

But without extending our argument farther, the general proposition, that 
agriculture is benefitted by the advancement of every other interest essential to 
civilization, has, I would hope-, been satisfactorily demonstrated. 

That every otherelement in the economy of society, is reciprocally interested 
in the prosperity of agriculture, has been made, at least, equal.'y apparent in the 
course of the argument. _ 

To lay down the additional proposition, that agriculture is interested in the 
improvement and perfection of its own processes, might seem to be the superfluous 
statement of a mere truism. 

Every fanner with a given amount of land, capital and labor, looks to his gross 
produce, as the proper return for his outlay — and on the volume and quality of 
this produce, depends his ability to command and to enjoy for himself and those de- 
pendent on him, the productions of the Arts, and the services of the professions. 
Every agricultural improvement looks to the larger quantity, or the better quality 
of the product. To promote these two ends is, of course, the more obvious and 
direct object of your association. 

Having; thus unfolded to you some of the outside relations of the great calling 
of the farmer, I gladly leave this important interior field to those who shall suc- 
ceed me in addressing you on occasion of your future anniversaries, and who will 
bring to the task a knowledge of the theory and practice of Agriculture which I 
cannot pretend to. 

I will, however, before closing, venture to call your attention to a few topics 
connected with this part of the subject. 

In the first place, it is a truth that will become evident on a little reflection 
that the divis on of labor cannot be profitably carried to the same extent in Agri- 
culture, as in Manufacture. In the larger establishments we are told, there & are 
ten distinct piocesses in the manufacture of the pin, each of which may employ 
the labor of its man, from one yeai's end to another. But not so with the proces- 
ses of Agriculture. — One cannot plough throughout the year, and another sow 
and another make hay. ' 

But, on the other hand, there are certain classifications of the greater opera- 
tions of husbandry. We hear, for example, of stock farms, dairy farms, grain 
culture, and the planting interest, comprising the subdivisions of the growing of 
tobacco, of cotton, of rice, and of the cane. 

I take it to be sound dostrine in this connexion, that large tracts of country 
should not confine themselves to any one of these forms of husbandry — for a fail- 
ure of the staple produce for a single season, would occasion unmitigated distress 
to the agricultural class, and affect disastrously all collateral interests of the dis- 

The partial failure of the wheat crop of two or three seasons past, furnishes 
an illustration of this truth, the force of which is felt by the farmers of Wiscon- 
sin, sufficiently to admonish them of the expediency of extending the cultivation 
of corn, of oats, of barley, of flax, and other annual products — of introducing ex- 
tensively stock raising, dairy, and wool growing, to all which uses the soil and 
climate of our State is admirably adapted. 

Out of this extensive range of culture, it will doubtless be good policy for the 
individual farmer to select for his leading object, such form of husbandry as may 

28 Chancellor Lathrop on Agriculture. 

be best adapted, in his judgment, to the soil he has to deal with, and the position 
of his farm with respect to market — and to carry along such collateral objects of 
culture as may prevent the exhaustion of the soil, and nil up his time by furnish- 
ing business for every season of the year. 

By this course of policy, the advantages of the division of labor may be se- 
cured to agriculture, precisely as far as it would be profitable to carry it; improve- 
ments would be more likely to he introduced; and greater skill and economy would 
accrue to the executive processes. 

In new and sparsely settled sections of the country where land is abundant, 
and labor greatly in defect, there exists, from the nature of the case, a strong 
tendency to spread cultivation oyer a large surface, overtaxing the superficial powd- 
ers of the soil, in order to give the greatest immediate effect to the limited amount 
of human agency. 

Looking to immediate results, the settler, no doubt, accomplishes his purpose; 
but the habit of slovenly and unthrifty farming thus acquired, is apt to be perse- 
vered in, long after the necessity which seemed, at first, to justify it, has passed 
away. The soil, robbed of its apparent productive elements, refuses to yield its 
increase, and through the discouragement and impoverishment of the farmer, is 
condemned to years of sterility — when under a different treatment, it would have 
steadily improved in productive power, and have made a more and more grateful 
return for the good husbandry bestowed upon it. 

The importance of acquiring a thorough knowledge of the theory, as well 
as practice of Agriculture, cannot, therefore, be urged too early or too forcibly 
on the farmers of Wisconsin. The education of the American farmer does not 
now terminate in a mere knowledge of the routine of sowing and cropping, and 
in a dutiful adherence to the practice of his father and his grandfather. 

There is scarcely a branch of natural and physical science, which has not 
now, its known and acknowledged bearings on Agriculture, 

The construction and the working of agricultural implements of every class, 
call into daily operation the principles of Mechanism. Hydrostatics and Hydrau- 
lics have their manifest uses, on, and about the farm. Itwere vain to assume that 
the practice of stock raising has nothing to ask from the truths of Animal Physi- 
ology. And as man and the entire animal kingdom, seek their sustenance, ultim- 
ately, from the herbage of the ground, vegetable physiology has still more import- 
ant aid to render to every form of practical agriculture — determining the functions 
of the root, as imbibing the food of the plant, in watery solution ; of the stem, 
with its organs of circulation; of the leaf, which retains and assimilates what is 
necessary to the structure of the whole and the character of the fruit, discharging 
into the atmosphere the superfluous matter in the shape of gases and vapor. 

The philosophy of each of the imponderable agents, light, heat, electricity, 
and magnetism, has relations to vegetable life and health of an interesting andim- 
poitant character. 

But o!' all the sciences, chemistry is the most fruitful in the aids it is destined 
to render to agriculture, By the analyses of the laboratory, we are put in posses- 
sion of all the chemical elements ot the vegetable kingdom, both those that are 
common to all plants, and those that distinguish one species from another. We 
are thus enabled to infer the composition of soil adapted to each plant; and by the 
analyses of a given soil, we ascertain the given elements in defect, which it is the 
office of good husbandry to supply. 

This leads us to the doctrine of specific manures — the basis of extensive im- 
provements made, and to be made, in practical agriculture. 

Farmers have observed that some crops exhaust a given soil more rapidly 
than others. Chemistry detects the elements abstracted from the soil by the an- 
nual crop, and directs to the specific manures which will replace these elements, 
and kepp the land in heart. Without the science, the land may he condemned to 
lie fallow, or to be recovered by the empirical and wasteful application of man- 
ures, in the grosser forms. 

For example, tobacco, the vine, the pea, and clover, require lime in large 
quantities, and as the supply comes to the plant through the root, a succession of 
crops will soon exhaust the soil, unless that element be replaced by the hand of 
the farmer. 

It cannot be doubted that every physical element found in the plant must have 
had its previous existence in the soil, or the atmosphere. "It is upon the clear 
understanding of this fact," as an English writer well remarks, "that the success- 

Chancellor Lathrop on Agriculture^ 29 

ful business of the farmer depends. It is calculated to raise the operations of the 
agriculturist to a level with those of the manufacturer; and instead of committing 
the cultivation of the soil to accident, as if nothing were understood respecting it 
more than the mechanical preparation of it for the seed, it will serve to explain 
upon what causes growth and production, and consequently their opposites, abor- 
tion, and non-production, fundamentally depend, and of course, will enable him 
to provide against both." All this is well said, and presents the valuable thought 
very clearly to the apprehension of the farmer. 

While on the subject of the specific food of plants, it falls in my way to say, 
that a large portion of the organic matter of the vegetable kingdom, exis-.ts in the 
atmosphere, in the gaseous form, and is largely soluble in water. It is the office 
of rain and snow to bring down these elements, and to saturate with them that 
portion of the soil that has been mellowed by the plough — and the deeper the 
ploughing, the larger is the fund of these elements, subject to the draft of the 
root during a period of drought. 

I might go on to mention the agricultural bearings of physical Geography, of 
Geology and Minerology, the philosophy of subsoil ploughing, and other consid- 
erations connected with the character of natural soils, and their permanent im- 
provement. But time fails. 

I close this part of the subject by a single additional allusion to the success- 
ful efforts which modern science is making to grapple with the uncertainties of 
the weather — to subject the hitherto hopeless caprices of the elements to known 
laws; and if not to hand over to the farmer the winds and the storms, the cloud 
and the sunshine, sealed up in a bag, at least to forewarn him of their alterna- 
tions, and to enable him, by a prudent forecast, to press them into his service, and, 
measurably, to control their results. 

And now, gentlemen, in this hasty summing up of the sciences, comprising 
what is essential to the theory of agriculture, I would ask whether anything is in- 
cluded, which the farmer is not interested to know? — is anything included, which, 
if known by the farmers generally, would not contribute to elevate practical agri- 
culture to an economical and social position eminently honorable and profitable 
to itself, and singularly auspicious of good to man V 

I am uttering not the mere aspiration of hope, but the decision of sober judg- 
ment, when I say, that the day is not distant, when it shall be shame to the young 
farmer to commence the practice, without first having acquired the theory, of his 

I say of his profession, because, let it once be understood, that the industrial 
employments are to be approached through a course of scientific preparation, then 
the middle wall of partition between the liberal and the useful arts is broken 
down — let it be understood that Agriculture has its theory and its philosophy, then 
it rises at once to the dignity of a profession. 

The sneer at the scientific farmer, which once disfigured the countenance of 
a self-satisfied ''practical Agriculture." has already passed away, and given place 
to an expression of admiration at the taste, the economy, and the thrift of a bet- 
ter, because a scientific cultivation. 

The sneer at the scientific farmer, if it ever meant anything, when done into 
plain English, could have meant nothing less, than that a certain amount of igno- 
rance was necessary to qualify a man for a sound practical farmer — a sentiment 
which falls strangely on tiie ear of the agriculturist of the present day. 

The eminent success of model and experimental farms, and the labors of the 
agricultural press, have brought the mind of the entire community to a justappre- 
ciation of the value of the sciences, in their practical applications to Agriculture 
and the Arts, and the importance of their universal dissemination. 

The conviction is taking fast hold of the mind of Europe and of the older 
States of this Union, that for the thorough acquisition of this valuable agricultural 
knowledge, it will not do to depend on the ephemeral influences of popular lectures 
and addresses; nor yet on the mass of information placed before the farmer through 
the agency of the periodical press. Agricultural seminaries are beginning to be 
constituted, where the science may be acquired, and in connexion with model 
farms, its application may be made familiar to the professional pupil, in prepara- 
tion for the successful and profitable discharge of the maturer duties of the prac- 
tical farmer. 

These views are rational and just. Agricultural science, like all other sci- 
ence, is to be acquired by study and research. The discipline and the instruc- 

3,0 Chancellor Lathrop on Agriculture. 

tions of the school, are essential to its seasonable and thorough acquisition. With- 
out it, the fanning processes fall to the low level of routine and drudgery. With 
it, Agriculture vindicates its undoubted claim to stand, not only in the first rank 
of the experimental arts, but to take its position,, side by side, withxhe learned 
professions, in dignity and honor, as well as in profit. 

Farmers of. Wisconsin ! If, throughout this argument, I have been so fortun- 
ate as to express your convictions, and if your judgment is with me on the topic of 
the scientilic preparation of the young farmer for his great vocation, it is pertin- 
ent to enquire, in conclusion, whether it is not in your power, so to mould and to 
fashion the system of public instruction, as to embody and to realize the idea, so 
vitally important to the Agriculture of the State. 

The educational organism for Wisconsin, as I understand it, comprises — 1. 
Tne District School, carrying elementary instruction into every neighborhood in 
the State. — 2. One Academic, or Union School for each township.— And 3. The 
University. The organic law of the University of Wisconsin, provides for the 
establishment of the several Departments — 1. of "Science, Literature and Arts' 
— 2. of "Medicine" — 3. of "Law" — and 4. of the "Theory and Practice of Ele- 
mentary Instruction." 

The Regents of the University propose to add a Department of the "Appli- 
cations of Science to Agriculture and the Useful Arts;;" to go into effect whenever 
the means shall be provided for the support of the Professor, the purchase of Ap- 
paratus, and the Ground necessary for a model farm. 

Such a Department, suitably endowed by the State, would offer to the young 
men of Wisconsin, the future cultivators of the soil, without charge, a full course 
of instruction in the theory and practice of Agriculture ; and the working of the 
model farm would defray, in part, the expenses of residence. 

The pupils in this Department of the Philosophy of Agriculture and the Use- 
ful Arts, would have free access to the library of the University, to the collections 
of the various branches of Natural Science, and, in connexion with the regular 
classes, to, the lecture rooms of the Professors of the other Departments, whether 
collegiate or professional. 

From such conditions of culture the young farmer will go forth to his work, 
with juster views of the relations of the sciences to the arts, and of the arts to 
each other — he will find all. remains of the middle wall between Agriculture and 
the Professions removed, his social position more fairly adjusted, his industrial 
agency more effective, bjetter appreciated, and more amply rewarded. 

But this is not all. The instructors of the Academic or Union Schools, 
should go from the University to their task, not only with the learning of the 
Normal Department, but well versed in the instructions of the Department of ap- 
plied science. 

Such an educational system is now offered to the farmers of Wisconsin. 

Are you, then, prepared to endow in your University, for your own benefit, a 
Department of the "Applications of Science to Agriculture and the Useful. Arts?" 
If so, your bounty will prove to be good seed, falling on good ground, springing 
up and bearing fruit, thirty, sixty, an Hundred fold. 

It is a fact of world wide celebrity, that Wisconsin presents to the settler the 
physical elements of prosperity^ in rich profusion,, and in beautiful combination. 

With its soil and climate unsurpassed — with its capacity for rapid settlement 
and early maturity — with its continued alternations, in just proportion, of wood- 
land and opening, of prairie, naturaj meadow, and lake — and with the command 
of both the Eastern and Southern markets, it needs but the means of professiona 1 
culture, thus carried to the door of the farmer, through the system of Public In- 
struction, to finish what nature has so tastefully and so bounteously begun. 

Bring, then, the educational agencies of the State into harmony with the great 
objects of your Association; follow up the auspicious beginnings ot this day with 
ample provision fox general professional culture, and you will leave an inherit- 
ance to your children, transcending all that you have felt or fancied of the destiny 
of Wisconsin. 

Education, Gentlemen, is no mendicant. It begs nothing from your charity. 
Its proclamation to you is, "Give, and it shall be given to you again ; good meas- 
ure, pressed down, and shaken together, and running over, shall be returned into 
your bosom." 

The Cities of Missouri. 31 

Article IV. 
The Cities of Missouri. 

By Wm. Gilpin, Esq. 

The City of Independence. — Next in rank to "Metropolitan 
St. Louis," and second in size, population and commercial repute, 
among all the nourishing young cities that dot our State, is beau- 
tiful Independence. Long ago, in 1824 and 1825, two counties 
sundered by the Missouri river,, and flanked by the Western border 
line, sought at the same time their incorporation by the Legisla- 
ture. On the North, the inhabitants, mostly emigrants from Ken- 
tucky, and advocating that gentleman's elevation to the presiden- 
cy, called their county Clay, and its seat of Justice Liberty. On 
the South, as if in rivalry, emigrants from Virginia, Carolina and 
Tennessee, selected the name of Jackson for their county, and In- 
dependence for their city. As in the political contests of our 
country, so in progressive vigor of growth, Jaekson and Independ- 
ence, favored by a marvellous fertility of soil, robust industry and 
paramount strength of position, have grasped and kept the palm, 
advancing beyond all rivalry in population, production and wealth. 
Jackson county, indeed, envelopes the outside of the great el- 
bow of the Missouri river as it enters our State, and opens with 
uninterrupted ease upon the great prairie ocean that sweeps out 
South and West to the remote extremities of the continent. It is 
thus the avenue of mankind into those vast regions of superlative 
interest, as the flood of population disembarks from the river chan- 
nel to flow into them. This county, like the five neighboring coun- 
ties south of the great river, is a protrusion into our State of the 
gently rolling plain of the Kanzas basin, unparalleled in the world 
for the depth and fertility of its mulatto soil and of exquisite ro- 
mantic beauty. 

In the current course of human society round the world, geo- 
graphical novelties flash up, and arrest the attention of mankind. 
Thus four hundred years ago America arose out of the ocean to 
the knowledge of wonder stricken Europe, never again to be lost. 
— Of a similar world-wide interest is the approaching construction 
of a "Continental Railroad," from the Western terminus of At- 
lantic navigation, at Kanzas, in this county, straight out to the 
great ocean which washes Oriental Asia. Thus is reversed a stan- 
ding inconvenience in the pathway of mankind : thus is knitted 
over a chasm in the universal comity of all the nations of all the 
continents; and thus Jimerica, heretofore the distracting barrier, 
comes to fill out and complete the circle in which three continents 
and a hundred nations bind the hemisphere of the North in on© 
endless and graceful zodiac. 

The area of the city of Independence is one thousand acres; its 
population /o**r thousand, and the official assessment of property 

82 The Cities of Missouri. 

two millions of dollars. Besides the public square, flanked on 
every side with substantial brick edifices, well graded and macad- 
amized streets, relieved with the shade of the locust, an excellent 
taste is everywhere shown in the style and excellence of the shops 
and dwellings. 

A commeicial emporium upon our Western boundary, and our 
own bank South of the Missouri river, is a great want and desidera- 
tum to commerce. Such as Buffalo is to New York— Pittsburgh 
is to Pennsylvania. All the States have, for the convenience of 
commerce, created those commercial portals, where the central 
channels of business enter their territories. This city, the seat of 
Justice of Jackson county, and only nine miles from the frontier, 
has, up to this time, occupied this position, and seems to possess 
the commanding geographical locality to retain it. 

Like all the county seats located in an early day, when the set- 
tling of the wild lands exclusively occupied the industry of the cit- 
izens, its site has heretofore been detached from the river, to en- 
able it to approach the geographical centre of the county. The 
interval is two miles. A railroad has been constructed and fin- 
ished to the river, to make the connection easy and rapid. This 
has not been sufficient to accommodate the increased business. Ac- 
cordingly, streets have been opened and macadamized, grades 
over the river bluff have been constructed, so as to make the con- 
nection with the great steamboat traffic on the river front direct, 
unobstructed and abundant. It is also contemplated by the 
proprietors of the lands embraced in this interval, to offer for sale 
during the coming spring, in building form and lots, some six or 
seven hundred acres, through which these streets run. 

Apart from other considerations, the geographical site of Inde- 
pendence, is singularly fine and attractive, having health, a high 
surface both level and well drained, and great beauty of position 
to recommend it. Besides the attention given to the Missouri 
river front, excellent roads have been opened and cleared to the 
frontier line, the streams bridged, in all directions, and good roada 
are everywhere under construction to give facility of access from 
the surrounding counties. The strongest wish also exists to at- 
tract to this commercial emporium, the trade of Clay, Clinton and 
Platte counties, across the river containing an aggregate of thirty 
thousand inhabitants. 

The counties of Cass, Johnson, Vernon and Bates, contiguous 
on the South, contain eighteen thousand six hundred inhabitants. 
The county of Jackson has fourteen thousand inhabitants. The 
city of Independence is the geographical and commercial centre 
of these seven prosperous counties, containing fifty- thousand in- 

But it is well here to insert the following exact statistical in- 
formation, furnished by the Superintendent, Dc Bow, of the Na- 

The Cities of Missouri. 


tional Census, and officially copied from the returns of the sev- 
enth Census, 1850. 

Population of Eight Counties in Missouri — Free and Slave. 





























Productions of Agriculture in Eight Counties of Missouri. 


Acres of Land in Farms 



Cass , 

Clay * 

























= a 

a) Q» 

> P. 










The Cities of Missouri. 

Productions of Agriculture in Eight Counties 


Bates. .. 
Cass .... 
Clinton . 

Live Stock. 























































Productions of Agriculture in Eight Counties 


Produce during the 

\ . 






















Bates 346 

Caldwell I 16 

Cass 318 

Clay 2,714 

Clinton ! 43 

Jackson ' 323 

Johnson ] 29 

Platte 200 



CD o 

O O 

2 g 


c3 "5 

O ^ 


« M 


Ph 3 

^ 3 


CD rQ 






















03 J-l 
I — 1 — I 













! ;3 CD 

! ^ CO 


CD o3 

i 03 


lOi 282 

j 50 

8 : 25 
! 221 

The Cities of Missouri. 


of Missouri. — Seventh Census. 


© 3 

• — i 



Produce during the year ending June 1st, 1850. 









8,6141 16! 
13,524! 29 
50,890 2,018 
22,363 234 
55,856 15 
22,930 535 
129.067 2,455 

S ° 



3 j5 





























49,035 4,590 
45,740, 760 
65,113 5,353 

112,027 20,050 
48,469 6,850 

124,363 38,923 
89,245 900 

127,392 66,000 




in Missouri. — Seventh Census. 

ending June 1st, 1850. 

















•T3 UQ 



a> a) 



er S 










2,295' 859 


3,555; 1,610 

3,942 2.959 



1,885! 798 

1,625 1,247 






CD . 

o3 cd 

~^ 3 
S-i ,3 




S o 




14 1,274 

311 193 
80 361 
62i 65 
51 ! 4,345 



o o 

Ph CO 










































-i— ft 



The Cities of Missouri. 

Productions of Agriculture in Eight Counties of Missouri. 


Bates ... 
Cass. ... 


Clinton . 










S «3 



■ s 



H3 e*^ 

S 2 



C o 




« S3 

C 3 

° C 




4> «3 



























5 £ 

**-. ,j3 
o to 








Clinton . 


Jackson . 
Platte ... 


« c 

* a. 

p: i/. 

O I/; 






in Real& 
K state in 
the busi- 

Raw ma- 
used, in- 














of hands 






2- 6 

£ e 
a -4-^ 

— -c 
c . 

£ £ 

a. »h 

a. -*-> 
> g 


























Bates has no Estimates returned. 

An hourly advancing and expanding growth enhances the value 
ef a prosperity that thus shows so fair in the official tables made 
more than two years since. 

But it is also much more and beyond this wonderfully happy and 
geographical position and the commercial centre of a growing ex- 
ternal commerce, permanent in character, and compelled to have 
a rapid expansion for all future time. 

At the mouth of the Kansas river, eight miles west of Indepen- 
dence, the great Missouri coming from the north, bends to the 

She Cities of Missouri. 37 

east, and enters the State at a right angle. At the point of this 
right angle or elbow, it receives the Kansas river, a large stream 
which rises at the foot of the Rocky Mountains, and runs due east 
across the Plains, being about seven hundred and fifty miles from 
its source to its mouth. But all along the southern rim of the 
Kansas basin runs a prairie crest, level and smooth, forming the 
divide of waters between it and the Arkansas river. This divide^ 
throwing off a finger between the two little streams called the Blues, 
traverses Jackson countv, and reaching the south bank of the Mis- 
souri, flattening out, becomes spacious and level, and at its con- 
tact with the river forms the site of Independence. 

This then explains the permanent excellence of geographical po- 
sition. Upon this divide is located, and will forever remain, the 
great natural road of communication, both of travel and commerce, 
with the immense coantries upon the waters of the Arkansas and 
the Kansas too — with Texas, with new and old Mexico, with 
California and Oregon; add also, tha western portions of the States 
of Missouri, Arkansas and Louisiana, everywhere of easy access 
on the prairie front. The cities higher up the river, as Weston 
and St. Joseph, are out of the central direction of Western trav- 
el, upon the east bank of the Missouri, which has to be crossed 
and the high bluffs and broken region extending into the interior 
from its western bank, to be overcome in an uninhabited, Indian 
country; whereas none of these serious disadvantages exist at In- 
dependence, owing to its admirable locality on the south bank and 
upon the point of a divide. This divide is also the most west- 
wardly in the State, and the last one below the Kansas, leading 
out into the Great Plains. 

The St. Louis and Pacific Railroad touches the river at In- 
depence, which is the tap point to receive the produce of the whole 
immense country of the Missouri river above its elbow, and for- 
ward it to Eastern and Southern ccuntries. This grand and glor- 
ious Continental railroad, when it shall come from the tide ports 
of the Pacific ocean, to pour plenty over interior America, will 
here first strike the great navigable artery of the continent and let 
out its groceries and salt and abundant comforts upon the great 
river system of transportation ! Thus is Independence city, the first 
great eastern terminus of the Pacific railroad, as it comes from 
that ocean to reach the navigation of the Atlantic waters ! 

But the Territory of Nebraska about to be organized, the com- 
manding portion of which will be the b.^sin of the Kansas and the 
river country of the Missouri shore up to the mouth of the great 
Platte. Of this whole scope of wonderfully fertile country, Inde- 
pendence will become the commercial emporium, as St. Louis has 
similarly been for the countries west of it for the past twenty 
years. In four years there will be created out of a part of Neb- 
30 degrees, its longitude QQ deg. 24 min. west of Greenwich. Thfs 
point is 121 miles west of Independence. 

38 The Cities of Missouri. 

running due West four hundred miles ; thence due North to the 
great Platte; thence down the Platte to the Missouri river, thence 
by the channel of the Missouri river and the Western boundary cf 
Missouri to the beginning. Of this young State, Independence 
will be the business portal to the Eastern world. 

The city of Independence has a singular identity with the Gulf 
of Mexico and Texas, whence comes the essential and immense 

g'ocery trade. The meridian of Independence also passes through 
alveston in Texas. The distance is just seven hundred miles ; 
whereas, by the river, the Mexican Gulf is sixteen hundred miles 
distant. The capability of constructing a railroad from Indepen- 
dence to Galveston is wonderful. It is a smooth prairie expanse 
to the Trinity river, which descends across Texas to Galveston 
Bay. Such a road will traverse the most delicious of all countries, 
which skirts the line North and South down the continent, where 
the timber half and the prairie half of interior America merge into 
one another. 

True, it is, that this strip of country, so fertile in soil, gentle in 
climate, and so adorned by Nature to woo into it the population 
©f the old sterile Thirteen States, is at present tabooed by their 
jealousy. Federal power, made the meretricious engine of mar- 
itime monopoly and spleen, declares it an Indian waste, and in- 
terdicts it to the white millions. 

But the healthy love of truth and human right will some day re- 
kindle in the hearts of the agricultural citizens of the Central 
States. Then these lands will be rapidly occupied by the people, 
and their proceeds at a just and moderate price, link together these 
isolated States and cities with beneficent and harmonizing rail* 

This accomplished, (and it will come soon) the great Gulf trade 
will ascend to Independence, and thence distribute itself to the 
North by the Missouri river and by other railroads penetrating 
Iowa and new States to the West of it. Vice versa will flow out 
the reflex trade in the productions of these countries. Thus will 
be blended on the west in the natural social ties, suggested by their 
geographical proximity and regular order of climate and produc- 
tions, the great fraternal States of Texas, Arkansas, Missouri and 

Again, there is in the geographical locality of Independence an 
interesting fact which seems to show the eminent favoritism of su- 
preme Nature herself. At the junction of the Smoky Hill and 
Republican Forks, which unite to form the Kansas river, in the 
bosom of the immense fertile prairies, and in an undulating coun- 
try of the most fascinating picturesque beauty, is the most extra- 
ordinary focal centre of the American continent. Its latitude is 
S9 degrees, its longitude 96 deg. 24 min. west of Greenwich. This 
point is 121 miles west of Independence. 

The Cities of Missouri. 39 

If from this centre a circle be described so as to touch the north- 
ern boundary parallel of 49 deg. as a tangent, the opposite side 
of this circle will sweep through Mobile, through New Orleans, 
and grazing the intermediate Gulf coast, pass through Matagorda 
harbor in Texas. This point at the forks of the Kansas is then the 
centre of our National Territory, north and south. If also another 
concentric circle be described through San Francisco, it will sweep 
along the Pacific coast, within a few miles of the beach, cutting 
the seaports of Portland and Vancouver on the Columbia river. 
Its opposite side will sweep through Quebec and Boston, through 
Havana in Cuba, and through Vera Cruz and the city of Mexico. 
This same point is then also the centre ©f our territory between 
the oceans, east and west. It is equally the centre, geographic- 
ally, of the Valley of the Mississippi. 

Besides being thus in a three-fold degree the geographical centre 
of the Union, both as it now is and will be hereafter enlarged by 
more States, there is here an equally characteristic demarcation 
in Agriculture. The half extending to the Atlantic has timber, is 
all adapted to the plough and grain being prominently marked for 
arable agriculture. But the half extending to the Pacific is with- 
out timber, mountainous, dry, and clothed with perennial grasses, 
being adapted to cattle, horses and sheep, but repelling the plough. 
This half is therefore prominently marked for pastoral agriculture. 
Again, its latitude is that which marks the joining line of different 
agricultural systems. On the north, the greatest energy is devoted 
to the production of food, as grain, hay, swine, roots and orchard 
fruits. On the south to hemp, tobacco, wool, the grape, fruits, 
and cotton, employ the chief agricultural energy. Now all the 
elements which go to group together society in its densest and n!ost 
adhesive form, here approach one another, come into contact and 
are blended. 

The climate is of that exact medium which the white races in all 
ages and countries have found most congenial, and is central to 
the belt of the temperate zones. From Independence, the near- 
est point of navigation on the great natural artery of commerce, 
the channel of Missouri, goes to St. Louis, where the rivers open 
like the fingers of a fan towards the East; the Upper Missouri pe- 
netrates the North by 2000 miles of navigation — towards the West 
and South there is no navigation, but the smooth character of the 
continent in these directions everywhere invites railroads. 

In the above narration of facts, the design is to be faithful in 
delineating nature, and to throw prominently out what appears to- 
be paramount advantages possessed by this City of Independence, 
beginning now in the ripeness of time to excite interest beyond its 
own immediate vicinity. 

In truth, society has followed a rery uniform law for several 
thousand years, as its progressive wave has rolled slowly through 
the three northern continents, Asia, Europe and America. On 

40 The Cities of Missouri. 

the great navigable rivers which present broad, fertile basins hav- 
ing navigable ihroughs, society has always congregated more 
densely than elsewhere, and has erected large commercial cities or 
emporiums at easy intervals upon their banks. Such have been 
the Ganges, the Nile and the Danube in the old world. The same 
law is demonstrated still more clearly on the North American riv- 
ers, thus upon the entrance to the river St. Lawrence are Quebec, 
Montreal, Toronto, Buffalo, Cleveland, Detroit, Chicago On the 
entrance by the Ohio are Philadelphia and Baltimore, Pittsburgh, 
Wheeling, Portsmouth, Cincinnati, Louisville, Evansville. On the 
Mississippi are New Orleans, Natchez, Vicksburg, Memphis, Cai- 
ro, St. Louis. These cities of first importance are usually one 
hundred leagues apart. The superior fertility of America will re- 
quire them to be more numerous and larger than in the old world. 
A slight inspection of a map of the river system of the world, such 
as Humboldt has made for us, will draw the eye at once to that 
portion of the Missouri river running west and east from the mouth 
of the Kansas to St. Louis, and in length about four hundred 

The wonderful centrality of this water channel has been described 
above, and around it is an undulating calcareous plain of one 
thousand miles radius, unparalleled elsewhere in fertility, into 
which the human race will continue to accumulate until they reach 
many hundred millions in number. These two cities at the ex- 
tremes of this water channel, St. Leuis and Independence, stand 
out upon the face of the continent like eyes in the human head. 
The peculiar configuration of the continent, and of its rivers and 
plains, make these two natural focal points. This will not be in- 
terfered with by any railroads or other public works which may be 
constructed by arts, as these latter are successful and permanent 
only when they conform with the water grades of nature and the 
natural laws which condense society. 

These memoranda are thrown out for the information of fair and 
candid judgments. Such is the rapidity with which these localit- 
ies for great cities are sought out and the cities founded and built, 
and so absolute is the necessity for them as Territories and States 
rise in the wilderness under the agricultural energy of the rural 
population, that correct geographical data for their selection is 
immensely important in the general economy. They have a bear- 
ing and interest upon States and the whole people of the States 
and of the continent. The object is to attract the attention of en- 
ergetic citizens on the move; to cite them to what is detailed above; 
and harmonize and identify distant cities, whose interests and pros- 
perity are mutual, and to throw out in relief a young and prominent 
candidate for the general favor — and to be such a favorite with the 
whole American people, the young city of Independence proposes 

Mississippi Valley Exhibition at St. Louis. 41 

Article V. 
Mississippi Valley Exhibition at St .Louis. 

The spirit recently manifested throughout the Western States in 
getting up County and State Fairs, very naturally suggests the 
idea of an exhibition of the industry and natural wealth of the 
Valley of the Mississippi upon a more extended scale. Not a 
"World's Fair:" — we are too remote from the great highway of 
nations to expect contributions from foreign countries; — but a fair 
for the exhibition of the products of our own great region. A fair 
to be held at a central point accessable to the inhabitants of the 
entire valley west of the Alleghanies. 

The arts are ambulatory. Natural wealth is stationary in its 
nature; and the question in political economy which most interests 
the civilized world, at the present time, is, where can the greatest 
amount of natural wealth be found in a climate congenial to in- 
dustrial pursuits ? Much has been said and written touching the 
mines, soil and climate of the Mississippi Valley; let us make a 
complete collection of our mineral and agricultural products, and 
we shall convince all who may visit the exhibition that the one half 
of our wealth has not been told to them. We can imagine no 
measure better calculated to attract the miner, manufacturer and 
artizan than such an exhibition, provided it be undertaken in the 
proper spirit, and conducted by individuals who can inspire the 
people of other countries with confidence in the enterprise. 

An exhibition of the objects here suggested, would be of more 
benefit to the Western States, and even to the whole Union, than 
a dozen such fairs as that now being held at New York. 

We are not to be understood as underrating the effects of the 
New York exhibition ; for notwithstanding the little time allowed 
for preparation, we are persuaded that Missouri will be greatly 
benefitted by it. The favorable notice taken of our manufactures 
and works of art, will lead western people to look to St. Louis for 
many commodities which it has been supposed could be obtained 
only in the eastern cities. 

But it is from the exhibition of our minerals that the most im- 
portant benefits are to be expected, and already through its 
agency, at least in a good degree, the mineral wealth of Missouri 

42 Bridge over the Mississippi at Rock Island. 

is attracting far more attention than at anj previous period. Spec- 
imens consisting of iron, lead, copper, coal, cobalt, nickel, mar- 
ble, &c, from about fifty localities in Missouri, have found a place 
in the Crystal Palace, at New York ; but owing to the little time 
allowed for making the collection, the mines or veins from which 
they were taken, have not been properly represented. Had the 
agent for Missouri known at the date of his appointment that the 
time for admitting mineral specimens would be extended, as it fin- 
ally was at his request, complete series of specimens from the prin- 
cipal localities could have been collected and arranged, and the 
number of localities represented would, in all probability, have 
exceeded one hundred. 

It is the duty of our citizens to make the resources of the State 
known to the world ; and the only sure way to effect this object is 
to take the management of the matter into their own hands. Let 
them resolve to hold a fair at St. Louis, at some time during the 
year 1855, and commence preparing for it at an early day. By 
the summer of that year we may expect the railroads east of the 
Mississippi, terminating at this place, to be in operation affording 
easy access to St. Louis from the States east of the river. By 
that time too the mines of Missouri and Illinois will have been suf- 
ficiently explored by scientific geologists to enable us to make a 
fair exhibition in the mineral department. 

We throw out these suggestions for the consideration of our cit- 
izens, and leave it with them to judge whether the object proposed 
will compensate for the labor and expense incident to its attain- 


At the last session of the Illinois Legislature, a charter was ob- 
tained by parties interested in the Rock Island Railroad for the 
construction of a bridge across the Mississippi river at that point. 
We learn Prom the Chicago papers that the contract for building 
the bridge has just been let. It is to be completed by the first of 
December, 1854. Messrs. John Warner & Co., have the contract 
for the stone work; and Messrs. Stone & Boomer, of Chicago, 
build the superstructure. The slough on the east side of the Is- 
land is to be crossed by three spans of 150 feet each; and the main 
channel of the river by five spans of 250 feet each, and a draw for 
the passage of vessels. The total length of the main bridge will 
be 1,580 feet. The bridge will be a beautiful ana most substan- 
tial structure. — Alton Telegraph. 

Railroad Statistics. 43 


(From the American Railroad Journal.) 

Cost of Transportation on Railroads. 

The question of cost of transportation by railroad has been 
thoroughly considered in Massachusetts, particularly in the case 
of the Western railroad. The stockholders of that company be- 
ing desirous of ascertaining the cost of moving persons and prop- 
erty on their road, and also the cost compared with other roads, 
appointed a committee to investigate this subject. At the request 
of this committee, Mr. Swift, the president of the road, went into 
an elaborate examination of the matter, and found from the ex- 
perience of five years operation of eight of the leading, most prof- 
itable, and best managed Massachusetts roads, that the actual cost 
of moving a passenger or a ton of freight was equal to 1.445 cents 
per mile. The following table, prepared from official sources will 
show tje result arrived at. 

Statement showing the number of passengers and tons of freight 
carried one mile; the total expenses and cost per passenger, or 
per ton of freight, on the following roads for a period of 5 years, 
ending Jan. 1, 1853 : 

No of passene;. and Gross Cost per pas- 
no. of tons carried expenses. sender, or per 
1 mile, average. ton r. mile. earned. 

Western 213,925,952 2,937,593 1.373 cents. 

Boston andWorcester..l20,499,456 1,899,845 1.502 " 

Boston and Maine 92.997,700 1,237,515 1.330 " 

Fitchburg 82,702,400 1,077,169 1.302 " 

Boston and Lowell 82,227,452 1,253,519 1.535 " 

Eastern 74,720,643 985,066 1.318 « 

Boston and Providence 50,118,288 860,220 1.716 " 

Old Colony 36,198,135 721,912 1.994 " 

759.390,026 10,977,839 1.445 cents. 

The gross receipts upon the above roads for the same period, 
were $21,744,518 ; or 2.860 c. per ton or per passenger carried 
one mile. 

The operations of the Erie road for the past year were as fol- 
lows: (See McAlpine's report for 1852, page 71.) 
No. of passengers and tons of freight carried 1 mile 177,877,249 

Gross earnings for do 3,265,845 

Total miles run 2,389,271 

Receiyed per passenger or per ton of freight carried 

one mile 1.840 cents. 

Estimating the expenses of the Erie road to equal those on the 
Massachusetts roads, which have been long in operation, and thor- 
oughly built equipped, and under a system of discipline the result 

44 Railroad Statistics. 

of years of training, and we have .395 cents per passenger, or per- 
son carried one mile as the net income on the Erie road; and by 
multiplying this sum by 177,877,249, and we have an aggregate 
net income of $'702,615 for the past year, instead of $1,878,192, 
as claimed by the company, or a trifle over § the amount claimed, 
and a sum $557,385, less than what was paid for interest alone. 

Table showing the cost, Gross and Net Earnings and Dividends 
of several Massachusetts roads for 11 years, ending January 1, 

Boston and Worcester Railroad. 

Gross Net Div. 

Value. Cost. earnings. Expenses. income. p. ct. 

1842. ..$109 $2,374,500 $349,207 $168,510 $180,697 7 

1843... 107 2,764,400 333,367 206,641 176,726 6 

1844... 114 2,836,200 426,403 233.264 193,139 7| 

1845... 120 2,914,100 487,455 249,729 237,726 8 

1846... 116 554,712 283,876 270,836 8 

1847... 112 3.485,200 722,170 381,986 340,184 10 

1848... 115 4,113,600 716,284 381,917 334,367 8| 

1849... 106 4,650,400 703,361 405,551 297,810 6 

1850... 93 4,908,300 757,947 377,041 380,906 6| 

1851... 102 4,882,600 743,923 392,687 390,000 7 

1852... 101 4,845,966 758,819 427,522 331,397 7 

6,603,648 3,512,734 8,633,924 7£ 

Boston and Providence Railroad. 

Gross Net Dir. 

Value. Cost. earnings. Expenses. income, p. ct. 

1842... $91 $1,872,500 $236,468 $112,824 $123,644 6 

1843... 88 1,892,800 233,388 125,374 108.014 6 

1844... 107 1,914,500 283,701 113,835 169,866 6 

1845... 108 1,926,100 350,629 152,802 197,827 7 

1846... Ill 2,000,700 351,227 169,679 181,548 8 

1847... 103 2,109,400 361,779 167,900 193,879 7£ 

1848... 99 2,544,700 354,375 182,287 172,088 6J 

1849... 91 3,031,100 354,332 163,682 190,050 6 

1850... 88 3,370,300 370,727 159,279 211,448 5£ 

1851... 85 3,416,200 377,397 177,715 199,682 6 

1852... 86 3,546,203 429,484 216,857 212,626 5| 

3,703,507 1,742,235 1,961,272 6.36 

Railroad Statistics. 45 

Boston and Maine Railroad. 








Income, p 

. ct. 


. $79 






. 83 







,. 103 







;. 109 







, 111 







. 112 







. 112 







. 109 







. 103 







. 106 







. 105 







2,241,417 2 

1,497,556 6.77 

Boston and Lowell Railroad. 








Tncome. f 

). ct. 









,. 595 







.. 640 







.. 580 







.. 575 







.. 572 







.. 550 







.. 550 







.. 556 







.. 570 







.. 480 



— . . ) i i— — t 




2,346,081 1,791,687 7.95 

• Par value 










Income. i 

). ct. 


.. 89 


$119,040 i 








.. 1041 






.. 112 







.. 104 







.. 108 



■ 135,083 




.. 104 







.. 104 







.. 101 







.. 1041 







.. 98 






4,559,489 4,712,247 2,847,222 7.59 

Charleston , Mo., Railroad Meeting. 

If t stem. 





Cost. earnings. 


Income, j 

). ct. 


,'. $80 
. 45 


$266,619 #•: 



7,087,200 573,882 




. 53 

7,501,200 753,753 





. 91 

7,686,200 813,489 





. 96 

7,741,700 *878,418 





. 99 

8,185,80 1,325,327 





. 105 

8,769,500 1,332,068 





;. 102 

9<900,100 1,343,810 





. 101 

9,926,900 1,369,514 





. 104 

9,963,700 1,353,895 





. 98* 

9,963,700 1,339,873 




11,596,728 5,447,417 6,149,400 5.54 

* 11 months. 

It will be seen that the profits of the above roads reached their 
highest point in 1847. The dividenis paid that year averaged 8 
4-10 percent., against 7 1-6 per cent, for the past year, or a fal- 
ling off of \\ per cent., or 12| per cent, of net earnings. In the 
same time the average price of their shares has fallen from 109 
to 96|. 

Charleston, Mo., Railroad Meeting. 

On the 9th of June, 1853, a Railroad Meeting of the citizens of 
Mississippi County was held at Charleston, Mo.; Judge Noah 
Handy, Chairman, and John C. Thomas, Secretary; at which Geo. 
Whitcomb, Hon. Harrison Hough, Judge H. W. Molder, Dr. H. 
M. Ward, Alfred M. Bedford, Felix Badger, and John Bird were 
appointed a Committee to inquire into the probable cost of making 
a railroad across the swamp country, upon the Cairo and Fulton 
route, and to report on the 6th of September, 1853. 

At the adjourned meeting in September, Geo. Whitcomb, 
Chairman of the Committee, made a report of minute, interesting 
and valuable items. The statistics and additional information 
about the Swamp District are particularly important. We, there- 
fore, herewith present all that portion of the report embraced in 
the call of the resolution. 

Charleston, Mo., Railroad Meeting. 47 

The Committee, to whom was referred the probable cost of the 
Missouri portion of the Cairo and Fulton Road, report 

That they have prepared their estimates from such data as were 
within their reach, and they believe nearer the truth, than can well 
be made in a hill country, without accurate topographical surveys, 
the route upon which their investigations were required was the 
Cairo and Fulton Road, but as the main object was to ascertain 
the probable expense of making a Railroad through what is called 
the Swamp country, the estimates may be used upon the routes to 
connect the Mobile Road from Columbus, or the Nashville road 
from Hickman, with the Iron Mountain Road. 

The distances are obtained from Government surveys, and are 
"air lines," the route of the Cairo and Fulton Road, adopted for 
our estimates, begins at Ohio City, opposite Cairo, and running 
southwesterly upon the ridge between the two cypresses, past Bad- 
ger's mills, to the mounds in Sec 5, T. 20, R. 17, thence west 
on the line between Sections 5 and 8, through Charleston to Sec. 
12, T. 26, R. 11, in Stoddard county, being across the swamp on 
the route to Bloomfield and the Chalk Bluffs, and somewhere near 
the proper place to branchoff with the Iron Mountain Road, should 
it be located in the valley of Castor river. F'rom Ohio City to the 
edge of Matthew's Prairie is 12 miles. We have estimated cut- 
ting the timber and clearing the track at $200 per mile — cutting 
the timber 100 feet and clearing the track 30 feet wide. From ob- 
servations taken by Doct. A. E. Mardick we have averaged the 
embankment at 4} feet, which will give 12 inches upon the high 
grounds ; in this section will be required some four or five open 
ways or culverts to pass off the headwaters that might accumulate. 
Of course we make no calculations for river overflow, taking it for 
granted that the county will make a levee out of the swamp land 
donation, to protect the country from inundation, the means be- 
ing fully ample to do it. 

From the edge of the Prairie to the northcut cypress, 8 miles, 
is prairie country and very level. We have averaged the embank- 
ment at 12 inches, and estimated the cost by the prices paid for 
throwing up common road through the same country. 

The northcut cypress, 2 miles, is heavy timbered. We have put 
the cutting and clearing at $500 per mile and the embankment at 
two feet. We think our estimate on this section large — as the 
present road across the same place is raised 12 inches, and cross- 
laid with timber, making the corduroy railroad, so common in the 
west, cost less than $300 per mile exclusive of bridges, and we 
see no reason why it is not sufficiently elevated for railroad pur- 
poses. This section is already protected from overflow by the le- 
vee from Commerce to Price's Landing. Two small bridges will 
be required to pass off the headwaters. 

The Sandy Woods, 3 miles, is similar to the prairie, except 

48 Charleston, Mo., Railroad Meeting. 

there is some small timber and low places called glades. We have 
averaged the embankment at 18 inches. 

The marsh, called lake St. John on the maps, 1 mile, will re- 
quire an embankment of 4J feet and a small bridge or culvert for 
head waters. 

Big Prairie, 3 miles, will be similar to Matthew's Prairie. 

The route across the swamp, 9 miles, we have terminated at 
Sec. 12, T. 26, R. 11, believing that would bring us to high land. 
Not naving examined this section personally, we have relied upon 
data furnished us by A. M. Bedford, Esq., the timber being most 
of the way heavy, we have put the clearing at $500 per mile. 
The embankment through the worst part, called ' k Nigger Wool," 
will require to be 9 feet — the residue we have averaged at 4| feet, 
though we think three feet will be found sufficient. There will be 
three streams to cross : Castor, Little River, and the Running 

Our estimates for cutting timber and clearing track have been 
based upon work done upon the State road from Charleston to 
Ohio City, but we have doubled the prices then paid — the grading 
through the prairie we have estimated from similar work upon 
county roads. Our calculations for embankment has been for 15 
feet wide at the top, and increasing 3 feet in width for every per- 
pendicular foot down. We have estimated the price at 10 cents 
per cubic yard, which, as the ground is loose and sandy, with no 
rocks, and can be scraped upon each side with teams, we believe 
to be a high price — at any rate it is as much as was paid by the 
swamp commissioners for leveeing, after deducting the expense of 
cutting timber, and it is notorious that they were profitable jobs 
to the contractors, and certainly it is a much better price than 17 
to 25 cents is for similar work in a clayey or rocky soil. We have 
put the work through the northcut cypress at 15 cents, on occount 
of its being through cypress timber a part of the way. As to bridges 
we have no data, except bridges on common roads, as they must 
necessarily be built of timber, and all the items of cost furnished 
us from other roads have been for bridges either partially or wholly 
built of stone. In every case the timber will be in the immediate 
vicinity of the bridge to be built. The road will pass near to and 
through three cypresses in the 38 miles. In the first one, 7 miles 
from Ohio City, Felix Badger, Esq., has two steam saw mills now 
employed in cutting ties for the Mississippi and Ohio Road, and 
until lately for the Pacific Road. He will furnish ties 7 inches 
square for 25 cents each upon the road. They cost the Pacific 
Road 45 cents delivered at St. Louis, and we suppose at least 50 
cents when upon the road, making a saving upon our road of near- 
ly one-half in the expense of ties, and the same in all other uses 
of timber, the road passing through the finest cypress, walnut, 
locust and oak timber in the world. Should our estimates of clear- 
ing and grading be thought low, we are authorized to say that re- 

Charleston ^ Mp.yl^ail^caa Meeting. 49 

sponsible men will take the work through our county at the esti- 
mates, and be glad of the chance. We have made no calculation 
for overflow in the big swamp, believing that the land donated by 
Congress, reaching from the city of Cape Girardeau to the mouth 
of the St. Francis, will be sufficiently valuable to cause it to be 
securely levied. 

Our estimate in tabular form is as follows : 


Section 1. — From Ohio City to Matthews' Prairie (mid- 
dle of Sec. 4) 12 miles : 

Clearing track, $200 per mile $2,400 

Embankment, 4| ft. at, 10c. per yard 22,800 

Extra for culverts 1,000 $20,200 

Section 2. — Edge of prairie to Northcut Cypress, 
8 miles: 

Clearing track 200 

Embankment. 12 inches 2,400 

Culverts......'. 200 2,800 

Section 3. — Northcut Cypress, 2 miles: 

Cutting timber. &c 1,000 

Embankment, 2 feet at 15 cents per yard 2,300 

Bridges $500 each..' 1,000 4,300 

Section 4. — Sandy Woods, 3 miles: 

Clearing track.... 300 

Embankment, 18 inches, at 10 cents 1,200 

Culverts 1,000 2,500 

Section 5. — Lake St. John (a marsh), 1 mile : 

Clearing 100 

Embankment, 4§ feet 1,900 

Culverts 500 2,500 

Section 6. — Big Prairie, 3 miles: 

Clearing track 1 00 

Embankment, 12 inches 900 1,000 

Twenty-nine miles $39,300 

Section 7. — Big Swamp, 9 miles : 

Clearing, $500 per mile 4,500 

Embankment, Nigger Wool and other low plac- 
es, 3 miles, 9 feet 45,100 

Residue, 6 miles, 4J feet 11,400 

Bridge on Little River, 250 feet long 2,000 

Bridge on Castor River, 200 feet long 2,000 

Bridge on Running Slough, 160 feet iong 1,000 

Culverts in Nigger Wool, &c 1 ,000 67,000 


50 . Charleston, Mo.. Railroad Meeting. 


Ohio City to Swamp, 29 miles $1,400 per mile. 

Across Swamp, 9 miles 7,450 " 

Whole line, 38 miles 2,800 " 


Estimate of Pacific R. R. rail, 65 lbs. per yard, 

with {-17th added for turnouts $7,400 " 

Estimate of H. Cobb, Esq. , made last January for 
Iron Mountain road with same rail, with ne- 
cessary sidlings and switches 7,500 " 

Estimate of Warsaw and Rockford Railroad, furn- 
ished by P. E. Bland, Esq., of St. Louis, 

with best rail, &c 9,632 " 

As the difference is mostly in the price of iron, 
and as we get our ties and other timber 

cheaper, we estimate at 9,000 " 

Average cost of road to swamp, when finished ...10,400 " 

" " across swamp 16,450 " 

li " whole road 11,800 " 

Total cost, 38 miles 448,400 " 

We have calculated the distances of some of the principal points, 
so that others could make their own estimates, should they choose 
to do so. 

From Charleston to Ohio City 13 miles. 

" " "Columbus 17£ < l 

" " " ferry below Mills Point 25 " 

" " < ; Dr. Ward's landing above Mills Pt.21£ " 

" " " Bloomfield 33£ " 

" " " Sec. 12, T. 26, R. 11 26" " 

From Sec. 12, T. 26, R. 11, to Chalk Bluffs 33f " 

" " " " Iron Mountain 62£ " 

These distances are air lines. 

We would here remark, by way of explanation, that the estimate 
of Mr. Cobb, above alluded to, was founded on the report of Mr. 

Gen. Gibbs, of Tennessee, addressed the Meeting on the sub- 
ject of Railroads. 

On motion of the Rev. T. B. Fuqua, the report of the Commit- 
tee was unanimously adopted. 

Resolved, That we are in favor of carrying out the plan pro- 
posed by Congress for the Cairo and Fulton road, and also the ex- 
tension of the Iron Mountain road to the river, and we pledge this 
county to assist in their completion by every means in its power. 
Resolved, That we fully believe that the road bed through this 
county and Scott, can be made for less money than the estimate 

Bailroads in Arkansas. 51 

of the Committee, though we approve their course, of erring, if at 
all, upon the safe side. 

Resolved, That George Whitcomb, A. M. Bedford, John C. 
Thomas and Judge Noah Handy be appointed a Committee of 
Correspondence to obtain such information as may be necessary 
for unity of action among those interested in the several roads. 

Resolved, That we wish the friends of both roads to take notice 
that we, upon this end of the roads, are up and doing, and that 
we expect them to do likewise. 

Resolved, That we return our thanks to Mr. Ford, Engineer of 
the Pacific Road, and P. E. Bland, Esq., of St. Louis, for their 
kindness in furnishing our Committee with data and estimates. 

Resolved, That all papers friendly to both roads be requested 
to publish our proceedings, and that the County Court be requested 
to cause the same to be published for the use of our citizens. 

The meeting was then addressed by Robert Waide, Esq., upon 
the subject of Railroads and their advantage to the country. 

On motion of Geo. Whitcomb, Esq., the thanks of this meeting 
were tendered to Gen. Gibbs, for his able address on this occa- 

After which, the meeting adjourned sine die. 

NOAH HANDY, President. 

John C. Thomas, Secretary. 

Railroads in Arkansas. 

Good fortune brings friends. The United States Railroad Sur- 
vey through Arkansas, the grant of lands for railroads throughout 
the length and breadth of the State, the energetic and liberal ac- 
tion of the people along the Cairo and Fulton line, the engage- 
ment by the C. & F. R. R. Co. of Thos. S. 0' Sullivan, Consult- 
ing Engineer, and of James S. Williams, Engineer in chief, with 
two corps to survey the route immediately, and the moral force of 
surrounding circumstances combined with the cautious management 
and dispatch of business which characterize the C. &F. R. R. Co., 
have given the Cairo and Fulton Railroad a commanding position 
and secured its fortune as the main trunk road in the State. 

These considerations maintaining and promoting the interests of 
the Cairo and Fulton Railroad, the friends of other roads in the 
State find that they can injure it much less than it can do them 
good; and now, therefore, it may be reasonably expected, as it is 
also significantly foreshadowed by the Railroad meetings in various 
parts of the State, that a large majority of the people are rapidly 

52 Iron Mountain Railroad. 

becoming attached to the main trunk, that they desire their favor- 
ite branches to be grafted on it, in order to derive radical support, 
and realize the fruits of their enterprises in the shortest possible 
time. One instance of the good the Cairo k Fulton Railroad Co. 
are doing for all the other railroad enterprises in Arkansas, is in 
the publication of a map now being engraved by Jules Hutawa, 
of St. Louis, showing the route of their road, the Helena & Mem- 
phis routes to Little Rock, the two routes from Little Rock to Fort 
Smith, one north and one south of the river, the Gaines' Landing 
and Fulton route, the New Orleans and St. Louis route, together 
with a vast variety of other railroad routes, co-operating in an 
eminent' degree to promote the prosperity of the whole State of 

Other instances of material assistance, to the various railroad 
enterprises in Arkansas, will frequently occur, flowing from the 
liberal and richly stored mind of the consulting and of the chief 
Engineer, of the Cairo and Fulton Railroad. 

Iron Mountain Railroad. 

This company has met with formidable obstacles impeding the 
right of way along the Mississippi from St. Louis to the Meramec! 
river, obstacles raised not only by private landholders, but also by 
the War Department of the United States. The War Department, 
however, proves less formidable than private land- holders. The 
former has reasoned and proposed tolerable though still unreason- 
able terms. The latter stubbornly persist, with exorbitant demands 
which if universal along the route would be unsurmountable. If 
the company cannot overcome these obstacles, and attempt to get 
around them, the right of way will be more liberally obtained. In 
the mean while the work under contract will progress at points 
beyond those where the difficulties exist, and by working around 
them, in time, the road maybe brought into the city an easier way. 

Two corps of engineers are now surveying routes south of the 
Iron Mountain, with instructions to explore the whole country bord- 
ering the line of the extension to the Mississippi and to the Ar- 
kansas line. 

The Cairo and Fulton R. R. Co. having organized two corps of 
engineers for the survey of that road, and having made prelimin- 
ary arrangements for a third to co-operate with the Iron Mountain 
R. R. Co., the number is thus increased to five corps on the route 
from Red river to the Iron Mountain. These movements inspire 
additional confidence in the continued prosperity of both roads. 

B. 8r St. J. and M M. R. R. 53 

Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad. 

Ool. 11. M. Stewart, the prudent and energetic President of 
this company, returned from New York on the 18th September, 
having made satisfactory arrangements for means to prosecute the 
work. The Board of Directors will meet on the 3d, and the Stock- 
holders of the company on the 7th of November next, at Chilli- 
cothe. The people of North Missouri should do all in their power 
to build this road out of their own means ; as the Grant of Con- 
gress will secure a premium for the stock, and the business of the 
road will repay large dividends. We are pleased to notice the gen- 
ial influence exerted by this enterprise, near the heart of North 
Missouri, as appears by the following item taken from the Tren- 
ton Pioneer. 

Chillicothe. — Duty called us to this prospering town and neigh- 
bor of ours a few days ago, and we were surprised as well as grat- 
ified to witness the effect the Railroad has had on it. The time 
has been, when some were loud in their predictions of the downfall 
of Chillicothe ; but if such opinions were seriously entertained, it 
needs but a glimpse of the place now, to convince all that they 
were "false prophets ;" and if she ever was in the ashes, she has 
arisen, Phoenix like, and donned the garb of prosperity, energy 
and industry. The improvement of Chillicothe, within the past 
two years, is unparalleled in the history of country villages, and 
she now stands prominently, as a place of much importance in the 
business world. There are several steam saw mills in the vicinity 
of this place, and everything around, gives flattering evidence that 
the motto of the people is' "onward." 

North Missouri Railroad. 

On the 6th September, 1853, the first division of this road was 
located from St. Louis to St. Charles ; and on the 15th of Oct., 
thirty proposals were made to build this division, the most of which 
proposals are held under consideration. On the last mentioned 
date the two corps of engineers, one having started from the Iowa 
boundary, and the other from St. Charles, met in the town of 
Mexico, Audrain county. They will survey different routes that 
the character of the country may be fully disclosed, and the most 
practicable route discovered. 

54 Alton S,- JVew York R. R. Connexion. 

Pacific Railroad. 

On the 24th day of October, 1853, the tax-pajers of St. Louis 
county voted on the proposition of the County Court, whether the 
county should subscribe $300,000 to the capital stock of the com- 
pany, raising the tctal subscription of the county to this road to 
$500,000, and the result was 3,724 votes for, and 862 against the 
subscription; majority 2,862 in favor. The amount of city and 
county subscriptions of St. Louis to the Pacific Railroad is now 
$1,000,000, which with the private subscription in St. Louis 
$605,000, amounts to $1,605,000. This fact must arouse the 
people of the other counties along the line to subscribe their pro- 
portionate shares, and carry on the road out of their own resources. 

Alton & New York Railroad Connexion. 

On the 17th October, 1853, the Railroad connexion between 
the cities of Alton and New York — between the Mississippi river 
and the Atlantic ocean — was established. The Chicago and Mis- 
sissippi R. R. Co. advertise that passengers can be transported 
from New York to St. Louis in GO hours, and from Chicago to St. 
Louis in 20 hours. We are informed that a trip from New York 
to St. Louis, via Railroads to Alton, was made in 57 h hours, and 
from Chicago to St. Louis in jO hours. This connexion will 
accumulate trade as well as travel on the northern route, and 
greatly enhance the profits on the whole line. Passengers leave 
St. Louis in the morning at 7 o'clock and, after ferrying the river 
to Alton, take the cars on the Chicago and Mississippi R. R. to 
Bloomington, then on the Illinois Central to Lasallc, then on the 
Chicago and Rock Island to Chicago, then on the Northern Indi- 
ana and Southern Michigan to Toledo, and so on, by the Lake 
shore and New York Railroads, and arrive at New York city in 
less than 2| days. 

Commercial Statistics. 55 


FFrom Hunt's Merchants' Magazine.] 

Revenue of the United States for the Fiscal Year ending June 30th, 


From Customs. Public Lands. Miscellaneous. Total. 

First quarter $15,723,935 71 $415,915 91 $201,450 10 $16,341,331 72 

Second quarter. .... 11,307,465 45 243.587 16 33,818 37 11,584,870 98 

Third quarter 16.208,198 82 422.030 70 172.555 50 16.803.085 10 

Fourth quarter. ••• 15,691,965 54 585,521 14 344,299 92 16,614,636 60 

1853.. $58,931,865 52 $1,967,(8! 99 $752,123 89 $61,353,924 40 

1852.. 47,339.326 62 2.043,239 58 345,820 69 49;728.3. l 6 89 

1851.. 49,017,567 92 2,352,305 30 913;i06 65 52,312.279 87 

This comparison will enable us to make a closer estimate of the 
total dutiable imports for the last fiscal year, than the one previ- 
ously given : — 

Rec'd from Customs. Dutiable Imp's. Free Goods&Specie. Tot. Imp's. 

1852. $47,330.326 62 $183,252 508 $29,692,934 $212,945,442 

1853. 58,931,865 52 .228,127 710 30,000,000 258,127,710 

Foreign Imports at New York for 8 months, from January 1st 

1850. 1851. 1852. 1853. 

Entered for consumption-. $72,288,772 $82,041,898 $72,209,450 $110,347,159 

Entered for warehousing.. 11,659,644 9.845,001 5,916,630 15,813,888 

Free goods.. •••• 6.207.603 6.803,459 9,335,327 10.336,526 

Specie.. 12,522,173 1,666.979 2,085,165 1,611,231 

Total imports...... $102,678,192 $100,357,337 $89. 546,572 $138,108,804 

Withdrawn from warhouse. 7,09i,156 8,132,230 10,925,568 9,972,966 

Exports from New York to Foreign Ports for Eight Months, ending 

August 31st. 
1850. 1851. 1852. 1853. 

Domestic produce $27,428,526 $28,904,460 $27,452,183 $34.815 630 

Foreign merchandise [free]-- 463,299 396,630 588,442 1,090.526 

Fo. merchandise [dutiable]-. 3.070,365 2.600,688 2.966.285 2.865,901 
Specie 5,413,548 27,771,129 18,531,341 13.763,567 

Total exports $36,375,738 $59,672,007 $49,538,251 $52,565,624 

Total, exclusive of specie 30,962,190 31,901,778 31,006,910 38,802,057 

Comparative Deposits at the Philadelphia Mint for the first eight 
months of the year, and the shipments from San Francisco : — 

Deposited at Philadelphia Mint Shipments from S. Francisco. 

1851. 1852. 1853. 1852. 1853. 

January.. $5.07 1.669 $4,161,688 $4,962,962 $2,905,770 $1,821,604 

February. 3,001.970 3,010.222 3.518 523 1,770,122 5.731,273 

March -•• 2.880,271 3,892,156 7,533,752 2,173.304 4,810.818 

April..... 2,878,353 3,091,037 4,766,000 3.467.293 7.660.851 

May 3,269.491 4.335,578 4.425,000 5;470,923 2,776 574 

June 3,637.560 6.689,474 4.545.179 3,570,266 6,198.432 

July 3,127,517 4.193,880 3,49i',000 4,119.509 4,132.601 

August.-.. 4,135,312 2,671.563 5,372,000 3,608,303 4.705,58 


Total--- 28,002,143 32,045,598 3S.644,416 27,085,490 37,837,7 


56 Valley of the Ohio. 


Valley of the Ohio. 


Author of the "History of the Commonwealth of Kentucky." 

Continued from page 341, vol. X. No. 65. 

This is a curious relic of frontier adventure; it is full of particulars 
of the hardships of Indian life, as well as the dangers and difficulties 
of a moodman's carreer. Its author was, afterwards, long distinguished 
in the councils of Kentucky. 

The next class of explorers was not from Virginia or Pennsylvania 
by the route of the Ohio river; but from North Carolina, by the way 
of the Cumberland Gap, one of the celebrated routes through the 
wilderness. These may have been traders with the southern Indians, 
for peltries, which have ever been a subject of eager traffic on the 
frontiers. There was a route called the warrior's road or path (it is 
delineated in Filson's map of Kentucky,) "leading from the Cumber- 
land ford along the broken country, lying on the eastern branch of the 
Kentucky river, and so across the Licking (river), toward the mouth 
of Ihe Scioto."* It was much frequented by the northern and south- 
ern tribes in their passage through Kentucky, whether for the pur- 
poses of war or of hunting. Along this line of communication, it 
may be supposed, that John Finley was engaged in traffic with the 
Indians as early as 1767. Certain it is, that Daniel Boone received 
his first information respecting Kentucky from Finley, upon his re- 
turn to North Carolina, where they both lived. It was not, however, 
till May, 1769, that Boone left his home, on the Yadkin river, in 
North Carolina, in quest of the famed hunting grounds of Kentucky. 
To do this, he and his five companions, John Finley, John Stewart, 
Jost ph Holden, James Moncey and Willi; m Cool, were compelled to 
pass the broad mountain chain ridge, which separates the Atlantic 
waters from those of the Mississippi. After thirty-eight days of 
travelling, without any of the appliances of modern locomotion, but 
in bare woodman's costume. 

This primitive rmile, through all the hardships, difficulties and 
dangers of a mountainous wilderness — the uncontested domain of the 
Indian, led across the vallies of the Holston and Clinch rivers, to the 
head waters of the Cumberland or Shawnee river ; thence along the 
Warrior's Path, previously mentioned, by the. Cumberland ford, over 
the head waters of ihe Kentucky river, to its eastern branch or Red 
river. But let us listen to his own words dictated to John Filson :f 
'•We proceeded successfully, and alter a long and fa* iguing journey, 
through a mountainous wilderness, in a western direction, on the 7th 
day of June (176S) following, we found ourselves on Red river, the 
northernmost branch of the Kentucky river; where John Finley had 

• Annal?, p. 114. 

t See Filson's Kentucky and Amer. Biog., XXIII. 

Valley of the Ohio. 57 

formerly been trading with the Indians, and from the top of an emi- 
nence we saw with pleasure the beautiful level of Kentucky." The 
first impressions made upon these rude, but skilled observers of na- 
ture, can but be interesting to their descendants, and the millions who 
have profited by their hardy enterprise. "We found everywhere 
abundance of wild beasts of all sorts through this vast forest. The 
buffaloes were more frequent, than I have seen cattle in the settle- 
ment, browzing on the leaves or cropping the herbage on these ex- 
tensive plains."* The luxuriant canebrakes, the luscious pasturage 
of Kentucky, its numerous streams stocked with fish, and, above all, 
its salt licks, rendered it a most favorite haunt of the game of the 
forest. Such is the universal description of the pioneers ; no terms 
seemed grand enough to describe the fertility, the luxuriant growth 
and superabundant game of this Sylvan El Dorado. Is it, then, 
wonderful, that the Indian should adhere pertinaciously to his claims 
on this great natural park ? It was the garden spot of the red man. 

The party continued "hunting with great success, until the 22d of 
December, 1769;" when shortly after this, John Stewart, one of 
Boone's North Carolina companions, was killed by the Indians. He 
appears to be the first, so far as is known, of the numerous victims 
slaughtered in Kentucky by the Indians during their long, desperate 
and ruthless struggle with the white man, for their beautiful hunting 
grounds. This frontier war survived the revolutionary contest with 
Great Britain; and raged from the ba'tle of Point Pleasant, in 1774, 
to that of the Mauinee, under General Wayne, in 1794. Still, our 
author says, that he, and his brother Squire Boone, (who had reached 
the country some time before with supplies for his roving relative,) 
continued during the winter undisturbed by the Indians, until Dbout 
the 1st of May, 1771, when they both returned to North Carolina. 

But the solitude and danger of an Indian wilderness could not de- 
ter the heroic hunter from visiting the country again, under more 
propitious circumstances. Exploration of the wilderness seemed the 
ruling passion of Boone's soul. This was much assisted bv the trod- 
den p iths and roads made by the wild beasts, and particularly the buf- 
faloe, which lay in their way ; in this manner they were led to many 
of the salt springs ; at which salt has since been made for the con- 
sumption of its present inhabitants. f The fondness of the wild game 
for salt is as great, and the condiment as necessary to the game of the 
forest, as to the domestic herds and quadrupeds. During 1770, a 
party of about forty stout hunters, "from New River, Holston ond 
Clinch," united, "for the purpose of trapping, hunting and shooting 
game, west of the Cumberland mountains." "Nine of this party, led 
on by Col. James Knox, reached Kentucky, and from the time they 
were absent from home, obtained the name of the Long Hunters." 
This expedition reached the country south of the Kentucky river ; 
and became acquainted with Green river, and the lower part of the 
Cumberland. J In addition to those parties, naturally stimulated by 
the ardent curiosity and love of daring novelty incident to early and 

• Filson. 

t Marshal's Kentucky, vol. 1,9. 

% Idem. 

58 Valley of the Ohio. 

comparatively idle society ; the claimants to military bounty lands 
which had been promised from the British crown for services against 
the French, furnished a new and bold band of western explorers. 
Their land warrants, issued under the authority of Lord Dunmore, 
w r ere surveyed on the Kenhawa and the Ohio, as early as 1773; 
though most positively against the very letter of the royal proclama- 
tion of 1763.* They were surveyed on the site of the present cities 
of Louisville and Frankfort, in Kentucky, and through the adjacent 
country. Even General Washington visited the Kenhawa, in 1770, 
for the purpose of locating western land claims. His journalf shows 
the rapidity of settlements down the Ohio river, as low as the Ken- 

Amongst others, Thomas'Bullitt, (uncle to the late Alexander Bul- 
litt, who became the first Lieutenant Governor of Kentucky,) and 
Hancock Taylor, engaged in this adventurous surveying. 

These gentlemen were overtaken on the Ohio river, on the 28th of 
May, 1773, by the McAfees. This party, consisting of James, 
George ar;d Robert McAfee, James McCoun, Jr., and Samuel Adams, 
left Sinking Creek, in Bottetourt county, Virginia, and descended 
New River to the Ohio in canoes. Captain Bullitl was elected capt- 
ain of the company, which continued together until they reached the 
mouth of the Kentucky river. At this point, Capt. Bullitt proceeded 
on to the Falls of Ohio; and the McAfees, with Taylor, ascended the 
Kentucky, or Levisa, (possibly a. corruption of Louisa, which name 
had been attached to the Kentucky.) The adventures of these hardy 
adventurers well deserve to be enlarged upon. 

On the descent of the Ohio river, Bullitt undertook to visit J the 
Indian town of old Chilicothe, on the Scioto. He proceeded through 
the woods, and arrived undiscovered by the Indians, until he was 
waving a white flag, as a token of peace. He was soon asked what 
news, and if came from the Loifg Knife, (the Indian appellation of the 
Whites,) as a peace messenger, why he did'nt send a runner ? 
"Would you," said he, "if you were very hungry, and had killed a 
deer, send your squaw to town to tell the news, and wait her return, 
before you eat ?" This simple address to their own feelings, soon put 
the Indians in good humor; and at his desire a council was called to 
hear his talk the next day. Captain Bullitt then made strong assur- 
ances of friendship, on the part of the whites; acknowledged that 
these "Shawanees and Delawares, our nearest neighbors" "did not 
get any of the money 5 or blankets given for the land which I and my 
people are going to settle. but it is agreed by the great men, 
who own the land, that they will make a present to both the Dele- 
wares and the Shawanees, the next year; and the year following that 
shall be as good." On the ensuing day, agreeably to the very delib- 
erate manner of the Indians, in council, Capt. Bullitt was informed 
that "he seemed kind and friendly, and that it pleased them well. 
That as to settling the country on the other side of the Ohio with 
your people, we are particularly pleased that they are not to disturb 

• Helming VII, GS7. 

f Spark's Wash., II, 518. 

t Butler's Kentucky, 2d Edit., p. 21. 

Valley of the Ohio. 59 

us in our hunting. For we must hunt to kill meat for our women 
and children; and to get something to buy our powder and lead with; 
and to get us blankets and clothing." In these talks, there seems a 
strange want of the usual sagacity of the Indians as to the conse- 
quences of white men settling on their hunting grounds, so contrary 
to their melancholy experience for a century and a half previous. 
Yet the narrative is unimpeachable.* However this may be, the 
parties separated in perfect harmony; and Capt. Bullitt proceeded to 
the Falls of the Ohio. Here he pitched his camp above the mouth at 
Bear Grass creek, retiring of a night, to a shoal, above Corn Island, 
opposite the present city of Louisville. f 

Another surveyor, by the name of James Douglas, followed Capt. 
Bullitt during the same year; and on his way to the Falls of Ohio, 
landed near the celebrated collection of mammoth bones which still 
goes by the emphatic name indicative of its contents — the Big Bone 
Lick, now situated in the county of Boone. This is the same collec- 
tion noticed by Col. Croghan, in his descent of the Ohio, in 1765.1 
The latter gentleman speaks of the access to the Lick being by a 
"large road which the buffaloes have made spacious enough for two 
wagons to go abreast." Here Douglas remained forming his tent- 
poles of the ribs of the enormous animals which formerly frequented 
this remarkable spot; and on these ribs, blankets were stretched to 
form shelter from the sun and the rain. Many teeth were from eight 
to nine, and some ten feet in length ; one in particular, was fastened 
in a perpendicular direction, in the clay and mud with the end six 
feet above the surface of the ground; an effort was made by six men, 
in vain, to extract it from its mortice or bed. The Link extended to 
about ten acres of land, bare of timber, grass or any kind of herbage. 
It was much trodden, eaten for the saline particles, and depressed 
below the.origlnal surface; with here and there a knob remaining, like 
the pillars of earth left by excavators, to show the former elevation 
of (he surface. Thus a period seems to be indicated, however, inde- 
finitely, when this resort of numerous animals had not taken place. 
Through the midst of the Lick ran a creek, and on each side of it, a 
never failing stream of salt water, whose fountains were in the open 
field. To this Lick converged from all parts of the neighboring 
country, roads made by the wild animals, which resorted thither for 
the salt contained in the earth and the water of the Lick. 

When the McAfees visited this Lick, in 1773, with Captain Bul- 
litt, several Delawares were present ; one of these being questioned 
by James McAfee about the origin and nature of those extraordinary 
bones, replied, that they were then, just as they had been, when he 
first saw them, in his childhood. Yet this Indian appeared to be at 
least seventy years of age. Collections of similar bones of animals, 
which have ceased to tenant the earth, are now familiar not only in 
the United States, but in other parts of the world ; but none exceed, 

* McAfee's papers. 

t It was this gentleman who. according to the testimony of Jacob Sodowsky, 
a respectable farmer, late of Jessamine county, Ky., first laid out the town of 
Louisville, in August, 1773; and likewise surveyed Bullitt's Lick, in the adjoin- 
ing county, of the same name. 

$ See Appendix. 

60 Self Intellectual Culture, 

it is believed, the one in question of the bones of the mammoth or 

In addition to these encroachments of the whites, on the hunting 
grounds of the Indians, the honesty of history requires the confession 
of repeated outrages upon the rights of the native tribes, which the 
popular hatred would not suffer the government to punish. These 
enormities have sunk into deserved oblivion, and are now only ad- 
verted to, that the justice of history may be preserved. Many of the 
inhabitants now retired into the interior of the colonies. 

Some Thoughts on Self Intellectual Culture. 

Continued from page 440 of preceding volume. 

The mind's powers and faculties are really and truly wonderful, 
and they belong to us f>r exalted purposes: for education, for ex- 
pansion, for raising up and purifying our moral nature, for devel- 
oping and energizing our intellectual nature, for becoming great 
and good ourselves, for rendering others great and good, for the 
exercise of benevolence and the increase and spread of knowledge, 
for promoting the beneficial interests of society, for usefulness 
here, and happiness hereafter. The design is intellectual pro- 
gression, social elevation, and moral and civil freedom. And he 
who neglects the educating his mind, he, who persists deliberately 
in grovelling in the depths of ignorance, he who overlooks the num- 
berless opportunities which the age and country permit for mental 
instruction and advancement, is guilty of a violation of positive 
duty, forgets his own most precious interests, and brings a volun- 
tary degradation upon himself, and those connected with him in 
the vanous relations of life. 

And we may add that it is through these faculties of the mind, 
and their close connection with man's highest happiness, that we 
hope to lay wider and stronger the foundations and elements of all 
practical science and usetul acquirement among the great masses 
of the people, to establish and build up and cement the mighty 
fabric of education, and to mould it in the forms of beauty and ex- 
cellence, until it shall embrace within its portals every mind to be 
improved, and protect beneath its canopy every circle of humanity; 
and thus pour floods of enlightened thought and general intellig- 
ence and individual power and civil freedom over the length and 
breadth of our favored land. 

Having sufficiently established for our present purpose, the ne- 
cessity of intellectual culture, and its intimate connexion with our 
constitution and happiness, the inquiry naturally suggests itself: 
How is this culture best to be promoted? 

Self Intellectual Culture, 61 

In a young and growing country, like our own, blessed with a 
fertile soil and salubrious clime, embracing a population deversi- 
fied in its character, robust in its constitution, adventurous in its 
enterprize, conflicting in its habitudes of thoughts, and without a 
fixed literature, and posssessing institutions as yet in a state of 
infancy and probation, their organizations immatured, their capa- 
cities undeveloped, and the adequacy of their means to satisfy the 
growing wants of our people but imperfectly established-^this 
question has a more than ordinary application and significance. 
The question is not, how we shall construct literary and scientific 
institutions on broad foundation and of solid structure, hereafter 
to become illustrious on the matriculation and graduation of rich 
and ripe scholars — not how we shall enlarge the boundaries, and 
elaborate the symmetry and proportions of knowledge — not how 
the exclusive minister at the altar of learning maybe elevated and 
refined, and rendered still more prominent — not how the distinc- 
tions between the learned and unlearned shall be preserved ; — but 
the inquiry is, how the public schools may be endowed reaching 
every class of our fellow citizens, and diffusing their influences, 
like the genial dews of heaven, upon all ; how means shall be mul- 
tiplied to meet the present wants and emergencies of an active, 
adventurous and growing society ; where and how stimulants may 
be procured to excite the public mind to active and renewed and 
vigorous effort in the cause of public instruction; in what manner 
we shall seize upon the mental faculties of our youth, and throw 
them into direct collision with the elements and higher departments 
of learning, and compel them to rest upon their own native ener- 
gies in the great conflict of existence; and which are the most ef- 
ficient and available instruments in our power to accomplish the 
great purpose of disseminating intelligence, of penetrating the 
fastnesses of ignorance, of throwing open to every man, woman 
and child the whole empire of knowledge, of raising up and edu- 
cating the broad, deep accumulated mass of uninstructed mind so 
affluent in capabilities that exists around us, and of pouring abroad 
over the whole bosom of society the lights of learning and science 
and morality. 

This constitutes our appropriate field of investigation ; and I 
enter upon it with a profound conviction of its magnitude and im- 
portance. I wish to impress the conviction upon the mind and 
heart of my readers with a force and clearness correspondent with 
my own, of the indispensable and paramount necessity of educat- 
ing the minds of all our youth in the rudiments and general out- 
lines of knowledge, if we really and sincerily wish to promote their 
true happiness, and establish their prosperity and preserve in their 
vigor and integrity the civil, religious and social institutions of our 
beloved country. 

In the discussion of this interesting subject — covering as it does 
an extensive field of thought — my observations must necessarily 

62 Self Intellectual Culture. 

be general, and confined to the presentation of a sweeping and 
comprehensive outline of the subject. I shall, in the first place, 
allude to some of the means of mental improvement, substan- 
tially within the reach of all; secondly, present some views on self 
culture and the more important studies to be selected ; and third- 
ly, endeavor to interest the young reader in the pursuits of learn- 
ing, by exhibiting the encouragements that animate, and the re- 
wards and compensations that most assuredly follow all intellectual 
effort of whatever mould, when judiciously directed and diligently 

First. — Of the means of self- culture. 

The system of common schools so generally adopted in our 
country, presents the most prominent element in the history of 
public instruction. It is so interwoven with our civil polity and 
social prosperity, as to have become a conservative portion in our 
political fabric, indispensable to its solidity, its permanency and 
its beauty. 

I have neither time nor disposition, to present even an outline 
of the history of our public schools, nor is it necessary. The ma- 
terials are too diversified, and reach back over too broad a period 
of time, for my present purpose, nor would the result be sufficient- 
ly instructive to compensate for the labor. 

Their general usefulness is, I believe, universally acknowledged. 
On this ground all parties meet. The enviable condition of our 
country triumphantly vindicates their utility. The genius of our 
political constitutions, and the spirit of our people, are so conso- 
nant with enlightened mind, and so intimately allied with the pro- 
gress of letters and sound education, as to render them mutually 
indispensable to the perfection of man's condition. Indeed, pub- 
lic instruction, in connection with moral development, constitute 
the solid pillars on which our national independence and prosper- 
ity repose with perfect security. The desire of the patriot and 
statesman is not to destroy or impair our admirable system of 
common schools ; but to perfect its organization, introduce 
new improvements, and extend its beneficial influences until every 
member of this Republic shall be elevated through its power. In 
this point of view the subject is one of pervading importance to us. 
How we shall improve it? How we shall through this medium ex- 
tend knowledge to all? How we shall elevate the character and 
attainments oi the scholarship sought after here? How respectable 
and enlightened individuals may be induced to give more efficient 
aid and patronage to public schools? How far, and in what man- 
ner, government may judiciously interpose? And how we may per- 
manently engraft upon the mind of this rapidly populating coun- 
try the groundwork and elements of a sound, useful and practical 
information? Are questions of vital interest to our well-being and 
permanent prosperity. They ought to be carefully and patiently 
investigated. The systems of other States and nations ought to 

Self Intellectual Culture. 63 

be examined and compared. Legislative influence should not only 
be invoked, but demanded. The public encouragement of educa- 
tion is an absolute right belonging to the citizen, and consequently 
imposes an imperative duty to be discharged by the Legislature. 
And this corresponding relation of right and duty, of justice and 
obligation, not only exists, but its exercise creates a higher and 
transcendent obligation. And that- Republic is faithless to its duty, 
faithless to its best interests, faithless to every moral and christian 
impulse, which docs not liberally, steadfastly and diligently cherish 
and support a well organized system of common schools. The 
qualifications of a teacher, the books to be selected, and the stud- 
ies to be pursued, ;.re matters requiring careful thought and judi- 
cious regulation. It is cheering to know that these topics are in 
process of thorough examination throughout our country, and that 
a healthy tone of sentiment prevails in reference to general edu- 

Another striking feature of the age is the increasing and tran- 
scendent influence of the press. Books, magazines, reviews and 
newspapers are multiplied with a rapidity, and distributed with a 
diligence, almost surpassing human conception. They are afforded 
too, at a rate so cheap, as to bring them within the reach of all. 
The most instructive and interesting portions of the entire acqui- 
sitions of science and literature and art are published in cheap, 
neat ami attractive forms. In the present age it is within the pow- 
er and ability of every community to possess a well selected and 
reasonably extensive library which will afford competent instruction 
in every department of human knowledge. By voluntary associa- 
tion and small subscriptions a valuable library accessible to every 
one may be acquired, enriching all with its treasures, and exhaust- 
ing them not, pouring light into the abodes of darkness, bringing 
minds into close and pleasing intercourse with each other, eliciting 
temperate discussions, and binding neighborhoods mor eclosely 
together in the bonds of kindred thought and association and sym- 
pathy. The comparative ease and facility with which libraries 
may be formed at the present day, contrasts most strikingly with 
the enormous expense and almost insuperable difficulty of doing so 
a few centuries ago. Individuals of this generation, when the 
press multiplies and. throws abroad so many excellent productions 
with such rapidity and cheapness, cannot sufficiently appreciate 
the vital importance and inestimable privileges conferred upon so- 
ciety and the public mind and heart by modern libraries. It is 
difficult to realize and comprehend fully the vast moral, social and 
governmental revolutions which have been effected through the in- 
strumentality of the press, acting as it does in every walk in life, 
upon the absolutism of tyranny as well as upon the masses of de- 
mocracy, beneath the shades of the academy and amid the retreats 
of the cloister, as well as in the legislative hall, the judicial forum, 

6Jb Self Intellectual Gulture. 

the workshop, the common school, and the tribune of the people, 
the political arena. 

Before the invention of printing, when all literature and science 
must necessarily have existed either in manuscript or in tradition, 
collections of books were exceedingly limited and immensely valu- 
able. It presents to the mind a most curious and instructive pic- 
ture to examine into the early libraries even so recently as the 15th 
and 1 6th centuries, and to compare their paucity and poverty, and 
even puerility, with the extent, variety and richness of those of our 
own day and generation. 

A discursive glance at the past will impress our minds with the 
great and preeminent advantages we possess in this day of action 
and progression over our ancestors. The consideration of this 
subject ought to swell our bosoms with emotions of gratitude, that 
our lot is cast in an age so intelligent and in a country so free. 

The first national library, it is supposed, was founded in Egypt, 
and according to a learned author seems to have been placed un- 
der the protection of the Divinities, for their statues most magni- 
ficently adorned the temple consecrated at once to Religion and 
Literature ; thus beautifully blending the holy inspiration of the 
christian spirit with the purifying influences of cultivated mind and 
refined taste. 

The Egyptian Ptolemies founded the library of Alexandria, so 
iustly distinguished for the number and value of its works ; and 
which afterwards met with such a melancholy and unexpected fate 
amid the ruthless devastations of war, while the star of the mighty 
Caesar was in the ascendant., and the Roman eagle was bathed 
amid the living glories of one illustrious triumph. 

Pisistratus founded the first Grecian library, and Asinius Pol- 
lio the first public one in Rome. When the Roman empire became so 
enormous and overshadowing as to triumph over Greece, dispoil 
her of her magnificent trophies of genius and of art, and disrobe 
her of the richest habiliments of her intellectual creation, a passion 
existed amon^ her citizens for the accumulation of immense col- 
lections of books, among whom Crassus, Caesar and Cicero were 
the most distinguished ; and these illustrious Romans became not 
more celebrated for their magnificent libraries than for their liter- 
ary refinement and profound erudition. Lucullus, whose princely 
opulence enabled him to indulge his taste for true learning, and 
whose enlightened mind taught him to appreciate the value of 
books, collected avast and costly library, "whose walks, galleries 
and cabinets," as Plutarch observes, "were open to all visitors." 

The ancients, says D'Israeli, bestowed the richest ornaments 
on their libraries: their floors were paved with marble, their walls 
covered with glass and ivory, and their shelves and desks made of 
ebony and cedar. 

In Italy the first public library was founded by Nicholas Nicco- 
li, a merchant of that State. The Arabians and Moors, the Ital- 

Self Intellectual Culture. 65 

ians, English and French, all encouraged in a greater or less de- 
gree the formation of libraries through the period of the dark ages 
when the human mind seemed to be almost impenetrably enshroud- 
ed in ignorance and superstition; and a broad dark cloud rested on 
and cast its shadow over the entire field of science and literature. 

Let us turn aside the curtain of the few past centuries, and look 
into some of the libraries existing during the dark or middle ages, 
and contrast their voluminousness and value with those of the pres- 
ent age. This retrospective glance will not be without interest and 

In 1341 the Bishop of Durham raised the first private library in 
Great Britain. It contained between thirty and forty volumes, 
and he paid for it, as we are credibly informed, fifty pounds 
weight of silver. This was at that period an exceedingly extens- 
ive and valuable collection, insomuch that a treatise was published 
in its praise. 

In 1361, the Royal Library of France contained only twenty 
volumes, four of which were classics, and the remainder were 
principally books of devotion. In 1840, the same library embraced 
480,000 volumes of books and manuscripts. Up to the beginning 
of the loth century, England and Germany made very indifferent 
progress in science, literature, and the establishment of libraries, 
and Mr. Hallam, the distinguished historian, informs us, that a 
German named Tithemius had in 1526 collected about 2,000 man- 
uscripts, a literary treasure which excited such extraordinary at- 
tention that princes and eminent individuals travelled long dis- 
tances to visit it. At this period of time, 000 or 800 volumes 
constituted a library which royalty alone with princely revenues 
could command. 

The Oxford library, in 1300, consisted of "a few tracts kept in 
chests," and as late as the 15th century only contained 600 vol- 
umes; it now numbers over 430,000 volumes. 

The statutes of the new college at Oxford furnish a remarkable 
illustration of the value and scarcity of books in the 15th century. 
One of these statutes provided that "no man should occupy a book 
in the library above one hour or two at most, that others might 
not be hindered in the use of the same." And even as late as 
1471, when Louis II., king of France, borrowed the works of an 
Arabian physician named Rhasis, from the medical faculty in Pa- 
ris, he was required and did actually deposit as security for their 
safe return, not only an immense quantity of valuable plate, but 
was also compelled to procure a nobleman to join with him in a 
deed covenanting under a large forfeiture that they should be safely 

In the present age, the libraries of France are supposed to sur- 
pass those of any other nation or empire in number and value. 
Even England, with all her commercial affluence, royal munificence 
and imperial pride, in the grandeur, extent and solidity of her lit- 


6Q Self Intellectual Culture. 

erary and scientific institutions, is behind the country of Charle- 
magne and Napoleon. 

The most extensive and valuable libraries of our country are 
those of Harvard, containing in 1840 about 40,000 volumes, Bos- 
ton Athenaeum 29,000 volumes, Philadelphia 30,000 volumes, 
Congress 28,000 volumes, New York Society Library 40,000 vo- 
lumes, and the New York Mercantile Library embracing about 
25,000 volumes 

Wc are a vast distanoe behind Europe in the endowment of our 
libraries, as wo possess none exceeding in 1840 about 40,000 vo- 
lumes, whilst there are libraries at St. Petersburg, Vienna, Paris, 
Munich, Goettingen, Dresden, Copenhagen, Berlin, Rome and 
London, ranging from 300,000 to 500,000 volumes each. The 
public libraries of Paris alone number about 250,000 different vo- 
lumes, and the aggregate of the public libraries in France, it is 
estimated, amounted in 1840 to 4,500,000 volumes. 

Lot us not from this representation of the intellectual opulence 
and gigantic proportions of the libraries of Europe be discouraged 
in regard to our own country. Our republic is young in the his- 
tory of nations. But an age has elapsed since she ranged herself 
amon^ the independent sovereign powers of the world. There are 
those yet living in our midst who listened to her earliest voice in 
the cause of freedom, and witnessed the glorious standard of the 
Republic when it was first unfurled to the breeze, amid the prayers 
and acclamations of a brave and free people who gave it 

"to the God of storms 
The lightning and the gale." 

Time has not yet matured our destiny. Labor and wealth and 
mind have not yet completely modelled and consolidated our pow- 
er. Vast intellectual opulence springing from a superabundance 
of individual wealth has not yet hewed out the future colossal ar- 
chitecture of our literary and scientific institutions, nor has genius 
and taste had leisure to bathe themselves in the crystal depths, or 
array themselves in the peerless glories of a national literature, 
constructed from the treasures of enlightened mind, acting under 
the influences of republican government, and crowned with the im- 
perial diadem of civil and religious liberty. Our growing energies 
have yet to reach their full maturity and greatness and complete 
development. We are marching onward in our course with a rap- 
idity unprecedented in arts, science, religion, civilization, and in 
all which elevates, humanizes and refines. Manufactures are spring- 
ing up around us, and their machinery is working and toiling for 
us by night and by day: agriculture is opening her boundless wealth 
and accumulating her varied productions to feed, to clothe and to 
enrich : commerce is busy in every city and town, and whitening 
with its canvass every lake and ocean, spreading abroad the com- 
forts and conveniences and luxuries of life: the mechanic arts are 
in a highly advanced state of perfection, and beyond all and above 

Self Intellectual Culture. 67 

all, there is an amount of solid intelligence and of full vigorous 
thought and of practical sterling judgment and of indomitable en- 
ergy and enterprize among our people connected with all these, 
unequalled in any other country. A mighty empire is indeed es- 
tablished which it is our duty to consolidate, to adorn and to trans- 
mit unimpaired through future generations. 

Libraries, among us, are increasing in number and value with a 
great an 1 praiseworthy rapidity ; and if they are not equally im- 
posing and princely in their character and magnificence with those 
of transatlantic birth, yet they possess an immeasurably transcen- 
dant practical and political value ; and are disseminating among 
us in every vale and town and city the choicest gems and most 
exalting and cherished influences of literature and philosophy and 
intellectual refinement and civil and political wisdom. 

In the State of Yew York, there are in her common school li- 
braries about 1,500.000 volumes — all valuable and interesting in 
their character— adapted to the wants and tastes of the rising 
generation, and admirably designed to develop and cultivate the 
moral and social affections, and impress the mind deeply with 
sentiments of exalted and devoted patriotism. 

This most liberal distribution of books among the New York 
district schools, is in a very great measure attributable to the com- 
mendable exertions and enlightened judgment of the Hon. John 
C. Spencer, while Superintendent of Public Instruction, to whom 
1 am happy to bear this humble tribute of respect and praise for 
his untiring labors and successful efforts in the cause of public ed- 

If other States will pursue the same liberal and enlightened pol- 
icy — if the citizens will move forward, willingly, earnestly, perse- 
veringly in their aid — we shall soon witness the successful estab- 
lishment of libraries throughout the length and breadth of our 
Union, far transcending those of Europe in solid practical useful- 
ness, and infinitely more consonant with the genius and spirit of 
our social, civil and religious institutions. They will be within 
the reach of all — instructing and enlightening all, and binding oar 
whole people more closely together in the bonds of a common sym- 
pathy and interest. A solemn duty rests upon each and every 
State to establish, on a broad and permanent basis, our educa- 
tional institutions, and to lend them a liberal and efficient encour^ 
agement. Government ought to stretch forth its strong arm in 
their support, and every friend of his country should generously 
and energetically co-operate in prosecuting this great enterprize. 

Not only each State ought to emulate the others in tnis noble 
work, but every portion of each State, every county and town and 
city and village should rouse their energies, exert all their influ- 
ence, and contribute to the extent of all their pecuniary ability, in 
advancing the cause of public education and morals. 

[To be continued.] 

68 Rp 




Translated from the French of Chateaubriand. 


In arriving among the Natchez, Rene was obliged to take a 
wife, according to the custom of the Indians, but he did not pre- 
tend at all to live with her. A certain predisposition to melan- 
choly led him continually to the depths of the forest, where he 
would pass entire days, seeming imbued with all the wildness of 
the savage natures by which he was surrounded. Except with 
Chactas, the father of his adoption, and father Souel, a missionary 
at Fort Rosalie, he appeared to have renounced all commerce with 
mankind. These two old men had acquired almost unbounded 
dominion over his heart; the first, by the most amiable indulgences, 
and the latter, on the contrary, by the extremest severity. From 
the time of the beaver-hunt, when the blind Sachem had related 
to Ren6 the history of his adventures, the latter had exhibited no 
disposition to recount his own. Nevertheless, both Chactas and the 
missionary, desired ardently to know by what misfortune, a well- 
born and well-educated European had been driven to the strange 
resolution of burying himself in the wilds of Louisiana. 

Rene always assigned as a reason for his silence the slender in- 
terest which attached to his history, confining itself, as he pro- 
tested, simply to an account of his thoughts and emotions. "As 
to the event," added he, "which drove me to America, duty re- 
quires that I consign its memory to eternal oblivion." 

Some years had thus rolled by, and the two old men were still 
unable to drag from Rene the story of his secret. In the mean 
time, a letter which he received from Europe, through the office of 
foreign missions, increased his sadness to such a degree, that he 
fled even the sight of his aged friends. They, on this account, 
were more than ever urgent with him, to open to them the secret 
of his heart; and they plied their task with such consummate ad- 
dress, such tact of gentleness and authority, that Rene was finally 
obliged to yield to their solicitations. He chose a day then, to 
recount to them, not the adventures of his life, for of these he had 
experienced none, but the hidden sentiments of his soul. 

On the 21st of that month which the savages call "the flower- 
moon," Rene presented himself at the wigwam of Chactas. He 

JRene. 69 

gave his arm to the old Sachem, and conducted him beneath the 
shade of a sassafras, on the borders of the Mississippi. Father 
Souel did not keep them waiting for his presence at the place of 
meeting. The first blush of morn had tinged the eastern sky: on 
the distant plain was visable the village of the Natchez, with its 
grove of mulberries and its tiny wigwams, resembling bee-hives, in 
the distance. The French colony and Fort Rosalie, appeared to 
the right, on the border of the river. The tents, the half-finished 
houses, the fortresses commenced, the newly cleared ground dot- 
ted over with negroes, and the groups of whites and Indians, af- 
forded, in that little space, a striking contrast between the social 
customs of civilized and savage man. 

Toward the East, terminating the perspective, the first rays of 
the advancing sun, could be seen between the unequal summits of 
the Apalaches, which were painted in colors of azure against the 
golden skies ; to the West, the Mississippi, magnificent border of 
the picture, rolled its flood in majestic silence. 

The young man and the missionary admired for some moments 
the enchanting prospect, and deplored the fate of the blind Sachem 
who could no longer behold and enjoy it ; then father Souel and 
Chactas, seating themselves on the turf, at the foot of the tree, 
Rene took his place between them, and after a moment of silence, 
thus addressed his aged friends: 

"I am not able, in the commencement of my story, to preserve 
myself from some slight emotion of shame. The peace of your 
hearts, venerable old men, and the calm presence of nature about 
me, call the blush to my cheek for the unquiet and the agitation 
of my soul. How can you pity me! How miserable must appear 
to you the inquietudes which leave me no repose ! You who have 
quaffed deeply of all the actual sorrows of life, what will you think 
of a young man, without firmness or virtue, who finds his sole 
torment in himself, and has little to bewail in his fortunes, except 
the ills himself, hath made? Alas! condemn him not; he is already 
too greatly punished!" 

"My birth occasioned the death of my mother. I was torn with 
iron implements from her womb ! I had one brother on whom my 
father doated because in him he beheld the eldest born. As for 
me, delivered over, from early infancy into the hands of strangers, 
I was reared far away from the sanctuary of the paternal roof. My 
mood was impetuous, and my character capricious. By turns, 

TO Rene, 

stormy and joyous, silent and sad, I would assemble about me my 
young companions, then quitting them suddenly, would hasten to 
seat myself in some sequestered spot, to contemplate the vagrant 
cloud or listen to the rain-drops as they beat upon forest leaves. 
Each autumn I returned to the parental castle, which was situated 
in a wood, near a lake, in a retired province. Timid and con- 
strained in presence of my father, I never felt myself easy and 
happy except when near my sister Amelie. A pleasant conformity 
of humor and of tastes had attracted me closely to that sister, who 
was a little older than myself. We delighted to climb the hills to- 
gether, to row upon the lake, and to course through the woods 
strewn with autumnal leaves. The recollection of these rambles 
to this moment thrills my soul with delight. Oh! illusions of in- 
fancy and of country! Will ye never loose ycur charm?" 

"Sometimes we walked in silence, with ears attentive to the 
mournful sighs of autumn, or to the sad rustle of dead leaves ben- 
eath our feet; then, in our joyous mirth, we pursued the swallow 
to the moor or chased the rainbow upon the misty hill-tops. Some- 
times also, we murmured those verses of poetry which the contem- 
plation of nature had inspired. Though young, I wooed the muses, 
for there is nothing of higher poetic sensibility, than a heart in 
the fresh bloom of its passions, and touched only by the wing of 
sixteen departed years. The morning of life, like the morning of 
day, is full of purity and images of harmony. On sabbath and 
fete days, I have often heard, in the grand forest, through the 
trees, the sounds of the distant bell which called to the temple of 
the Most-High, the rural peasantry. Leaning against the trunk 
of an elm, I have listened in contemplative silence to the murmurs 
of devotion. Each trembling sound of the brass reminded my un- 
corruptcd heart of the innocence of rural manners, the calm of sol- 
itude, the charm of religion and the pleasing melancholy of infant- 
ile recollections. Oh, what heart so dead as not to leap at the 
sound of natal bells! of those bells which peal joyously over the 
sense of earliest infancy, which announce one's advent into life, 
and mark the first beating of one's heart, which publish to all the 
world a father's joy; a mother's woe and her still more unbounded 
transport! We experienced all these emotions in those enchanting 
reveries united by the sound of the natal bell: reveries of religion, 
family, country, the cradle and the tomb — the past and the future! 
It is true that both Amelie and myself enjoyed ourselves unusual- 

Rene. 71 

ly, in cherishing grave and tender thoughts, for each of us had a 
heart profoundly touched with melancholy, a trait bestowed upon 
us by nature or derived from our mother. In the meantime, my 
father was attacked by a disease, which speedily consigned him to 
the grave. He expired in my arms, and I first learned of death, 
from the lips of him who gave me life. That impression was pro- 
found and still endures. It was the first time that the immortal- 
ity of the soul was presented clearly to my comprehension. I 
could not believe that the inanimate dust before me was the author 
in me, of thought, of reason; I felt that this should come fr:m an- 
other source, and in a sacred sorrow bordering upon joy, I hoped 
at some future, to join the spirit of my father. Another phenom- 
enon confirmed me in this elevated conception. The lineaments 
of my father's face had assumed in his cerements, an aspect, ap- 
proaching to sublimity. Why should not that astonishing mystery 
seal the truth of our immortality? Why should not death, which 
unlocks all mysteries, stamp the secrets of another world upon che 
brow of its victim? Why should there not be, in the tomb, a sub- 
lime vision of eternal truths?" 

"Amelie, overwhelmed with sorrow, had retired to the recesses 
of a tower, whence she could hear the echoes of the funeral dirge 
and the tolling bell, resounding through the arches of the Gothic 
castle. I accompanied my father's body to its last resting-place; 
— the earth closed upon his remains; — eternity and oblivion rested 
upon him. The same evening, the unconscious wayfarer wander- 
ed indifferently by his tomb, and except for the tender sorrow of 
his bereaved daughter and son, the world would not have known 
that he ever had existed. It now became necessary that I should 
take my departure from the paternal roof, which had become the 
heritage of my brother. I retired, with Amelie, to the homes of 
some aged relatives." 

"Checked at the very threshhold of life's deceptive paths, I med- 
itated upon each, without daring to enter upon either. Amelie 
often discoursed to me upon the happiness of a religious life, and 
regarding me with touching sadness, would protest that I was the 
only tie that bound her to the world. My heart being affected by 
these pious conversations, I oftentimes directed my steps towards 
a monastery, near to my new place of abode. At one time, in- 
deed, I was tempted to bury my life in this holy retreat. Happy 
those who end the voyage without quitting the post, and who have 

72 /2e?ie. 

not struggled through days of useless toil, as I hare done! Euro- 
pean society, in eternal commotion, has been obliged to subdue 
the wilderness for homes. In proportion as our passions are tu- 
multuous and stormy, is the ratio of our enjoyment of quietude 
and silence. The monasteries in my native country, ever open to 
the unhappy and the defenceless, are often concealed in valleys, 
which convey to the heart a vague notion of misfortune hoping for 
sheltered security. Sometimes also, these asylums are seen in the 
most conspicuous situations, where the religious soul, as a mount- 
ain flower, can raise towards heaven, the perfumed incense of it3 
devotions. I can still vividly recall the mingled majesty of forest 
and of flood which surrounded that venerable abby, where I thought 
to seclude my life from the waywardness of fortune; and I wander 
yet, in fancy, through its solitary and resounding cloisters. When 
the moon illuminated one side of the arch-crowned pillars, and cast 
their shadows upon the opposing wail, I have paused to contem- 
plate the cross which marked the city of the Dead, and the creep- 
ing vines which twined among the tomb-stones. Oh! mortals, who 
have lived far from the stormy tumults of the world, and have passed 
from the silence of such a life to the silence of death, with what disgust 
am I filled, by the sight of your tombs, for all the pomps and van- 
ities of earth !" 

"Either a natural inconstancy of disposition, or a prejudice 
against monastic life, induced me to change my purpose, and re- 
solve to travel. I bid adieu to my sister, who clasped me in her 
arms, in a sort of joyous transport, as if she was happy at the sep- 
aration. I could not prevent some bitter thoughts upon the in- 
congruities of human friendship." 

"In the meantime, full of enthusiasm, I launched my barque 
upon the stormy ocean of life, knowing neither its havens of safe- 
ty, or its hidden rocks of destruction. I first visited the abodes of 
nations that have vanished from the earth. I went abroad, and 
seating myself amid the ruins of Rome and of Greece, countries 
of great and glorious memory, where palaces are buried in dust, 
and the tombs of kings are overrun with brambles, exhibiting the 
resistless might of time, and the puny weakness of man. Often- 
times the tiny blade of grass would make its way through these 
marble mausoleums, now strewn in ruins, and which all the mighty 
dead, puissant as they were in life, could never rear again." 

"Sometimes a solitary column would show its majestic form in 

Rene. 73 

the desert, like a great thought which lifts itself occasionally from 
the arid surface of a soul which time and sorrow have strewn with 
desolation. I meditated over these monuments through all the 
accidents and all the hours of the day. Sometimes, the same sun 
which had seen laid the foundations of these glorious cities, went 
down, in majestic splendor before me, upon their ruins. Some- 
times, the moon, lifting her orb through the pure heavens, and 
pouring her mild radiance over broken urns and scattered dust, 
revealed to me the pale tenements of the dead. Oftentimes, un- 
der the ray of that trembling star which wooes the soul to revery, 
I have fancied the genius of memory seated all pensive at my side." 

"But I forbid myself to dig into the coffined secrets of the de- 
parted, where I disturbed but too often the repose of guilty dust. 
I wished to see if the races of living men would present to my con- 
templation more of virtue or less of sorrow, than departed nations. 
As I walked one day, in a great city, in passing behind a gorgeous 
palace, in a retired and deserted court, I perceived a statue which 
pointed with its marble finger to a spot made famous by a sacri- 
fice. I was struck with the solemn stillness of the place. The wind 
alone, sighed mournfully around the tragic marble. A few labor- 
ers were seated, with an air of indifference, about the foot of the 
statue, and idly whistled as they plied their stone dressing craft. 
I asked of them what meant that monument. But few of them 
could, with difficulty, tell me its import, and the others were totally 
ignorant of the catastrophe which it commemorated. Nothing 
could have given me a more just estimate of the events of life and 
the littleness of man! Where now are those who filled the world 
with the noise of their amazing pomp? Time makes a step, and 
the entire earth is changed." 

"I sought, above all things, in my travels, artists and those 
divine men of song, who celebrate the gods, with the music of the 
lyre, and sing the happiness of nations which honor low, religion, 
and the tomb. These children of song are of heavenly origin, and 
possess the only celestial talent known upon earth. Their life is 
at once simple and sublime; they celebrate the gods in golden num- 
bers, and are at the same time the most artless of men , they are 
either superhuman or as little children ; they expound the laws of 
the universe, and are unable to comprehend the most trivial affairs 
of ordinary life; they have sublime ideas of death, yet pass as un- 
consciously from life, as new-born babes." 

74 Literary JVotice. 

"Upon the mountains of Caledonia, the last bard, whose voice 
of song had disturbed the silence of those desert places, recited to 
me the poetic numbers in which a hero of old, consoled his declin- 
ing age. We were seated upon the moss-eaten rocks; a torrent 
rolled its waters at our feet, a roe-buck sped past at a distance, 
and was lost amid the ruins of a fallen tower, and the sea-breeze 
swept mournfully over the heath of Cona. Now, Christianity, 
daughter also of the mountains, has planted the cross upon the 
monuments of the heroes of Morven, and has swept the harp of 
David, by the borders of the same stream which heard the wail of 
Ossian's minstrelsy. As peaceful, as the divinities of Selma were 
warlike, she tends innocent flocks on the battle-fields of Fingal, 
and into the darkness where murderous phantoms dwelt, she has 
sent her angels of light and her ministers of peace." 

[To be continued.] 

The United States Illustrated; in Views of City and Coun- 
try. With Descriptive and Historical Articles. Edited 
by Charles A. Dana. Nlw York: Hermann Meyer. 

Six numbers of this interesting work, each containing four en- 
gravings, have been issued. The subjects illustrated, have been 
selected under the guidance of a discriminating judgement, and 
engraved in a style highly creditable to the artist. But the work 
commends itself to the patronage of the west upon other grounds: 
the interesting views which it contains of western scenery are cal- 
culated to invite those who travel for either pleasure or profit to 
visit the Mississippi and Missouri, instead of limiting their excur- 
sions, as heretofore, exclusively to the Eastern States. 

Among the engravings published, we notice Itasca Lake, Falls 
of St. Anthony, Little Falls of St. Anthony, Brown's Falls, Fort 
Snelling, Mouth of the St. Croix River, Cliffs below St. Paul, and 
Nauvoo. For sale by C Witter, No. 38 Walnut street, St. Louis. 
Price, single number, 50 cents; single volume $5. 

VENICE; THE CITX OFTHE M A. i;\ 1 dmund Flagg, late Consul of 
the United States ;>t the poi I of \< nice — Author of "The Far Wet,*' The How- 
ard Queen," &c. &c. This work, in 2 vols., has been reci i\ed this month, and 
is for sale by A< am . 112 Fourth street. Price $2.25- Various reasons combine 
to render ii < ne ol peculiar interest. We intend to state th< m at length and pub- 
lish a tevii v. nf its me) its sooi ; and hope that Ibi^ production ol w estei n intellect 
may be univ< read and liberally reviewed by the literati of the Wes>t — that 

they may stud] to promote a systiin ol mental economy, lo save an immense 
waste of talent, si mulate many a perm of Renins, ;'!k! develop the intellectual 
resources of the material-minded pioj.le oi the Mississippi Valley. 

Fragment nf Faust. 75 

Fragment of Faust.* 


Bells ring and Choir singk 


Christ is arisen ! 
. . Joy to all mortal men, 

Whom, a corrupting sin, 
Creeping and born within, 
Follies imprison. 


What deep, pure humming, what a clear bright tone, 

Draws from my mouth this glass with earnest pow'r? 

Announce ye now ye hollow bells alone 

The Easter-festival's first hallowed hour? 

Ye chorus sing ye now that song consoling sung 

At first around the tomb from the bright Angels' tongue? 

New covenant to men who low'r! 


With spice and incense, 

We embalmed him with care, 

We, faithful, intense, 

With sad hearts, laid him there; 

Clothing and binding 

We cleanly wrapped 'round, 

Ah! though these finding 

Christ is not found. 


Christ rose to ensure 
The loving salvation, 
Who, through tribulation 
And wholesome probation, 
All trials endure. 


What seek ye earnestly and kind, 
Ye heavenly tones in dust here earthly? 
Ring ye around where yielding men ye find. 
The message I hear well, faith only is unbirthly; 

* Faust, having devoted himself to the learning- of the world and mastered it, 
feels disgust at its emptiness, and, in despair of any satisfaction on earth, determ- 
ines^ commit suicide. On the eve of the day which commemorates the Resur- 
rection of Christ he puts the chalice to his lips. — Junior Editor. 

76 Fragment of Faust. 

In wonder is faith lovingly enshrin'd, 

To yonder sphere, striving I dare not venture 

Near by the Gospel's glorious throne; 

Yet was I used in youth to love to hear this tone ; 

It calls me back to life with gentle censure. 

The kiss of heavenly-love, with tender rush, 

Thrilled me when young on solemn Sabbath mornings, 

And then the bell-tones rang full of mysterious warnings, 

And prayer was then a burning joyous gush; 

A mild, unspeakably mild longing 

Made me through woods and meadows far off go. 

Under hot tears and feelings thronging, 

I felt a world within me grow. 

This song announces sports of youth, their lively pealing, 

Spring festivals all free and gay; 

Kind recollection holds me now with child-like feeling 

From the last earnest step away. 

Oh! sound forth now your sweet, your heavenly strain, 

The tear is gushing, earth has me again! 


Now has the buried one, 
Himself, near on high, 
Living, sublime, alone, 
Raised up in the sky. 
He, in a loving life, 
Is near creating joy. 
Us, on the earth in strife, 
Grief and pain still annoy. 
Left he to languish, 
His loved ones, has he not ! 
Ah! and with anguish, 
Over his lot. 


Christ is arisen ! 

From corruption's womb, he, 

Bursting the prison, 

Has set you free. 

Ye who praise him in deed, 

Having love for your creed, 

And the poor ye who feed, 

Telling all to take heed 

Of his glorious meed, — 

There is the Master true, 

Always with you ! 



TfiS) ' ' o ' 

fxno WjtxftUkiu 

VOL. XI. November, 1853. No. II. 

i ■ ■ — 

Article I. 

The Influence of War and Public Improvements 

upon Prices. 

The stringency experienced in the money market for some time 
past, and the prospect of a war between Russia and Turkey having 
changed the commercial aspects of this and other countries, we 
have concluded to place before the public the result of our reflec- 
tions touching the consequences of these events. 

If we recur to the industrial history of the United States, we 
shall find no period in which the people have been more generally 
employed or better rewarded for their labor, than during the last 
three years; nor has there been a time, we believe, w T hen labor was 
more wisely directed. Why, then, should a difficulty arise in the 
money market, especially when we are receiving gold from Cali- 
fornia at the rate of about $5,000,000 per month? We answer, 
because the demand for money arising from the excessive import- 
ation and consumption of foreign commodities, the expansion in 
the price of all kinds of property, the accumulation of the precious 
metals in the public treasury, and the numerous railroad schemes 
recently projected, exceed the supply. Credit accumulating, be- 
came too abundant, and being subject to the laws which govern 
the price of other commodities, dealers became cautious and would 
purchase only the best qualities. The lower grades depreci- 
ated and ceased to be marketable, confidence, one of the principal 
agents of commerce, was weakened, and the necessity of supply- 
ing its place with money at a short notice, required unusual exer- 
tions, well calculated to create a panic. 

It is fortunate for the country, however, that this state of 
things occurred at so early a period, for, even if money could 


78 The Influence of War and 

have been obtained for the purpose, the building of all the rail- 
roads which have been projected in the United States, at the same 
time, would have enhanced the price of labor and materials to an 
extent that would make the stock of little value when the works 
were completed. 

The check which has been given to the sale of railroad securit- 
ies will lead to more rational views touching the economy which 
should be observed in carrying out a great system of public im- 
provement. It shows the necessity of estimating time as one of 
the elements of wealth, and teaches the policy of relying more 
upon local and less upon foreign resources. It furnishes an argu- 
ment in favor of producing iron for the construction of railroads 
from the ores of the region in which the works are located; and if 
the people of the West should possess sufficient sagacity to per- 
ceive and appreciate these arguments, and sufficient courage and 
firmness of purpose to adopt the policy suggested, they will find 
abundant reason in the end to rejoice that they were disappointed 
in carrying out their plans according to their original designs. For 
if they build their railroads by the use of their own money and 
iron, it will be the means of opening their mines, of establishing 
manufactures, and of enlarging the home market for the products 
of agriculture. And, besides all this, when completed, the profits 
of the roads will be retained at home, and become a permanent 
source of wealth, instead of operating as a drain upon the circul- 
ation of the country, which must be the case if they are con- 
structed by the use of foreign capital. 

It would be disingenious, to attempt a concealment of the fact 
that many of the more recent railroad projects, which are based 
mainly upon calculations of obtaining money from the Eastern 
cities and from Europe, will be compelled to suspend operations 
for a season. But we do not admit that all unfinished works will 
be compelled to stop. Money, though checked in its circulation, 
was never more abundant in quantity ; and the better class of se- 
curities will continue in sufficient demand to enable the stronger 
companies to prosecute their works to completion. When these 
shall have been completed, the suspended projects, if required to 
promote the public welfare, will revive, and take their turn in the 
market; and thus our great systems of railways will be carried out 
upon principles more compatible with the wants and resources of 

Public Improvements upon Prices. 79 

the country than if all were to progress at the same time. Let us 
examine the grounds upon which these opinions are based. 

We have no means of knowing the amount of railroad securities 
which have been offered in market, but we know that the supply 
greatly exceeds the demand. The large dealers in bonds and 
stocks do not purchase them, to keep, but, like dealers in other 
commodities, buy to sell again; or, purchase on commission to fill 
orders, Their principal customers, who may be regarded in the 
light of consumers, consist of individuals not engaged in active 
business, and, consequently, invest their money in this kind of 
property with a view to a certain and permanent income for their 
support. With this class of customers undoubted solvency and 
certainty of payment are regarded as essential qualities, and it 
would be unreasonable to imagine that they would risk their means 
in the stocks or bonds of railroads not yet completed, They look 
out for securities whose character has been established by time, 
leaving the new bonds in the hands of the dealers until their sound- 
ness and paying qualities are firmly established. While undergo- 
ing this ripening process in the hands of the dealers, the money 
invested in them is drawn from the ordinary channels of commerce, 
and transferred to the interior to pay for labor and materials. 
Hence the want of money is felt at the great commercial centers, 
interest advances, and, as a natural consequence, the demand for 
stocks declines. All this takes place under the influence of cer- 
tain laws of commerce, which, in the end, overrule every contriv- 
ance that can be devised to resist their operations. 

But notwithstanding the redundancy of securities in market, 
and the impossibility of raising money upon them all at the pres-r 
ent time, yet, the solid and efficient elements required to prosecute 
and accomplish great works of public improvement were never 
more abundant; nor has there been a period when it was so com- 
pletely in the power of the people of this country to control and 
direct these elements to the development of our own great re- 
sources. We produce more gold than any other nation; and pos^ 
sess a larger quantity of iron ; and it is owing chiefly to our ne- 
glect of the latter and the extravagant consumption of foreign dry 
goods, that the precious metals are required for exportation. Were 
our foreign trade so adjusted as to leave us in possession of the 
gold produced in California, it would be in our power to proceed 
with all our railroad projects, which possess sufficient merit to 

80 The Influence of fPar and 

authorize their construction, without looking to Europe for the 
means of carrying them on. California supplying the money, and 
foreign immigration the labor, our great systems of public im- 
provement would be accomplished without disturbing the ordinary 
and legitimate operations of commerce or of agriculture. 

Should the war between Russia and Turkey be vigorously pro- 
secuted, and continue for one or more years, it will tend to favor 
rather than prevent the prosecution of our public works. Large 
armies are great consumers of bread and provisions, and it is fair 
to conclude that the demand for these commodities will be consid" 
erably increased by reason of a war in the East; and, that the vo- 
lume and money value of our exports will be enlarged, at least to 
an extent that will balance our imports without the exportation of 
the precious metals. 

We are aware that the opinion prevails, that an advance in the 
price of bread and provisions is calculated to depress the price of 
cotton; and that, consequently, the aggregate money value of our 
exports will not be materially enlarged by an extraordinary de- 
mand and high prices for these commodities in Europe. The 
grounds for this opinion are plausible, but the conclusion is not 
sustained in all its aspects by history; for the facts show that high 
prices of bread have not, at least, immediately, depressed the price 
of cotton in the two instances when our exports of breadstuff's to 
Europe were the greatest. In the year 1815, the price of cotton 
be^an to rise, and continued to advance until 1818, when it was 
sold in the southern markets at over thirty cents per pound. The 
average price of flour exported at Philadelphia, in the year 1815, 
was §8.71 per barrel ; in 1816 it was $9,78 per barrel ; in 1817 
it was $11.69 per barrel, and in 1818, $9.90 per barrel.* In 
1817, the export value of flour amounted to $17,291,824, the 
largest amount in value that was ever exported from the United 
States in any one year until the famine of 1840-17. In 1819, 
the price of cotton diclined to less than half the price of the pre- 
ceding year, and flour declined also : the average price in Phila- 
delphia during 1819 being only $7. IP In 1820 the price of flour 
fell to $4.72, and ranged from $4.65 to $6.82 until 1836, when 
it advanced to .$7.99; and to $9.37 in 1837. But the rise in price 
in this instance was occasioned by a scarcity at home, and not by 

' Vide Hunts's Merchants' Magazine, vol. XII, page 313. 

Public Improvements upon Prices. 


the foreign demand — the quantity exported in 1837, being only 
818,719 barrels. Nor did the high prices of bread in Europe, in 
1846 and 1817, prevent the price of cotton from advancing. By 
reference to a tabular statement of the prices of cotton at New- 
Orleans, for each month from September 1846 to November 1847 
inclusive — covering the period when breadstuff's were in greatest 
demand in Europe— it appears that they were higher during that 
period than at any time within several years previous ; and, that 
they declined soon after the intense demand for bread ceased. 
From September, 1845, to August, 1846, inclusive, the price of 
middling to fair cotton ranged from 6| to 8 J cents per pound, and 
from December, 1847, to August, 1848, inclusive, the same qual- 
ities ranged from 5 to 8 cents per pound. f 

The following table exhibits the prices of middling and fair cot- 
ton at New Orleans, from September, 1846, to November, 1847, 



U@ 9 

May, 1847, 




8f 10 

June " 

n iii 



9 10i 

July, « 

9£ 10f 



9 10$ 

August " 

10i 12 



10 Hi 


lOf 12 



111 13 

October, " 

10 11 



9.V 11 


7J 8| 



io| lit 

The export value of cotton for the year ending 30th June, 
1847, was $53,415,845, and exceeded the amount of either of 
the two preceding years ; the exports of breadstuff's during that 
year was valued at $53,262,437. 

Thus, it will be seen that at the two periods during the present 
century when bread has been in greatest request abroad, the price 
of cotton has advanced and declined with the demand for that ar- 
ticle. We are not to conclude from these facts, however, that the 
advance in the price of cotton at the periods mentioned was caused 
by the scarcity and high price of bread in Europe : nor that high 
prices for bread and provisions would not, in time, be the cause of 
depressing the price of cotton. But in the case of a war confined 
to Eastern Europe, we think it a rational conclusion that an active 
foreign demand for bread and provisions may continue at high 

t Vide Western Journal, vol. I, page 030. 

82 The Influence qf War and 

prices for a series of years without materially depressing the money 
value of cotton. 

War is a great consumer : and in cases where the avenues of 
commerce are left open between the belligerents and neutral pow- 
ers, it imparts great activity to trade by creating a demand for 
commodities not needed by the belligerents in time of peace One 
of its consequences, when waged between powerful nations, is high 
prices at home and abroad; and cotton being one of the commod- 
ities necessary to human comfort, it is fair to assume that it will, 
in common with other commodities, advance in price : though not 
as suddenly, or in as great a degree perhaps, as bread and provi- 

Recurring to the commercial aspects of the times, we perceivo 
no cause to apprehend any serious inconvenience to the commun- 
ity in general, arising from the transactions of the past, provided 
a reasonable degree of circumspection and prudence should be ob- 
served in future. Individuals are embarrassed by an improvident 
use of credit, and by habits of extravagance. Railroad corpora- 
tions are disappointed in negotiating securities, and some may 
sustain great losses from being compelled to suspend operations ; 
but these misfortunes will scarcely be felt or perceived by the great 
body of the people as a community. If the reports of the banking 
institutions of the country are entitled to credit, the banks and the 
currency, with occasional exceptions, are in a sound condition ; 
and although the importations of foreign merchandise has been 
large beyond all precedent, we have no cause to infer that the 
balances have not been discharged with the promptness which dis- 
tinguish mercantile transactions in the most prosperous times. The 
crop of cereals and provisions is abundant, and prices highly re- 
munerating. The crop of cotton will probably be an average one 
and prices at least fair ; the production of gold in California is 
Still large, and probably on the increase; and the government, by 
the purchase of its own obligations, is endeavoring to release from 
confinement in the public treasury a part of the $25,000,000 which 
is now prevented from performing its office in the commerce of the 
country. In view of these vast resources in connection with what 
we conceive to be the true condition of the country as one entire 
community, we are compelled to conclude that the stringency of 
the money market will be of short duration. Indeed, we think it 

Public Improvements upon Prices. 83 

probable that the balance of specie between this country and Eu- 
rope will be in our favor during the first half of the ensuing year. 
Should that be the case, it will be our best policy to appropriate 
as much of the accumulating gold as practicable to the construc- 
tion of railroads, if for no other purpose, to prevent speculations 
in less meritorious objects. Speculations in unproductive prop- 
erty, and inflated prices occasioned by an extravagant use of cred- 
it, are the principal dangers to be apprehended during this and 
the ensuing year. 

It may be regarded as impossible in the present state of human 
intelligence, to regulate commerce, and credit, (which is one 
of its principal elements,) so as to make the price of all commod- 
ities bear a just proportion to the cost of producing them, and, to 
their utility in the hands of the consumers. And, hence, alternate 
succession of high and low prices, though not a fundamental law 
of commerce, is a law proceding from the condition of individuals 
and society, as they are found to exist, and cannot, therefore, be 
entirely prevented. But notwithstanding fluctuations in prices 
must continue to occur, it is possible, by prudence and fore- 
cast, to modify them so as to avoid many of the evils incident to 
great revulsions. Whether the people of the United States pos- 
sess wisdom and moral courage in a degree sufficient to direct the 
active development of our varied and vast resources without pro- 
ducing a general revulsion in prices and trade, is a problem which 
we shall not attempt to solve; but we entertain the opinion that no 
such revulsion can be reasonably expected for several years to 
come, unless occasioned by the occurrence of some extraordinary 
event not usually provided against in the calculations of men 
touching their ordinary affairs. 

84 Jluhry^s Journey 

Article II. 
Aubry's Journey from California to Few Mexico.* 


Tejon Pass, July 10th, 1853. — As the country between this 
point and San Francisco is well known, I have kept no minutes of 
my journey thus far. We crossed the Sierra Nevada at the Tejon 
Pass, which is in about the 35th parallel of latitude, and about 50 
miles south of Walker's pass. From this point we travel east until 
we reach the Rio Grande at Albuquerque, New Mexico. It is well 
to remark that, unfortunately, there is no one with us who knows 
anything of the country through which we must pass, and we 
could not obtain any information in regard to it. My party con- 
sists of eighteen men — twelve Americans and six Mexicans. Messrs. 
Tully, of Santa Fe, and Adair, of Independence, have joined us 
for a pleasure trip. We use pack animals entirely, having neither 

wagon nor carriage. 

July l\th. — Left the Pass, and made twelve miles east over a 
level, gravelly and sandy soil, and found a spring of good water. 

July 12th. — Traveled twenty miles eastward, the country sim- 
ilar to that of yesterday. We met with no timber, but found sev- 
eral springs of fresh water. There is timber in the mountains 
about the Tejon pass, but none on the eastern side of them. 

July 14th. — Travelled to-day 35 miles east, and struck the Mo- 
have river, where we found plenty of good water. This river some- 
times disappears in its course, whilst at others it contains as much 
as two feet of water. There is a little cotton-wood timber upon 
its banks, and canebrakes in great abundance. The cane is not 
of the large species. 

The Mohave takes its rise in the San Bernardino mountains, 
which lie to the south of us, and after pursuing a northern course 
to a point a little north of our present camp, turns suddenly east, 
and soon south of east to empty into the great Colorado. Found 
good grass for our animals. 

July 11th. — Made 20 miles east along the Mohave, and found 
water, timber and grass abundant. 

July lbth. — Continued along the river about 18 miles further, 
in a direction nearly east , then leaving the Mohave to our right, 
we traveled 15 miles north-east. 

Met with an abundance of grass, a little timber, and a few miles 
of fertile land along the river. There is no water in the bed of 

* The following account of a trip made by F. X. Aubry from California to 
New Mexico, through an unexplored region, is full of interest, especially at the- 
present time; and is highly worthy of being preserved in American history on 
account of the heroism displayed by the author and his comrades. — Editor. 

from California to JVeio Mexico. 85 

■i ■ ^m — ■■ i ■■-.,., - ..... — — ■ . — ■ -—. —— , ■■--., — . ■ ■ ■■ ■ ,. ■ ■■ ■ m 

the stream; but it may be had by digging a few feet. Found wild 
game from time to time. Encamped without water, grass or wood. 

July 1G/A. — Still pursuing a north-eastern course — we traveled 
to-day 85 miles over a level, gravelly soil. We have deviated from 
our due east course in order to avoid a region of sand hills that lie 
to our right, and directly between us and the Great Colorado. The 
weather is very hot, and no rain has fallen since we left the Pass. 
So far we have met with neither Indians nor game of any kind. 
We obtained a little water about half-way in our day's journey ; 
but saw no timber or grass. 

July 11th. — Made 33 miles north-east, over a level, gravelly 
country; about half way obtained a little very bad water. No grass 
or timber in sight during the day ; but at night we obtained good 
water, grass and wild game. Prairie mountains lie on both sides 
of the trail. 

July 18th. — Traveled 20 miles, still north-east, over a level 
country. Saw but little good land, and no timber. After travel- 
ing about 5 miles, we found good spring water, but encamped 
without any. 

July 19th. — Course still north-east, distance 32 miles, country 
level, soil inferior, grass and water, but no timber. 

July 20th. — Made 20 miles north east over a level, gravelly 
country, and obtained good spring water and grass. Saw no 

July 21st — Were detained in camp all day by the sickness of 
one of the men. 

July 22d. — Traveled 20 miles east-south-east, most of the dis- 
tance through a little canon, where we found good grass, water 
and game in abundance, and struck the great Colorado ot the West. 
The river at this place is over 300 yards in width, and has from 
10 to 15 feet water in the channel. Its banks are entirely desti- 
tute of timber and grass; in fact, no vegetation is met with except 
a small shrub, called chamezo by the Mexicans, and I believe ar- 
temesia by botanists. We were very fortunate in striking the river 
at this point, where there are neither canons nor mountains, al- 
though the country appears very rough and mountainous both to 
the north and south of us. To the north, the rocks are black and 
irregular, and seem to be volcanic: whilst the cliffs to the south are 
of red sandstone. The banks at the crossing are low, rocky and 
unchanging, and the current exceedingly rapid. 

We followed the river up for 5 miles, and selected a crossing 
where it was some 200 yards wide and 20 or 25 feet deep. We 
succeeded in finding a little drift wood, of which we made a raft. 
Four men took charge of it, and it was carried some 3 miles with 
the current before it could be landed. The hights were covered 
with Indians, in readiness to shoot us down. I started down with 
four men to follow the raft and protect the men who were upon it, 
having ordered the camp to move down in haste. Having unloaded 

86 Jiubry's Journey 

the raft upon the eastern bank, the men recrossed the river, and 
we selected a camp opposite the place where the baggage was de- 
posited, and during the night kept up a constant fire with our rifles 
across the river, and in this manner protected it from the Indians. 

The animals were taken to the crossing I had first selected, to 
swim the river. I took them up with three men on the west bank, 
and four men received them on the opposite side. This detained 
us half a day, and altogether we were detained five days in cros- 
sing the river. 

The driftwood of which we constructed our little raft, appeared 
to have been cut by beavers. These animals must be exceedingly 
abundant, as they destroyed during the first night the ropes with 
which our raft was bound together, and carried off the timber. The 
loss of the ropes was a great inconvenience to us. We set a guard 
afterwards at night over our second raft, to protect it from a sim- 
ilar fate. 

The river showed signs of having been some fifteen feet higher 
than when we crossed it. It is here a grand and magnificent 
stream, swift like the Mississippi, and apparently as well adapted 
to navigation. 

The place of our crossing is well suited to bridging, or ferriage 
by steam or otherwise. 

We saw no water-fowl about the river, and only a few antelope 
and black- tailed deer. East of the river we encountered a great 
many rattlesnakes of an uncommonly large size. They seem to 
be a new species, as their tails are covered, for some six inches 
from the point, with alternate white and black rings of hair or 
bristles, about a quarter of an inch long. 

According to my observations the Colorado of the west is set 
down upon the maps greatly too far to the east, perhaps as much 
as 150 miles. 

The Indians were constantly in sight, and watching our move- 
ments. They could not be induced to approach us ; but assured 
us, across the river, that they were Mohaves. 

On one occasion, whilst at rest for a few minutes in a deep gul- 
ley, about a mile from the crossing on the west side of the river, 
a Mexican mule-boy discovered something glistening upon the 
ground, which on examination proved to be gold. We at once 
commenced washing sand in our tin cups, and in everyone discov- 
ered particles of gold. This gold was discovered in a dark, coarse 
sand, and a black heavy sand was found in the cup after washing 
away the gravel. The sandy soil was so compact that we could 
not dig it up with our fingers. The Indians being still on the bights 
near us, and our party being separated by the river, the danger 
was so great that wo could not remain longer at this spot. I in- 
tended to return again, but the Indians became so numerous that 
it was impossible to do so. This gulley is on the right bank of 

from California io JVew Mexico. 87 

M m— <w -■■■ ■ ■ ■■ - ■— — .. , ■■ — .1- i ... ii. ■■ - . . i ■ ■ ■ - i i ■ — i .__ 

the river, and the head of it is in a very rough and rugged mount- 

July 27 lh. — We washed sand on the east side of the river, and 
found gold in greater abundance than on any previous occasion. 
A Mexican boy, on washing a frying -panfull of coarse sand, found 
from forty to fifty particles of pure gold, some of which were as 
large as the head of a pin. We took the clay and sand from the 
top of the ground without digging. The appearance of the coun- 
try also indicated gold. I made no further examination, as our 
animals had subsisted for five days upon the chamezo, without a 
blade of grass, and our provisions had been damaged in the Col- 
orado, which must cause us to travel several days without anything 
to eat. 

To-day we made 10 miles east. The country is without wood, 
Water or grass. 

July 28/A. — Two of our men being sick, we were compelled to 
return to the river on their account. 

Struck it some 15 miles below the crossing, and founts that from 
near that point it makes a considerable bend towards the east. 
The country here does not indicate gold, nor could we find any on 
washing the sands. 

July 29/A. — The condition of our sick men obliged us to remain 
in camp all day. Our animals were in a starving condition, as 
there is not a particle of grass on or near the river. 

July 30M. — Left the river and traveled 15 miles east, and 5 
north-east. A sick Mexican was so much exhausted that we were 
compelled to make for a mountain north of us, which indicated 
water; but we found neither water, timber nor grass. 

July olst. — Traveled 8 miles, noith-east, and struck a large 
stream, but much smaller than the Colorado, coming from the 
east-south-east, and running west-north-west. This stream may 
be what the Mexicans designate as the Bio Grande de los Apach- 
es, and what the Americans have recently called the Little Red 

One of our Mexicans followed this stream a few miles, and says 
it empties into the Colorado, 7 or 8 miles below camp, and that 
there is below us a valley of good soil, and grass in abundance. 
Where we struck this stream there is neither timber nor grass. 

In the evening, we traveled 5 miles south, to avoid mountains, 
and as many east. 

The country was level, but without grass or timber. 

The mountains, orperhaps more properly hills that we have thus 
far met with, are nothing more than elevations of various forms 
and dimensions, dispersed in a detached and irregular manner over 
a vast and otherwise uninterrupted plateau. Hence, I have con- 
stantly termed the country level, and very properly, as it may be 
traversed in all directions among the solitary and detached eleva- 
tions or mountains, without the necessity of crossing them. 

88 Aubry's Journey 

August 1st. — Traveled 20 miles east, and found a spring of 
good water; the grass was abundant, and cedar trees were seen on 
the highlands. The country is level, and the soil inferior. 

August 2d. — Made 10 miles east, crossing a mountain or ridge, 
where we found a fine pass, grass and timber (cedar and pinon,) 

August 3d. — Traveled 20 miles south of east, over a country 
somewhat broken: timber and grass abundant. Indians were around 
us in numbers, all day, shooting arrows every moment. They 
wounded some of our mules, and my famous mare Dolly, who hag 
so often rescued me from danger, by her speed and capacity of 

August 4th. — We moved 10 miles south, to avoid mountains, 
and struck a valley which we left a few days since, and which ex- 
tends to the Colorado. The mountains which we left are covered 
with timber. Grass and water were found in plenty. 

The Indians commenced firing on us at sunrise, and continued 
until we reached camp. Arrows passed through the clothes of the 
men, and three passed through my own clothes, and I was slightly 
wounded by two others in diiferent places. An arrow passed 
through the collar of Dick Williams. We killed several of the In- 
dians and wounded more. Peter Prudon accidentally shot himself 
in the right knee. 

August 5th. — Traveled 10 miles south-east in a valley. No 
water; grass and timber in abundance on all the mountains. 

August 6th. — Continued 10 miles south-east in the same valley 
in which we traveled yesterday ; found no water, but good grass 
and plenty of timber on and below the mountains. As our sick 
men are unable to travel, we are suffering for water, having been 
nearly 8 days without any; and indications are not now favorable. 
Indians still around us. 

August 1th. — Traveled 10 miles south-east, half the distance 
in the same valley, and then went to a mountain, and found good 
water, grass and timber. All the mountains in this country are 
covered with cedar, pine and pinon. The grass is good in all the 
prairies, but none, of them have any water. The soil is sandy and 
full of particles of mica. Indians are numerous, and continue to 
fire upon us. 

August 8/A. — Made 15 miles east-south-east, crossing a little 
chain of mountains, where we found a level pass, and timber, grass 
and water in abundance. Crossed a stream running from north- 
east to south-west, which I think goes to the Colorado. After 
crossing the mountains, we passed through a fine valley, with an 
abundance of good spring water, and timber near it. The Indians 
attacked the camp several times last night, but without success, 
and continued fighting us during the day, but with less boldness 
and resolution. 

from California to JVew Mexico. °9 

•August Oth. — After proceeding 8 miles east, we found ourselves 
surrounded by canons, apparently from one to four thousand feet 
deep; at least we sometimes could not see the bottom. We were 
Compelled to return to the same camp. The country is high and 
level, and well supplied with timber, grass and water. 

August 10th. — Moved 10 miles south-east over a somewhat 
broken country. Crossed a stream of good water, (with timber 
along its course,) which is evidently a tributary of the Gila. The 
country indicates gold in abundance. We crossed a little chain of 
mountains, where we found a great quantity of silver ore in flint 

August 11th. — Traveled south-east over a country a little bro- 
ken, but well supplied with water, grass and timber. Indications 
of gold still exist. 

jHugust 12th. — Made 15 miles south-east, crossing the bed of 
a large stream now dry, with plenty of timber along it. Struck 
the valley which we left some five or six days ago, having crossed 
a few days ago the head water of a stream which passes through 
it. This valley will be of the utmost importance in the making of 
a wacon or rail road. 

To-day, for the first time on this trip, we ate a dinner of mule 
meat. It was a new dish to most of our men, and made some of 
them sick. To me it was an old acquaintance, and I feel well. It 
only served to remind me of hard times on other journeys. The 
quality of the meat depends on the appetite of the man. Several 
of us are now on foot. 

iftugust loth. — Marched 20 miles east, leaving to our right the 
great valley so often mentioned, and which extends to the Colora- 
do. Passed through a little valley between two mountains, where 
we found timber, grass and water in abundance. The soil was ex- 

We here met Indians, who professed to be very friendly, with 
papers of recommendation from the commanding officer of Fort 
Yuma, on the Gila trail. 

August 11th. — We left early, and after traveling 5 miles in an 
eastern direction, stopped to breakfast near an Indian camp of 
Garroteros. They professed friendship, but having no faith in 
their professions, I selected a camp on the top of a small hill, 
which would give us advantage in case of a fight. All went on 
well until our mules were saddled, and we were ready to start, 
when, at a given signal, some forty or fifty Indians, apparently 
unarmed, and accompanied by their squaws, children and babies, 
(tied to boards,) in their arms, very suddenly charged upon us, 
and attempted to destroy the whole party with clubs and rocks. 
The signal of attack was the taking of my hand in farewell by a 
chief, which he held with all his strength. So soon as these first 
Indians commenced the fight about two hundred more rushed from 
behind a hill and brush, and charged upon us with clubs, bows 

90 %/lubrr/s Journey 

and arrows. I thought, for a few minutes, that our party must 
necessarily be destroyed ; but some of us having disengaged our- 
selves, we shot them down so fast with our Colt's revolvers, that 
we soon produced confusion among them, and put them to flight. 
We owe our lives to these firearms, the best ever were invented, 
and now brought, by successive improvements, to a state of per- 

Mr. Hendry, an American, and Francisco Guzman, a New Mex- 
ican, greatly distinguished themselves. 

Twelve of us, just two-thirds of our party, were severely wound- 
ed. I, among the rest, was wounded in six places. Abner Adair, 
I fear, is dangerously injured. It was a very great satisfaction to 
me to find that none of my men were killed, nor any of the anim- 
als lost. We bled very much from our numerous wounds; but the 
blood and bodies of the Indians covered the ground for many yards 
around us. We killed over twenty-five, and wounded more. The 
bows and arrows that we captured and destroyed, would have more 
than filled a large wagon. 

Before the attack commenced, the squaws kept the clubs, which 
were from 18 to 24 inches long, concealed in deer skins about 
their children. When put to flight, they threw their babes down 
into a deep, brushy gulley, near at hand, by which many of them 
must have been killed. This is the first time I ever met with a 
war party of Indians accompanied by their wives and children. 
The presence of the latter was evidently to remove from our minds 
all suspicion of foul play on their part. I was never before in so 
perilous a condition with a party in all my life. On this occasion, 
which will be the last, I imprudently gave my right hand, in part- 
ing, to the Indian chief. The left must answer for leave taking 

We have thus far had so much ill-luck to encounter, that our 
arrival at our destination must be much delayed. First, our men 
fell sick, then our provisions were damaged in the Colorado ; lat- 
terly, a man shot himself through the knee ; our mules' feet, for 
want of shoes, are worn out; and, to crown all, to-day two-thirds 
of the party are badly wounded, and all have barely escaped with 
their lives. We are now subsisting entirely on mule meat, and do 
not get as much of that as we want. We are without salt and 
pepper, and, in their absence, it requires a stout stomach to digest 
our fare. But nobody complains, and the possibility of not doing 
what we have set out to do, has never entered the minds of my 

We traveled 5 miles this afternoon, with the Indians at our 
heels, shooting arrows at us every moment. 

August 15th. — Traveled 10 miles east among mountains, where 
we found water, grass and timber in abundance. Indians around 
us all day shooting arrows. I omitted, in the proper place, to say 
that I brought away from the mountains we passed through on the. 

from California to JVeiv Mexico. 91 

10th, a little blaok sand, less than a cupful, and found in it, on 
washing, twelve or fifteen particles of pure gold. 

August 16th. — Made 10 miles east and found no water; plenty 
of grass and timber seen on the mountains north of us. Indians 
still numerous and troublesome. To-day met with copper in very 
great quantities. A vein of the pure native metal, about an inch 
and a half in diameter, was seen sticking out from a rock, which 
must have worn away by time and left the copper exposed. I 
think there is gold in the ore, but am not certain. 

Our condition at present is bad enough. 1 have eight wounds 
upon me, five of which cause me much suffering; and at the same 
time, my mule having given out, I have to walk the whole dis- 
tance. Thirteen of us are now wounded, and one is sick, so that 
we have only four men in good health. We are unable to travel 
faster on account of Adair's cone ition. 

Our canteens, &c, having been broken or destroyed in our fight 
with the Indians, we cannot carry water enough for more than half 
a day. This loss caused us to suffer more than can be imagined. 
Our animals are broken down by this traveling, which could not 
be avoided. We would come across an abundance of water every 
day if we could march some twenty-five or thirty miles, but our 
condition is such that it requires three days to make that small 
distance. In addition to all this, we are now on half rations of 
horse meat; and I have the misfortune to know that it is the flesh 
of my inestimable mare Dolly, who has so often, by her speed, 
saved me from death at the hands of the Indians. Being wounded 
some days ago by the Garroteros, she gave out, and we are now 
subsisting upon her flesh. 

August 11th. — Moved to-day about 10 miles east, over a coun- 
try rather rough. Suffering much for want of water. In crossing 
mountains we have to select the highest places instead of the reg- 
ular passes, as when caught in canons or gullies we are not strong 
enough to fight the Indians. To-day, from the top of a little 
mountain, I saw the great valley, so often mentioned, extending 
to the Colorado, not over twenty miles south of us, and it now 
seems to turn more to the east. I intend to make for it. I en- 
tertain fears that Adair and Baskerville are in danger from their 
wounds; all the others are getting better. 

August 18th. — Moved only 5 miles south of east. Found wa- 
ter, grass and some timber. 

August 19th. — Went 5 miles to-day in the same direction as 
yesterday, and came to the great valley that extends to the Colo- 
rado. Encamped on a creek of good water and grass. Adair be- 
ing sometimes unable to travel, we are waiting on him. Indians 
around us shooting arrows. We never return their fire without 
being certain of our shots. 

August 20th.— Traveled 20 miles east, over a level, gravelly 
country; crossed a creek; found good grass; no timber in sight. 

02 tftubry's Journey 

August 21st. — Moved 10 miles east over a level, gravelly coun- 
try, and struck a large stream which is, no doubt, a branch of the 
Gila. The mountains to the north of us are very rough, and 
without timber. 

There is no grass on the stream, which is 30 yards wide, with 
three feet of water in the channel. Its course is from north to 

•ftugusi 2'2d. — Made 10 miles south-east to a mountain. Coun- 
try level, and without grass or timber. 

tdugust L3d. — Moved about the same distance and in the same 
direction, over a low, gravelly country. Struck a stream of good 
water, but without grass or timber. 

tflugust 24/A. — Went about 8 miles north-east, and emcamped 
in the mountains, where we met with the Apaches Tontos. No 
timber seen to-day. 

August 25th. — Crossed the mountains where the Apaches Ton- 
tos live, and found water, timber and grass in abundance. Trav- 
eled 15 miles northeast from the top of this mountain, from which 
we saw the Sierra Blanca Mountains, which are near the Puebla 
of Zuni. 

Saw a prairie extending from the east end of the Garrotero 
Mountain to the upper end of the Sierra Blanca. I saw this prai- 
rie when we were at the east end of the Garrotero Mountain, but 
we were not in a condition to examine it. Fifty miles is nothing 
with good animals; but ours were broken down, and our wounded 
men were unable to travel over ten miles a day. But I saw the 
country sufficiently well to convince me that there will be no ob- 
stacle whatever to the making of a rail or wagon road. The mount- 
ains which we crossed to-day are impracticable for either. I should 
like to return to the east end of the Garrotero Mountain and pur- 
sue the route I indicate ; but it is utterly impossible to do so, as 
we are now living on berries and herbs. We would rejoice to have 
mule meat, but we have so few animals, and so many wounded 
men, that it would be unsafe to kill any more. I have the good 
fortune of having true men with me, otherwise it would be uncer- 
tain that the party could get through; but I have confidence in my 
men, and I feel positively certain that we will make the trip. 

It will take us some ten or twelve days to reach Zuni. where we 
expect to procure provisions. I shall travel near the mountains, 
as heretofore, on account of the certainty and facility of getting 
water, but shall remain in sight of the prairie extending from the 
Garrotero to the Sierra Blanca mountain. 

J2u gust 2G/A. — Moved 10 miles east- north- east, most of the 
way along a creek, where we found grass in plenty, and some tim- 
ber. The Apaches Tontos are numerous and troublesome. 

Jlugust 21th. — Made 15 miles east, crossing two streams which 
are branches of the Gila. We met Indians to-day, who, I think, 
are not Apaches Tontos, as they do not speak any Spanish, and 

from California to JVew Mexico. 93 

refuse to answer our questions. We obtained from them over fif- 
teen hundred dollars worth of gold for a few old articles of cloth- 
ing. The Indians use gold bullets for their guns. They are of 
different sizes and each Indian has a pouch of them. We saw an 
Indian load his gun with one large and three small bullets to shoot 
a rabbit. They proposed exchanging them for lead, but I pre- 
ferred trading other articles. Whether the Indians made these 
balls themselves, or whether they were obtained by the murder of 
miners in California or Sonora, I am unable to say. 

•August 28th. — Traveled 10 miles east, over a good country, 
met with more Indians and traded for some horse-meat, by giving 
articles of clothing in exchange. We traded also for a few hund- 
red dollars worth of gold. To-day a mule broke down, and an 
Indian gave me for it a lump of gold weighing a pound and a half 
less one ounce. 

The Indians are so numerous they would destroy the party if 
we allowed them the least chance. But we are very vigilant, and 
select camps on elevated places, consequently we are unable to 
make any examinations for gold in the sands of the country. The 
Indians call themselves Belenios. 

•August 29th. — Traveled some twenty miles in an eastern di- 
rection; the country quite level, and the land good, with plenty of 
grass and water. 

August dOth. — Moved about twelve miles north of east, over a 
country similar to that of yesterday. Found water, grass and pine 

September 1st. — Traveled fifteen miles over a country a little 
broken, and well supplied with water, grass and timber. 

September 2d. — Traveled the same distance north-east to the 
Sierra Blanca. Followed Indian trails all day, and found grass, 
water and pine timber in great abundance; and most of the soil is 
of a superior quality. 

September Zd. — Pursuing the same course, we traveled some 
fifteen miles among the same mountains. To-day we passed through 
valleys of good soil, and we found the pine timber in greater ab- 
undance than yesterday. The trees are generally from two and a 
half to five feet in diameter, and over two hundred feet high. We 
have seen timber enough to-day to make a railroad from the East- 
ern States to the Pacific. The passes through this mountain are 
level, and can be traveled by wagons without any difficulty what- 

September ith. — Made 25 miles north-east, crossing the Col- 
orado Chiquito after traveling two miles. The land is level and 
good, and water and wood are plenty. 

September 5th. — Made 20 miles north-east, and got out of the 
mountains after traveling five miles ; struck the prairie, where we 
found good soil, grass and water. 


94 tflubry's Journey 

September 6th. — Continuing north-east over a good and level 
country for 25 miles, we reached the Indian town or pueblo of Zu- 
ni, where we met with a hospitable and civilized population, from 
whom we obtained an abundance of good provisions, over which 
we greatly rejoiced. 

We have subsisted for a month on mule and horse flesh, and for 
the most part of that time on half or quarter rations. But as I 
have reached this place with all my men, I feel satisfied. I shall 
take no notes of the country from this town to Albuquerque on the 
Rio Grande, as a level and much traveled wagon road exists be- 
tween the two places, and is familiar to the people of New Mexico. 
It has been described by others, and is well known to present no 
difficulties to the construction of a railroad. 

September lQth. — At Albuquerque, New Mexico. Before lay- 
ing aside my pencil, for the use of which I have no fancy, I shall 
set down a few ideas that are now prominent in my recollection. 

I set out, in the first place, upon this journey, simply to gratify 
my own curiosity, as to the practicability of one of the much talked 
of routes for the contemplated Atlantic and Pacific Railroad. Hav- 
ing previously traveled the southern or Gila route, I felt anxious 
to compare it with the Albuquerque or middle route. Although I 
conceive the former to be every way practicable, I now give it as 
my opinion that the latter is equally so, whilst it has the additional 
advantage of being more central and serviceable to the Union. I 
believe the route I traveled is far enough south to be certainly 
free from the danger of obstruction by snows in winter. 

The route, in all its length, may be said to pass over a high 
plateau, or generally level country, for the most part thickly stud- 
ded with prairie mountains, or detached elevations, seldom so link- 
ed together as to deserve to be called a chain of mountains. Num- 
erous mountains were at all times in sight ; but being for the most 
part isolated peaks, a detour of a few miles would always super- 
sede the necessity of crossing them. To the south of our route 
from the Great Colorado to Zuni, the country was more level than 
on the north, and for the greater part of the distance a valley ex- 
tends nearly due east and west to the Colorado. The existence of 
so many mountains along the way must be considered, in refer- 
ence to a railroad, as a very fortunate circumstance instead of a 
disadvantage, as it is the mountains alone which furnish the tim- 
ber and never failing water. The plains are only deserts and bar- 
ren spots, if they are to be called so after the fashion of the day, 
which exist in all that vast region of country which lies between 
the Gila on the south and the British Possessions on the north, 
and the Rio Grande on the east, and the Sierra Nevada of Cali- 
fornia on the west. The plateau, or table lands, must of course 
furnish the track upon which the road is to be laid; but the mount- 
ains adjacent must furnish the timber to make it, and the water 

from California to New Mexico. 95 

for the use cf men and animals employed in its construction, and 
for the use of the depots afterwards. 

It is well for the country over which I passed that these mount- 
ains exist, as without them it would be in reality one vast and re- 
pulsive desert. It would be a disadvantage for a railroad to have 
to cross them, as, although not difficult to cross, it would much 
increase the expense. But I saw nothing that rendered it at all 
probable that they would have to be crossed. On the contrary, I 
am satisfied that a railroad may be run almost mathematically di- 
rect from Zuni to the Colorado, and from thence to the Tejon 
Pass in California. The section from the Pass to San Francisco 
should leave the Tular Lake to the west, and should pass through 
the Coast Range of mountains, say in the neighborhood of San 
Juan, and thence to San Francisco, and by a branch to Stockton. 

The west side of Tular Lake is unfit for a road on account of 
its miry nature. The section of the route from Zuni to Albuquer- 
que is plain sailing. That from Albuquerque to Independence to 
St. Louis, or Memphis, is equally plain, by two or three well 
known passes through the Sandia Mountains, which lie east of the 
Rio Grande. 

Certain slight deviations from the track which I pursued would 
improve the route. For instance, it would be better to leave my 
trail to the north, at a point say 180 miles east of the Sierra Ne- 
vada, and intersect it again some fifteen miles west of the Colora- 
do, On the east side of the Colorado the road should pursue a 
directly eastern course for 75 miles, and thence take an east- 
south-east course for nearly 200 miles, at the foot and on the south 
side of the mountain inhabited by the Garrotero Indians. Thence 
north- east for 15 miles, in a prairie between those mountains and 
a range of mountains which seem to extend to the Gila. From 
this point, the road should run easterly to the Colorado Chiquito 
river, and thence north-east to Zuni. The distance from the east 
end of the Garrotero mountain to Zuni is about 200 miles. This 
route, as I indicate it, will pass at all times in sight of my trail, 
and through as practicable a country as any railroad route of the 
same distance in the United States. 

The proposed route by the Sangre de Cristo, north of Taos, I 
take, if practicable at all, to be very objectionable on account of 
the vast elevations the road must ascend to and the large quant- 
ities of snow which fall and remain there so long during the winter; 
months. This route has also the additional disadvantage of crossing 
two rivers, the Grand and the Green, either of which would be as 
costly to bridge as the Colorado. 

A route has been somewhat spoken of just north of the Gila, 
with the view of having a route wholly on American ground. This, 
I am satisfied, is altogether out of the question, on account of 
mountains alone, if no other objection existed. The Gila route 
proper, passing in part through Sonora, is objectionable on sev^ 

96 Gold and Silver Produced by the Mines of 

eral accounts, besides its situation. In the first place, there is no 
timber upon the plains, nor upon the volcanic mountains that are 
along the way. A considerable part of the route, too, lies over a 
country destitute of vegetation, which, when dry, is a white pow- 
der, resembling flour, in which the feet of men and airo a Is sink 
several inches. This same clay, when wet, is the most treacherous 
of quagmires. Some parts of the road are aiso very sandy. Don 
Ambrosio Armijo, who took sheep to California last year, lost as 
many as eleven hundred among the sand-hills west of Colorado, 
by sinking in the sand, and being run over by those behind. An- 
other serious objection to the Gila route is the great desert which 
lies west of the Colorado, and has an extent of 100 miles without 
wood or water. 

I have no interest in recommending one of these routes more 
than another. I took sheep and wagons to California last year 
by the Gila route, and I am about to return that way to Califor- 
nia again with sheep. Upon the route which I -have just traveled, 
I encountered many hardships and dangers, and met with serious 
pecuniary loss ; yet I say it is the be3t for a railroad, and would 
be excellent for ordinary traveling but for the Indians. A large 
portion of the trail over which I passed — say some 250 miles west 
from the Rio Grande — is, for the most part, admirably adapted to 
farming and stock raising. 

Article III. 

[From the Mining Magazine.] 

Gold and Silver Produced by the Mines of America 

from 1492 to 1848. 

With the exception of statements made by some of the early ad- 
venturers of the amounts of gold obtained of the aborigines in par- 
ticular instances, there is little else than conjecture as to the amount 
of the precious metals gathered by the early discoverers of Amer- 
ica. Humboldt, whose opinion is perhaps entitled to more con- 
fidence than that of any other writer, has estimated the average 
annual amount of gold which America furnished to Europe, from 
1492 to 1500, at 52,000/. sterling. 

According to the accounts of Herrara and others respecting the 
operations of the early adventurers, the estimate of Humboldt would 
seem correct for the whole period from 1492 to 1519, when Cortez 
first landed in Mexico. Up to this period gold only had been 
found. Twenty years after the conquest of Mexico, that of Peru 
was made by Pizarro. The process by which the Peruvians had 

America from 1492 to 1848. 97 

procured their gold and silver before the arrival of the Europeans 
was simple, rude, and with little regard to extracting the whole of 
the precious metals from the ores. The use of mercury was not 
adopted till forty years after the conquest. The smelting was per- 
formed in small portable furnaces, or cylindrical tubes of clay, 
very broad, and pierced with a great number of wholes. In these 
the Indians placed layers of silver ore, galena and charcoal, and 
the current of air which entered the holes, quickened the fire and 
gave it a great degree of intensity. These furnaces were moved 
from one elevation to another, according to the degree of high or 
low wind. When it was found that the wind blew too strong and 
consumed too much of the fuel, they were removed to a lower sit- 
uation- By these means the natives obtained argentiferous mas- 
ses, which were smelted again in their own cottages. This was 
performed by a number of persons, ten or twelve at a time, blow- 
ing a fire through copper tubes, from one to two yards in length, 
pierced with a small hole at the extremity toward the fire, which 
thus acted in the same manner as the modern blow-pipe. 

The mines of Potosi were discovered in 1545. Several mines had 
been previously worked, but there is no account of the gold and 
silver which they yielded. The estimate of Humboldt up to this 
time, which is adopted by all the leading writers, is as follows : 

The annual addition in twenty-nine years, between 
the discovery in 1492 and the conquest of 
Mexico in 1521, at £52,000, would amount to £1,308,000 

The amount for twenty- five years, from the con- 
quest of Mexico to the discovery of Potosi, at 
the annual rate of £030,000 15,750,000 

Total addition in 63 years £17,058,000 

"Writers have estimated that the quantity of gold and silver in 
the old world had been reduced to thirty- three or four millions, 
and that the supply of the European mines at the discovery of 
America was equal to that which was annually consumed by wear. 

The discovery of the mines of Potosi was accidental. It was 
made by an Indian hunter, Diego Hualca, who, in pulling up a 
shrub, observed filaments of pure silver about the roots. The mass 
on examination was found to be enormous, and a large part of the 
population was attracted to the spot. A city soon sprung up. The 
mountain was perforated on all sides, and the produce in a few of 
the first years exceeded whatever had been recorded of the 
richest mines of the world. 

During the first ten years after the discovery no account was 
kept of the quantity of treasure obtained, but during the succeed- 
ing twenty-three years, from 1556 to 1578, a tax of a maravedi 
upon each marc of silver was laid. The account of this tax gives 
as its amount nine millions eight hundred and two thousand two 

98 Gold and Silver Produced by the Mines 

hundred and fifty-seven peros, and the treasure therefore must 
have amounted to $49,011,285, or $2,130,925 annually. Hum- 
boldt and other writers have concluded that the yield of the mines 
did not exceed during the first ten years that of subsequent and 
equal periods. This opinion is based upon the improved processes 
of amalgamation introduced after the end of the ten years. Dur- 
ing the next twenty- one years, from 1579 to 1600, the amount of 
treasuse according to the tax was $29,185,990 ; or $1,389,859 

During this period Chili yielded some gold, but the principal 
supply of treasure came from Mexico. Humboldt is chiefly fol- 
lowed by all writers in the estimate of the annual supply during all 
this period, which is reckoned at $10,000,000. This in the period 
of fifty- four years, terminating at 1600, would amount to $540,- 

It would be an interesting subject to investigate the influence 
which this accumulation of treasure had upon the social condition 
of the inhabitants of Europe. The advance in prices, the rise in 
wages, the increase of luxury, and the more general diffusion of 
comforts, are distinctly marked in the pages of history. 

The sum which formed the stock of money current in Europe at 
the latter end of the fifteenth century, is thus estimated by one 
of the most laborious English writers who has investigated the 

1st. The stock existing at the time of the dis- 
covery of America £34,000,000 

2d. That produced in the hundred and twelve 
subsequent years, after making allowance for 
the loss by wear and tear 138,000,000 

Deducting what had been conveyed to Asia, and 
what is supposed to have been applied to the 
purpose of commodities of all kinds 42,000,000 

This is equivalent to quadrupling the quantity of coin inEurope 
in the first century after the discovery of America. A conclusion 
which will admit of great difference of opinion. 

After the year 1600 the mines in the district of Potosi in Peru 
declined greatly. In the first fifteen years of the seventeenth cen- 
tury they yielded $1,670,344 ; and in the last fifteen years, from 
1685 to 1699, both years inclusive, the average amounts to no 
more than $559,943. This decline is not ascribed to the exhaust- 
ion of the mines, but to the cruel conduct of the Spaniards. 

During the same period, the district now known as Bolivia, was 
productive of metals. Mines were opened and worked in Caran- 

of America from 1492 to 1848. 99 

gas, Oruro, Andacava, and Chaquiapu or La Paz. At the same 
time, the silver mines in the northern part of Peru at Gauricocha 
or Pasco, were opened, and yielded a large amount of that metal. 
Thus although the district of Potosi declined, the other parts of 
Peru advanced so considerably as mere than to compensate for 
the deficiency. This increase of silver was greatly promoted by 
the extension of the mines of mercury at Huancavehca. The quan- 
tity at first obtained from them was small, compared with that 
which they reached between the years 1598 and 1684, after which 
they appear again to have declined. The principal one of these 
mines became chokedup about 1790, which was a great misfortune 
to the mining interest of South America. The superintendent of 
that day removed the pillars which had been left by the excavat- 
ors of the galleries to support the roof. By the superincumbent 
pressure the roof fell in, and the passages became blocked up. — 
"The master miners," says Humboldt, "'accused the intendant of 
having removed the pillars to ingratiate himself with the court of 
Madrid, by procuring in a very few years a great quantity of mer- 
cury. The intendant on his part affirmed that he had acted al- 
together with the consent of the master miners, who thought the 
pillars might be replaced by heaps of rubbish." 

Meantime the increase of gold was taking place both on the 
north and south of Peru. In Chili the Spaniards and Indians were 
sedulously employed in washing for gold in those streams which 
descend from the Cordilleras. The climate and soil, there, are 
exceedingly favorable to gold washers. "It is usually observed," 
remarks a traveler who visited that country, "that in those coun- 
tries where great mineral riches exist, the soil is of a barren and 
unproductive nature ; but Chili affords a striking and almost soli- 
tary exception to this rule. Streams abounding in gold wander 
through the most luxuriant corn-fields, and the farmer and the 
miner hold converse together on their banks." 

At this period some silver, but more gold, was found in New- 
Grenada, but the principal quantity of gold was obtained in the 
ravines of the mountainous regions of Antioquia in the valley of 
Cauca, between the central and western Cordilleras, and especially 
in the southern extremity of the province of Popyan. 

About the year 1630 the mines of Guanaxuato in Mexico were 
greatly extended, and those of Tasco, Zultepec, Zacatecas, and 
Pachuca began to improve, and so continued to the end of the cen- 
tury. The ancient documents on the subject of the product of 
treasure are very obscure, but Humboldt has concluded that the 
precious metal produced in Mexico so increased between 1600 and 
1700, that ia the last ten years of the century the mines delivered 
to the mints, in gold and silver, to the amount of more than five 
million piastres. It is estimated by Jacobs, that South America, 
exclusive of Brazil, yielded during the century terminating in 1700, 

100 Gold and Silver Produced by the Mines 

in conjunction with the produce of Mexico, $10,500,000. Brazil 
is estimated at another million, and the amount not reported at 
the Mexican mints, but conveyed away by contraband means, ia 
estimated at $2,000,000. Thus we have an annual yield from all 
the American mines, of $13,600,000 for the hundred years term- 
inating in 1700. 

The following estimate of the coin in circulation at the end of 
1699, throughout the world, may be new to many of our readers, 
and may also serve as a landmark in the progress of our subject. 

Stock of coin left at the end of 1599 £130,000,000 

Deduct for abrasion and loss in the course of the 

century past 43,000,000 


Produce of the mines of the world 

in one hundred years .£337, 500,000 

Transferred to India and China... 33,250,000 


Deduct one-fifth converted to 

other objects than that of coin. 60,250,000 


Deduct for wear and tear 34,000,000 



The produce of mineral treasure from this period was slow, but 
uniform, throughout America, until nearly the close of the cen- 
tury. The great mine of Valenciana. says one of the writers upon 
this period, which during forty years yielded to its proprietors a 
clear profit of from eighty-five to one hundred and twenty-five 
thousand pounds sterling yearly, was neglected until near the year 
1760, and after ten years' labor and expenditure, when the richest 
part of the vein had been reached, continued for upwards of forty 
years to yield more than half a million sterling in gold and silver. 
The rich district of Guanaxuato, in Mexico, which in the years be- 
fore 1766, yielded only three hundred and eighty thousand ounces 
of silver annually, produced in the latter years of its prosperity 
more than one million five hundred thousand. The mineral repos- 
itory of Catorce was only discovered in the year 1773, but it yield- 
ed a very large quantity of gold and silver till 1798, when the 
value of the minerals declined. The vein of Biscaina did not be- 
come enormously productive until 1762. In twelve years from 
that period, the owner of it gained a profit of more than a million 
sterling, with part of which he presented to the king of Spain two 

of America from 1492 to 1848. 101 

ships of war, one of them of one hundred and twenty guns, and 
also lent him upwards of two hundred thousand pounds, which was 
never after repaid. The mines of Zacatecas, which in 1750 scarce- 
ly furnished silver to the amount of more than one hundred thou- 
sand pounds, increased in a few years to ten times that amount. 
The following is the statement of the product of the mines of 
Mexico, in gold and in silver, delivered to be coined at the several 
mints in periods of ten years, reduced to sterling at the rate of 
four shillings and two pence the piastre, according to Humboldt 
and Ward. 

In the ten years from 1700 to 1709 £10,777,298 

1710 to 1719 13,697,297 

" 1720 to 1729 17,131,921 

" " 1730 to 1739 18,860,355 

" " 1740 to 1749 23,302,633 

" 1750 to 1759 26,197.936 

" »« 1760 to 1769 23,505,012 

" " 1770 to 1779 34,912,858 

" " 1780 to 1789 40,318,948 

" 1790 to 1799 48,191,711 

" " 1800 to 1809 47,142,814 

It is estimated by Humboldt that the gold and 
silver of Mexico which did not pay the duty 
to the king Was equal to one- fifth of that 
which did. Taking it at that amount there 
may be added 60,807,956 

This is an annuul average product of £3,316,706 

The greatest quantity of silver from Peru has been extracted from 
the mines of Pasco. They are in the midst of mountains covered 
with perpetual snow, and are themselves at a height of thirteen 
thousand feet above the level of the sea, and, consequently, in a 
severe climate and a barren soil. They are said to contain masses 
of silver equal to the quantity found in the district of Guanaxuato 
in Mexico, and at no great depth below the surface. But the un- 
healtiness of the climate, the expense of conveying necessaries to 
such an elevation, and the water by which the pits are often sub- 
merged have been impediments to extensive operations. Never- 
theless these mines yielded subsequently to 1700, even throughout 
the century, annually eight hundred thousand ounces of silver. In 
the province of Truxillo the Hualyayae, Gumachuco and Conchu- 
co mines have been worked since 1772, and yielded annually eight 
hundred thousand ounces of silver. The ores of the district were 
said by Humboldt to be richer than those of Potosi. 

102 Gold and Silver Produced by the Mines 

The gold and silver obtained from the mines in Peru was order- 
ed to be brought to Lima to be coined. No regular returns of the 
amount are attainable of an earlier date than 1754. The gold and 
silver which paid the duty on coinage from this date to 1809, was 
240,408,058 piastres. Writers upon this subject, especially Ja- 
cobs, have reckoned the amount the same for the preceding fifty- 
nine years, and thus concluded the amount of gold and silver yield- 
ed by the mines of Peru for the one hundred and ten years previ- 
ous to 1810, to have been $480,816,116. 

The western part of Columbia has yielded gold from the earliest 
period, but no silver of account. The gold is obtained in alluvial 
districts. Veins have been found in the mountains of Guamoco 
and Antioquia, but the working of them has been neglected. The 
gold obtained from the washing was coined, and paid duty at San- 
ta Fe de Bogota. In 1801 it averaged 2,500,000 piastres, from 
which amount it had not varied materially for a long period. 

The gold and silver obtained in Chili was coined at the capital. 
Santiago, where the tax was collected. It amounted to about 
$850,000 annually, and for the period from 1700 to 1810, it is 
estimated that the gross yield of the mines and washings was 

Buenos Ayres, which at one time included the mountain of Po- 
tosi, had many rich mines about this period, especially La Paz, 
Carangas and Oruro. The annual product of which is stated by 
Humboldt to have been $-4,2000,000, or in one hundred and ten 
years $462,000,000. 

Bringing together under one view, the products of the gold and 
silver mines of Spanish America, and regarding the amount of 
contraband, or which did not pay a tax, we have the following 
results : — 

Peru £100,169,524 

Columbia 57,341,666 

Chili 19,532,166 

Buenos Ayres 96,250,000 

Product paying duty 273,293,356 

Product on contraband 68,323,339 

Product of Mexico as stated above... 364,847,739 


But Brazil belonged to the Portuguese, and its product of gold 
must be added to the amount of gold and silver obtained in Span- 
ish America. In the appendix to the report of the Bullion Com- 

of America from 1492 io 1848. 103 

mittee of the English House of Commons in June. 1810, there is 
an account of the product, or duty of one-fifth^ from the 1st of 
August, 1751, to December, 1794, for the two greatest mining 
provinces of Brazil, those of Minas Geraes, and of Minas Novas; 
and also of the district of Goiazes. By this statement, it appears 
that there was a decrease in the amount of the quintos on gold as 
follows : 

Arobas. Mures. Ounces. 

Annual average from 1752 to 1762 104 7 5 

" " 1763 to 1773 90 3 1 

" " 1774 to 1784 69 20 4 

" " 1785 to 1794 45 41 5 

Thus the tax of one- fifth the weight amounted to 3,369 arobas 
of gold ; the value of each aroba in sterling is £1,821 17s. id. 
Consequently, the whole amount produced from the mines in fifty- 
one yeas was £30,719,335. The yield of the other mines for the 
same period is estimated at £9,281,665. 

The only method without statistics, which do not exist, by which 
to arrive at the results of the preceding period of fifty- nine years, 
is through an investigation of the commerce of the period, with all 
those incidental circumstances which have a degree of influence 
upon it. After such an investigation, Jacobs, among other writ- 
ers, has reckoned the amount produced as equal to that of the 
subsequent period, and the total from 1700 to 1810 at £80,000,- 
000 : thus 

Spanish America £706,464,434 

Portuguese America 80,000,000 

Or an annual product of £7,146,767 

Since the commencement of the present century, the product of 
the mines originally of Spanish and Portuguese America has rap- 
idly declined. This has been in consequence of political disorders 
and wars, and not from any failure in the mines. Thus in Mexico, 
the money coined at the mint in 1809 was $26,172,982 in gold and 
silver; but in 1812 it had declined to $4,409,266. In Guanaxu- 
ato, according to Mr. Ward, the amount of the precious metals 
diminished fr >m 8,852,472 marcs of silver, and 27,810 marcs of 
gold, the product of fifteen years preceding the revolution, to 2,- 
877,213 marcs of silver, and 8,109 marcs of gold. The mines of 
Sombrerete declined from five hundred thousand to three hundred 
thousand annually. The product of the mines of Catorce, which 
was second onlv to that of GuanaxuatJ in the amount of silver 
raised, being nearly three millions of dollars annually, was so re- 
duced as to yield, on the average for the fifteen years of the re- 
volution, $599,400. The Bisciana vein, which yielded $857,042 

104 Gold and Silver Produced from the Mines 

annually, declined during the period from 1809 to 1823, to $14,- 
285 annually. In each district the principal mines, with a single 
exception, were abandoned ; the machinery was allowed to go to 
ruin, and the silver raised was merely the gleanings of more pros- 
perous times ; the workings were confined almost entirely to the 
upper levels. Reports have been made of the quantity of money 
coined at the four mints between 1810 and 1829, including both 
gold and silver. This amount is $220,403,183. 

The produce of gold and silver in Central America was always 
included in the returns from Mexico previous to 1820. At that 
time a mint was established, which, up to 1829, had coined about 

The entire amount of gold and silver supplied by the late Span- 
ish dominions in America, for the twenty years terminating in 
1829, is thus estimated : 

Mexico $220,043,200 

Guatimala 2,893,710 

Columbia 33,564,267 

Peru.. 64,688,429 

Buenos Ayres 80,000,000 

Chili , 16,618,880 

Brazil 19,892,400 

Or at 4 5 . 2d. the dollar .£80,736,768 

As early as 1824 gold was found in North Carolina ; to wit, 
1824, $16,000; 1825, $17,000; 1826, $20,000; 1827, $21,000; 
1828, .$46,000; 1829, $128,000. Also in Virginia, South Caro- 
lina and Georgia, small quantities were found at the same time. 

A recapitulation of the amounts thus far stated, presents the 
following results of the produce of precious metals from the mines 
of America. 

From 1492 to 1600 £130,458,000 

1600 to 1700 337,500,000 

1700 to 1810 786,464,434 

1810 to 1829 ,.... 80,736,768 


We have thus far followed chiefly the estimate of Humboldt and 
Ward and Jacobs. Some discrepancy must necessarily exist in 
the absence of positive reports, between the results of every in- 

For the following tables we are indebted to M. Michel Cheva- 
lier's Remarks on the Production of the Precious Metals. 

of America from 1492 to 1848. 


Total Production of the Silver and Gold Mines of America prior 
to the Discovery of the Gold Mines in California. 





Value in 




Total for 
Value in each 
Millions country 
f in mini- 
Francs. ! ons of 

United States 




• • • • • 






76 76 

New Grenada 
Peru > 
Bolivia $ 



1,341 15,115 
1,952 2,010 

1,172 14,231 

4,623 4,628 
862 1,098 







10,026 37,148 

Quantities of Gold and Silver supplied to the European Markets 
by the undermentioned Countries during three centuries ending 
in 1848. 


Europe, exclusive of Kussia 

Africa and thelslands of the 
Malay Archipelago, &c. 







Value in 





Weight in 



Value in 




1,490,230! 5,100 

In the third volume of the London Mining Journal, p. 331, we 
have the following statement as to the produce of the precious met- 
als: "In 40 years, from 1790 to 1830, Mexico produced 6,436,- 
453 1. of gold, and 139,818,032 1. of silver. Chili, 2,768,488 I. 
of gold, and 1,822,924 1. of silver. Buenos Ayres, 4,024,895 1. 
of gold, and 27,182,673 1. of silver. 

The following table sh,ows the annual product (approximate cal- 
culation) in value of fine gold and silver for 1846 and 1850, the 
former being two years before, and the latter two years after the 
discovery of the gold mines of California. 


Maj. Wright's Address before the 



California- • •• 
United States- 


New Grenada.. 


Bolivia.. ••• 
Chili.. •••• 
Brazil •-•• 

Total of North 





Silver. | Total. 

















3,457,020! 3,706,773 





42,929 29o,336 





1,000,583 1.096,824 





460,191 520.548 





296,029' 442,614 





2,003 261,874 





5,261,619 0,563,179 




Article IV. 

Address of Uriel Wright, Esq., before 


ihe First Agricultural Fair in 

Mr. President : 

I am here to-day by your appointment, to speak for the caiife of Agriculture. 
The scene around me proclaims your interest in that cause, and I share it with 
you, but in degree and quality how different ! 

It was not my good fortune to start in life in partnership with this fertilizing 
atmosphere and this teeming earth. My way has been along that path, which 
runs over violated contracts and broken laws, a path too often darkened by the 
fierce conflic's of human interest or the bitteier warfare of human passions. 

My business is to deal with man in strife with his fellow-man, or at war 
with the government in which he lives. I stand at the point where the antagon- 
isms of society meet — where vice is most active, and frailty most conspicuous — 
whither human beings coming from all the diversied pursuits of life throng, in 
countless numbers — some to have justice awarded them, some to inflict its op- 
posite, and others, an unwilling group, to expiate offences. 

In seeking to be one qualified to mingle in such scenes, my vision has been 
almost shut out from the broad, bright fields of nature. The laws of vegetable 
lile do not lie within the narrow circle of legal science. Advocates at the bar, 
Judges on the bench, do not teach how a plant must grow, on what it must be 
fed, and how, if sickness seize it, it must he cured. They look at soil only to 
determine boundary and title. They do not interrogate the earth to find out its 
ingredients — they put no questions to the air to discover its elements. The law 
has its mysteries, but the "mysteries of the hail" and snow, of the dew, and rain, 
are not of them. 

But although thus cut off by vocation from the pursuit and study of Agri- 
culture, I yet am interested in its prosperity. 

It claims my regard as the earliest and noblest occupation of mr>n. It ap- 
peals to my interest, as the supporter of every other interest in a State. As a 
man claiming to be civilized, I venerate it as an essential element in all civiliza- 
tion. As an American I hail it as the surest defender of the liberty of my coun- 
try. By these more general claims I stand connected with the occasion and its 
theme — but you are united to both by closer ties. 

* We commend the following able address to the careful perusal and study of every citizen of 
Missouri. The subject lies at the foundation of all civilized States ; ami the benefits derived from 
Improvements in agriculture are Dot less Important to the inhabitants of cities than to those of 
the country. Therefore the subject of agriculture addresses education itself to the merchant, ma- 
nufacturer and mechanic with as much propriety as tu tbc farmer. 

First Agricultural Fair in Missouri. 107 

To you, Agriculture, as an art or sciedce, can never become an abstraction; 
you look upon it always in the concrete. The strong tie of interest binds you to 
the soil, and your success in life depends upon its proper culture. The subject 
comes home to your bosoms and business. How to sow ? and how to reap ? are 
questions which have their origin not only in your vocation, but in your rela- 
tions al so . As husbands, fathers, masters, you put such questions, and the noblest 
feelings of your nature become interested in the reply. On that reply may de- 
pend your ability faithfully to discharge the duties incident to those relations. 

The Government has given you a large discretion, as to the manner in which 
such duties shall be dischaiged, but the broad confidence of our laws does not 
impair the obligation of that trust. How your children shall be reared, educat- 
ed, and fitted for success in life, and for bearing their part in the maintenance of 
constitutional liberty, is not penned in any statute of onr State. The law of the 
domicil is with us an unwritten code. We trust the instincts of nature, enlight- 
ened by civilization, liberty and religion — we impose no sanctions for the breach 
of them. But beyond these endearing relations (furnishing-, as they do, active 
stimulants to enquiry,) your broader relation to all other pursuits and avoca- 
tions, imposes upon you the duty to know everything that may advance the cause 
of agriculture. The soil unfilled for a single year would spread famine over the 
earth ! Your philanthropy asks for knowledge — your interests demand it — your 
affections in their loftiest yearnings crave it. 

The daily mysteries of vegetable life around you make knowledge a neces- 

These are some of the considerations which have brought you here to-day, 
to the first industrial exhibition of the first Agricultural Society ever organized within 
our limits under the patronage of the Slate. 

I wish I could bring the tribute of knowledge to this beginning of a new era 
in the history of our agriculture. I would seek no higher honors than to identify 
my nam° usefully, with a movement of the human mind, directing the energies of 
our people, and the authorities of our State, on that line of achievemnt which may 
elevate the art ot agriculture, in its widest scope, to the dignity of a science. 

I feel, sensibly feel, that to me such honors can never attach; but I trust that 
I may not entiiely fail to show that the highest attainments of science are yet to be 
won f>om the soil she has neglected ; and that the highest duty of the State is to place 
agricultural education within the reach of all her sons. 

I leave behind me many topics upon which I have refledted with pleasure — 
intimately connected with my theme. I pass by many inviting fields, which have 
allured thought, since I accepted your invitation, and proceed to the considera- 
tion of the two propositions just advanced. In a single address, I do not know 
how better to appropriate the time allotted me in this interesting scene. 

And first— Can science be successfully applied to agriculture? Is all known 
that can be known, which tends to multiply the fruitfulness of the earth, and 
perpetuate its fertility? Are the laws of vegetable life within the reach of the 
human mind, and if so, will a knowledge of them aid the agriculturist in the 
practical operations of husbandry? 

I put (he subject in the interrogative form, because I know that a wide pre- 
judice has already answered — It is a prejudice hoary with age. It has entered 
the halls of legislation, but is not the peculiar possession of that class of politi- 
cians, who do not rise to the stature of philosophic statesman. Unhappily by a 
hurtful contagion it has spread to some, themselves tillers of the soil. 

Now a small portion of this prejudice must be treated as a disease of the 
mind, which no sanative can heal; but much the larger part of it rests upon plaus- 
ibilities, within the reach of correctives. Some of this error may yield to the 
unaided power of a definition. 

Science is not merely theory — nor is it mere practice. It is neither specula- 
tion, nor experiment. Science is knowledge. It may be reached in many ways 
-—sometimes by a blunder— oftimes by accident; or it may be won by the harder 
and noble toil of the mind working by the rigid process of induction through ser- 
ies of experiments ; but however attained it is poivcr — power magnifying the re- 
sources of man and convertible to his use. Every successful farmer is to some 
extent a scientific one. There cannot be continued success in farming against 
the laws of nature. Whether he knows it or not, he has in the given case applied 
labor in harmony with these laws. To maintain otherwise 3 is to rebuke the in- 
telligence of God, 

108 Address of Uriel Wright before the 

The widest prejudice against the application of science to the art of agri- 
culture, has arisen from confounding science with the operations of men who have 
gone to the fields, book in hand, trusting to reach judicious culture by a pre- 
scribed formula. I deliver overall such sciolists and smatterers to the appropri- 
ate awards of a poetical justice. If the "book farmer" has not succeeded, his 
failure was the result of one or more of three causes: First, the book did not con- 
tain the requisite science or knowledge; second, if it did, ilie farmer did not find 
it out ; or third, he had not the practical experience or irdustry to apply the 
knowledge the book contained. I join in no crusade against books. They have 
been, and are, and will be in all coining time, the repositories of science. 7 hey 
are the caskets which contain the jewels of the mind, wrought by genius in ev- 
ery age. Yet unlike other caskets, while they collect they distribute also. 

But, gentlemen, that would be indeed a rare book — invaluable as rare — 
which contained all the science necessary to the farmer. The art of agriculture 
demands the aid, not of one only, but of many sciences. The aggregate rills the 
entire circle of the natural sciences. The elements of agriculture have rested on 
botany. The indications of vegetable physiology have been, and yet are, the 
chief guides of the practical farmer. 

Mechanics and hydraulics, are as essential to his yearly operations, as the 
seed he sows. Geology only, can accurately teach him the origin of his soils, 
the cause of the diversities which they frequently exhibit, not only in the same 
farm but sometimes in the same field, the nature and differences of his subsoil 
and the advantages he may expect in bringing them to the surface. 

Meteorology makes for him her tables, showing the highest, the mean and 
the lowest temperatures, and also the quantity of rain that falls during each day 
and each month of the year — knowledge eminently useful for the proper culture 
of the land. While chemistry discloses the composition of soils — the composi- 
tion of the atmosphere — the food upon which every plant must live — from whence 
obtained — whether from the earth or the air — the deficiencies of soils, to the 
growth of plants — and how the deficiency may be supplied, and when — the ad- 
aptation of particular soils to the growth of particular plants — the causes of ex- 
haustion of soils — the means of restoration — when nature will supply deficiencies 

am l when man must do it for her, and how — the principles upon which alone, 

a judicious rotation of crops can be applied to a given soil — in a word, the office 
of chemistry is to explain the processes of vegetable life, in every stage of its be- 
in"-, and to show forth the results of decay and death. To this science agriculture 
must ever look for its highest achievements ; other sciences may be important 
auxiliaries in every step of her progress ; but chemistry must conduct her to 
prosperity. However dissevered, as they have been; however strife and ill-feel- 
ing may have come between them ; however jealousy and ignorance may have 
disturbed their union, agriculture and chemistry are inseparably united; and 
what God hath joined together let no man put asunder. 

Look at the art of culture as it now obtains in our country, is it not essenti- 
ally a chemical art ? You put lime, or gypsum, or guano on your land — what are 
they but chemical agents ? and why do you add them to the constituents of your 
soil ? Is it not solely from the hope of chemical action ? If you drain your mead- 
ows, or irrigate them, are you not seeking chemical action? If you subsoil — what 
are you in search of but chemical action ? If you let your fields lie in fallow — 
what are you waiting for, but chemical action ? If instead of rest you practice 
rotation in crops — on what principle can you explain your practice other than 
upon the laws of chemical action ? Even your mechanical operation of plowing 

what is it, but a means of inducing or facilitating chemical action ? And when 

you come to the composition of your manures, whether vegetable, or animal, or 
mineral, or all combined, you are engaged in that which demands a large know- 
ledge of the laws of chemical action. Knowledge of the constituents of your 
so ;i knowledge of its deficiency — knowledge of what will supply that defici- 
ency an d knowledge how, and from what source that supply shall come. 

It is thus manifest beyond the reach of cavil — that the agriculturist, whether 
he knows it or not, and in spite it may be of the profoundest ignorance of chem- 
istry, is nevertheless practically a chemist. 

Will a knowledge of chemistry help ttm experimenter to his desired result? 
Ought he to rely upon the ascertained and established truths of science, or trust 
to chance ? That is the question — that is the question. The question of this hour 

the question of this age, put by me, with a gravity due to its importance — to 

every agriculturist in the land — to all who are indirectly interested in the pro- 

First Agricultural Fair in Missouri. 109 

ducts of the soil and to the public authorities. Upon a question so vital to the 
State — so big witii results — so full of weal or woe to us in our day and genera- 
tion, and especially to those who shall come after us. I would invoke the shades 
of our mighty departed for an answer. If it could be, Fort Hill and the Hermit- 
age, Marshfield and Ashland, Monticello and Montpellier would each find a 
tongue, and rising high above them all, the solemn, benign and parental voice oj 
Mount Vernon would give power and emphasis to the joint reply. Do you doubt 
what that reply would be ? Differing widely as to the actual adjustment of powers 
in our Federative system, and sometimes apart upon the measures of policy — no 
dissension ever came between them as to the true position of agriculture. They 
loved the fields, and with a love that defied the intoxicating influences of power 
and the seductive spell of high station. Their graves are farmers' 1 graves. At 
the Capitol, amidst cities, ou the summits of mountains, cenotaphs and mausole- 
ums speak in enduring marble tiie nation's gratitude, but their bodies moulder in 
the soil they tilled. When was it in their lives that a sentiment escaped from either 
of them adverse to the healthful influence of science on culture? 

In their day and generation, amidst the monopolizing cares of State, when 
did either of them lose an opportunity to avaii himself of any achievement of the 
mind calculated to increase the fertility of the earth ? Or when did they fail to 
give to Science, on her pathway of toil, a cheering word? They were philoso- 
phers as well as statesmen, and in the quietude and repose of their fields — in 
that "solitude" which is "the school of genius" in the contemplation of Nature 
working out in her mighty laboratory, the processes of vegetable and animal life 
— their minds expanded to the measure of true greatness. 

Some of them were surrounded bv a philosophical apparatus, and worked in 
their home laboratories. Mr. Jefferson, while minister at the French court, 
found time amidst the engrossing cares of diplomacy, not only to watch the 
throes of a revolution, but to make himself master of every new discovery in 
science. The interest of agriculture engaged his special attention; every new 
implement of husbandry — every new mode of culture — every plant useful to man 
not grown in our land, became the object of his regard. His well known journey 
through the interior and south of France, and over the ranges of the lesser Alps, 
had for its motive the pursuit of scientific agriculture. If in that day an agricul- 
tural school or college could have been found in France or Switzerland, who 
can doubt that he would have been drawn to it by an irresistable attraction. Mr. 
Madison on his skillfully conducted farm, up to a late period of his life, kept 
pace with every advance of chemistry. His letters — the letters of Washington 
and Webster — form a beautiful and instructive portion of our agricultural lite- 

But I turn from these bright names to call you back to your own farms, and 
to your own operations in husbandry. 

You put gypsum on your land. In one district of country its effects are 
lauded, in another its efficacy is doubted, while in a third it is decried. How is 
that ? and why is it? Is it the freak or fickleness of the mineral? Is the result in 
each case a chance medley? or does it spring from cause ? Just so sure as that 
the earth we inhabit moves in its orbit round the sun by law, so sure is it that 
the result in each case is the effect of principle, and that principle science can 

Again, you put upon your soil animal manure — you find its action powerful 
and its effect permanent. Other animal manures act only for a time, and their 
effect is speedily exhausted. Do you know the cause? Chemistry can answer. 
"Does a mixture of animal and vegetable manures prepare your land best 
for certain kinds of grain ? Do you employ common salt, or nitrate of soda, lime, 
the ash of wood, bone dust, or any other substance with, advantage? In all these 
cases you observe chemical results, which you would be able to control and 
modify did you possess the requisite chemical knowledge." 

Some barren soils are capable of reclamation — others not profitably under 
the present state of science. Is it not a matter of importance to be able to dis- 
tinguish between them ? But vf bat is more particularly applicable to us — some 
soils that to the eye seem good will not produce. Now, by what rule will the 
common farmer work to give fertility to such land ? Has he any rule ? Ignorant 
of the disease, how shall he apply the remedy ? Shall he experiment in the dark 
and work on as the sanguine Micawber lived — "in the hope that something will 
shortly turn up ?'? 


110 Address of Uriel Wright before the 

By a beautiful economy in nature, many of the inorganic elements necessary 
to the growth of plants exist in the soil in quantities so small as to become ap- 
preciable only by a refined analysis. How shall the practical farmer detect their 
absence by the best use of his powers of observation ? I repeat the question — 
how shall he work ? Blindly in the dark ? or growing tired of unprofitable toil, 
shall he shift the responsibility by selling out? or shall he call upon science to 
tell him the exact chemical constitution of the earthy part of his soil? Perhaps 
the reply of the chemist itay be — '"Your soil is excellent, and wants only a 
small portion of what is known to science as phosphoric acid, which you can 
supply at little more than nominal cost." Or perhaps he may suggest the pres- 
ence in the soil of some onj of the salts of iron, or other noxious principle easily 
and cheaply deprived of its hurtful influence by the application ot well kn<nvn 
chemical agents. In reference to such soils Sir Humphrey Davy more than 
half a century ago, when agricultural chemistry was comparatively unknown, 
said — ''the application ol chemical tests to such soil is obvious — it must contain 
some noxious principle," (or be deficient in some necessary element, adds John- 
son thirty years later,) which may be easily discovered and probably easily de- 
stroyed. Are any of the salts of iron present? they may be decomposed by 
lime. Is there an excess of silicions sand ? the system of improvement must de- 
pend on the application of clay and calcariot.s matter. Is there a defect of cal- 
canous matter V— the remedy is obvious. Is there an excess of vegetable matter 
indicated ? — it may be removed by liming, paring ami burning. Is there a defi- 
ciency of vegetable matter ? — it is to be supplied by manure." Since his day 
soils are better understood, and in many cases chemistry can now accurately de- 
termine what a soil must contain before it will produce a given crop. 

In our own country the value of chemical tests applied to the soil is abund- 
antly established. I cite a few examples out of many furnished me by your Sec- 
retary, my friend Minor, to whose enterprise and zeal you and the State are 
largely indebted for your present organization. 

In the Agricultural Transactions ol the State of Massachusetts for the year 
1851 , (a book which I would commend to those engaged in diffusing agricultural 
literature among our people.) 1 find recorded some authentic facts which illustrate 
the matter in hand. Professor Mapes, a gentleman of large attainments in var- 
ious departments of science, furnished the results of the analysis of the soils of 
more than one hundred farms in the State of New Jersey. Take two or three of 
them : 

He analysed the soil of a field of J. J. Scofield. of Morristown, on which 
the owner desired to raise ruta baga turnips. It was fouuu deficient of the fol- 
lowing constituents of that crop: phosphate of lime, potash, o ganic substances, 
including a slight quantity of animal matter. These being supplied, the result 
was fourteen hundred bushels to the acre, as certified to the Legislature ! 

He also analysed the soil of a field of Dr. Jno Woodhull, which he had 
appropriated to the growth ot wheat, and from which he had the preceding year 
obtained less than fifteen bushels to the acre. After supplying the deficient con- 
stituents, he obtained, the succeeding year, fifty-seven bushels to the acre. 

Another instance I cite, to show the value of subsoiling, under scientific di- 
rection. The farm of Robt. Rennie was deficient in its surface soil. Its sub- 
soil by analysis proved to he rich in substances not contained in the surface soil. 
He prescribed subsoiling and a thorough mixture of upper and lower soils. The 
preceding crops were fifteen bushels of corn and sixty bushels of potatoes to the 
acre, but tin- succeeding one hundred and fifty bushels of ears of corn and three 
hundred and fifty bushels of potatoes. Once more: afield of a gentleman in 
Maryland had become barren under culture. It was reduced to a yield of one 
bushel per acre. He applied to a distinguished chemist, who on analysis, de- 
tected the absence of but one element of fertility — phosphoric acid. That ele- 
ment was supplied and the product was twenty-nine bushels of wheat to the acre. 
It is needless to multiply examples — these establish the connection between sci- 
ence and agriculture — but the union must be more complete. 

I value at a high rate the practical skill — obtained by a long course of ob- 
servation, possessed by many of our farmers — common sense, sound judgment, 
have done much for the soil, aided by litlle exterior information; and the light of 
Science will never dispense with the use of such qualities ; but we cannot shut 
our eyes to the fact that, under our present system of culture, the soil of our 
country is undergoing exhaustion. Its richness, in the Valley of the Mississippi, 
will postpone the ultimate period of barrenness, but it must be witnessed by 

First Agricultural Fair in Missouri. Ill 

those who shall live upon the earth when we have passed away, unless the pro- 
cess of exhaustion be arrested. The law of supply and demand, explains both 
the evil ami its cure. That law is the great, primary law of Nature. Why does 
this noble river, on whose banks we stand, roll in ceaseless and perpetual flow 
on to the ocean? Whence comes its eternal supply? Ask the sea and the sun 
and the cloud, and they will answer. In this invisible air around us, are four 
elements, without which there can be no living tiling — neither vegetable nor 
animal. Without them there must be universal death-. Every moment in our 
lives we must have them, and so must every plant. The vegetable and animal 
kingdoms are the active, ceaseless, eternal consumers of these commodities. Why 
are they nor exhausted ? Why is it that the atmosphere, everywhere, still fur- 
nishes a supply to this never-ending demand? Go to Pompeii — dig up from its 
ruins a vase which has been covered by the lava of Vesuvius for eigtheen cent- 
uries — ranalyze the air it holds — and you will hud in it the exact amount of oxy- 
gen contained in the same volume of atmosphere that plays around the highest 
peak of the Alps. Whence is this universal supply? The answer is : every an- 
imal that breathes, at every breath, absorbs oxygen and gives out carbon, while 
every plant iq its respiration, takes in carbon and gives out oxygen. The inde- 
structibility of matter, perpetuates this exchange of the two kingdoms through 
an eternal circle. Tins is the operation of organic life, but decay and death are 
pledged to the same office qf restoration. Burn a plant in flame, and it disap- 
pears — all save its ashes. In life its substance was mainly composed of the four 
elements — oxygen, carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen — and these it drew from the 
air, while it contained also small portions of several substances which it did not 
get from the air. Now, in the process of combustion", death comes, and at the 
moment of dissolution, every element is set I'ree, and what is beautiful, each ele- 
ment knows its place, and whither it must go. The elements pt air have gone to 
their home, and what came from the earth is left upon it. 

In regard to the laws regulating the supply of nitrogen— .an element which 
in the form of ammonia — is so intimately connected with vegetable life, as to 
claim the special attention of the practical fanner— there is more uncertainty. 
Whether the atmosphere be its primary source, as most chemists conclude, or 
whether Lieiiig be right in his conclusion, that ''is it a part — a primary constit- 
uent of the globe itself" — all chemists are able to trace the various seondary 
sources of supplyof this essential fertilizer, and all concur in showing, that upon 
nian devolves a large portion of the work of restoration. It is the great office of 
science to distinguish between the cases in winch nature does, and does not, 
need the aid of man. }i*'r processes are of themselves sufficient tor her pur- 
poses — she can clothe the earth in verdure — and by decay and death she renders 
that verdure perpetual— =but man tasks h j r powers, and by continual drafts on 
her fertility, he may reduce her to barrenness. To prevent this, what she der 
inands of man, is, "that after he has used what he has taken Iroin the earth, he 
shall bring it back to her exhausted bosom, or if he will not do that, let hirn go 
to her magazines of supplies, wonderfully and bountifully provided, to meet the 
exigencies of his improvidence. The immense coal fields which lie imbedded 
in the earth, of vegetable origin, furnish a sample of her prudent forecast and 
care. Tiie nitre beds of India and South Ameiica, are other instances — and in 
our own country, on the shores of Lake Chainplain, in New Jersey and New 
York, beds of phosphorite have been discovered, more valuable than mines of 
gold. To supply whai they furnish England expends a half million of pounds 
sterling every year. She sends her ships abroad, to other countries, and digs for 
bones on the field of Waterloo. And nearer to us the Mammoth Cave in Kenn 
tucky, constitutes an inexhaustible nitrate reservoir. 1 venture to predict, that 
one of tue proudest achievements of science, will be to convert the yet undevel- 
oped resources of the mineral kingdom into the richestand cheapest fertilizers of 
the soil. I venture also to affirm that science, will never reach her highest at- 
tainment for agriculture, until she has perfected a S3'stem o' specific manuring — 
that is, a system of manuring, by which one or many chemical agents shall ha 
classified and adapted to the supply of a given deficiency— or the correction of a 
vicious quality of the soil. 

General and indiscriminate manuring must, as it seems to me, give way as 
science advances. The ordinary mode in which farmers supply nitrogen, is by 
the manure pile, collected from the stable, and the barn-yard ; and animal ma- 
nures are richest in this particular substanee--but in them it takes the form am- 
monia, and ammonia lias wings so nimble, that they need clipping. (Science 

112 Address of Uriel Wright before the 

only can perform that operation well. There is something very curious and in- 
teresting in nitrogen. it preten's an anomaly in nature. J fit had anything to 
do with the affairs cf State, some politicians would affirm that it presented the 
beau-ideal of what is sometimes called a '-masterly inactivity" — olhers might 
maintain that it was a happy illustration of the "manifest destiny" doctrine ; 
while an ardent Whig would be sure to claim it as a "conservative and against 
intervention" — it would become a Taleyrand in politics, and could live, in fa- 
vor, under every dynasty. In the air it is in the midst of very active, and com- 
bustible agents, that have a wide range of affinities, prompting them to unite with 
many substances — but nitrogen is characterised by its utter indifference to all 
other substances — it has an apparent reluctance to enter into combination with 
any of them. 

Whenever by the force of circumstances it is compelled to unite with some- 
thing else, it remains in union, only because of its tendency to remain in the same 
place — and the slightest cause will disunite it from its compounds— yet it is an 
invariable constituent of plants, and during their life, is subject to the control of 
their vital powers ; but the moment the mysterious principle of life ceases to in- 
fluence it, it disengages itself, and promotes decay by its escape. It forms much 
the largest portion of the atmosphere, and saves nature from total destruction, by 
the check which its indifference opposes to the activity and energy of oxygen. 
It is the great conservative powered nature — but its disposition to be released 
from all other substances, and the slight force necessary to its escape, demand 
the minutest care of the practical farmer, when he withes to restore it to his soil. 
This gas and hydrogen form ammonia — and the votatility of the ammonia of an- 
imal manure mu^t be fixed, or you can never cart it to your fields. The agency 
of man in the supply of nitrogen, is a clear necessity. It is doubtlul whether 
the nitrogen of the atmosphere, either as gas or in solution in water, ever enters 
directly into the living plant. If at all, it does so in quantities too small for its 
supply. It comes to it in the shape of compounds, as ammonia, nitric acid, and 
other compounds, some of which are produced by the decay of animai matter. 

The volcanoes of the globe furnish ammonia — the consumption by burning 
of coal fields contributes indirectly to the supply of nitrogen. The electricity of 
the atmosphere aids in its production — but the farmer cannot rely upon these op- 
erations of nature for supplying the continued demand for nitrogen created by 
continued cultivation. Animal life is a great consumer of this element. The 
fields are exhausted of it by the demands of cities, crowded with population, and, 
unhappily, what is thus carried away never returns. Lastly, this element is 
much less abundant in nature outside of the atmosphere than any other of the 
organic elements. 

The supply of the remaining element, hydrogen, is not, in any important re- 
spect, dependent upon the agency of man. Its main source is water, in its vari- 
ous forms, and the artificial application of this bountiful fluid, to the garden and 
the field, seems to be the limit of man's action in the premises. 

I pass from the elements of air to those of earth. When a plant is submitted 
to flame, we have seen its organic elements are given back to the air, while an 
ash remains which fire does not destroy. This ash constitutes the inorganic por- 
tion of plants. It forms so small a part of the plant, that for a long time it was 
supposed this organic mutter, derived from the soil, was accidentally present, 
and could be of no essential or vital consequence to the plant. Science has for 
ever expelled this error. Careful experiments have shown — 

1st. .That on whatever soil a plant is grown, if it shoots up in a healthy 
manner and fairl} ripens i;:to seed, the quantity and quality of the ash ii 
nearly the same ; ana 

2d. That though grown on the same soil the quantity and quality of the ash 
left by no two species of plants is the same — and that the ash differs more widely 
in these respects the more the plants differ from which the a.-.h is derived. 

It is thus certain that these inorganic constituents contained in the ash are 
essential parts of the plants- — that they cannot live a healthy life and come to per- 
fection without them — and the practical consequence is that the farmer must sup- 
ply these inorganic substances to every deficient soil. If anything was needed 
to make this conclusion absolute, it was supplied in the experiment which estab- 
lishes that if you take a healthy young plant, and place it on a soil where it can- 
not obtain this inorganic matter found in the ash of the mature plant of its spe- 
cies, it droops and dies. 

First Agricultural Fair in Missouri. 113 

Who in view of this great truth, can deny the importance of Science to 
Agriculture? It establishes a clear relation between the kind and quality of the 
crop — and the chemical composition of the soil on which it grows. — It makes it 
as easy to know how to fee.! a plant as to feed a sheep. It shows how some 
manures permanently fertilize a soil, and how some crops permanently impover- 
ish it. It explains the action of mineral substances upon plants, and how the 
dead earth is turned into food for the living. It shows what a soil must contain, 
and thereby how it must be improved. It is a truth that must ultimately control 
all the important operations of husbandry. It is not confined to the fields or the 
meadows. It can be carried to the orchard and the garden. — The root of a tree 
selects from the soil the kind and quality of inorganic matter required for its life. 
Any other tree may be grafted upon it, provided it requires the same kind of in- 
organic substance in nearly the same proportion in its natural state. On the 
orange the lemon will grow — because the inorganic food of each is nearly the 
same — but the fig and grape cannot be engrafted on the orange tree. They need 
more lime, and potash, than the orange wants for its life — and the air cannot 
furnish them to the graft. The dependence of the graft for its inorganic supply, 
is on the roots of the tree upon which it is engrafted. 

These inorganic elements, identified with vegetable life, are twelve in num- 
ber, found generally in combination with each other, or with oxygen. And here, 
the agency of man is a fived necessity. Over this wide field of science it is not 
ray purpose to pass. I do not know how to tread it, but I know that chemistry 
over evary foot of that way, is the best guide of the practical agriculturist, even 
where, his steps are most familiar — and that if he will follow her, she will con- 
duct him to triumphs to be won on paths never by him trod before. 

Chemistry is young, her step is cautious, but firm, and her progress sure. 
She holds the key which unlocks the mysteries of nature, and her mission is to 
open io the gaze of man the wonderful and varied adaptations of the earth, and 
air, and sea, provided for his use. In the beginning God gave man dominion 
over the physical world, and chemistry must explore and survey the extent, and 
show forth the riches of his kingdom. She does not work as the Alchemist 
worked — she does not toil to find out in matter a quality which God never be- 
stowed upon it. Her business is with the practicable and attainable. She learns 
the properties and uses of matter, and brings her acquisition as an offering to the 
varied pursuits of man. She opens the medicine chest of nature to the Physician 
— she furnishes a safety lamp to the miner in his pit — die puts a mask on the 
face ot the needle-maker which, charged with loadstone, winnows from the air 
the metallic dust, destructive to his life. She enters the foundry and the work- 
shop — the distillery and the artist's studio — the pottery and the printing-room — 
the mint and the manufactory-*— and wherever she enters she brings the tribute ef 
knowledge. But though she wanders thus, on her mission of benevolence, her 
widest domain is in the field of husbandry. 

It is not surprising that our farmers lack knowledge in Agricultural Chem- 
istry. Chemistry itself, has not lived one hundred years as a science. 

Agricultural Chemistry is much younger. Sir Humphrey Davy died in 
1829; his lectures before the Royal Society of Agriculture in London, [the first 
serious effort in that department of science] were delivered about fifty years ago. 
Organic Chemistry is of still later date, and Geology has only within this century 
taken position as a science. 

Agricultural chemists themselves differ on some propositions of the highest 
practical importance, and they have yet before them a wide surface in nature 
unexplored. All human science is progressive, and the sciences of observation, 
£of which chemistry is one.] are peculiarly so. But it may be safely said, that 
of all sciences known to man, the advances of chemistry have been the most 
rapid since she took her place in the circle of the sciences. Her power of anal- 
ysis, while it opens to her the most hidden laws of nature, secures to her results 
the certainty of which belong to the exact sciences. A chemist may err — he may 
attempt to deduce a law from facts too limited in number, or character ; but his 
imperfect or erroneous generalization cannot long escape the scrutiny of his own 
or others' experiments. The conflicts of opinion now going on among the dis- 
tinguished chemists of the world, in regard to some of the processes in nature 
connected with vegetable antl animal physiology, will end in knowledge. 

The practical farmer, by his carefully ascertained facts, will aid the chemist 
at his crucible, and the chemist will bring back to the farmer knowledge of the 
laws by which nature works in the field of husbandry. This knowledge is indis- 

114 Warsaw and Rockfurd Railroad. 

pensable. Every farmer is in partnership with the atmosphere and the soil' 
Like every partnership, it is a relation of trust and confidence — and, as in every 
other partnership, the farmer ought to know the duties of the other members of 
the firm as well as his own. He should know the work assigned to each of his 
copartners, and how they work, lest he may counteract their labors by his own 
— and he should also know when to rely upon them, and when not. More than 
all, when they call upon him for assistance he should know how to furnish it. 
It is not my hope to see every farmer a chf-rnist, so skilled as to be able to anal- 
yze the constituents of a plant or the ingredients of his soil. That is not my ex- 
pectation. But I trust the day will come when the constituents of every plant 
grown by our larmers will be known, and the ingredients of every soil on which 
they are grown, shall be known also. My hope is, that this knowledge will he 
dift'ised and rendered familiar^ so t*h at it may be applied by every intelligent 
agriculturist in the State. Astronomy calculates the rise and set of the sun and 
moon, and the periods of eclipse ; and the world appropriates the results of the 
astronomers. Newton discovered the law of gravitation, and men who are not 
philosophers, realize the idea and apply it in a thousand modes of usefulness. 
Genius finds out the hidden power of water as a propeller on the sea and on the 
land, and now the locomotive and the steamer aie the common engines of the 
World. And thus shall it be with the offerings which science shall bring to the 
ai t l husbandry. 

[To bo continued. 

Warsaw and Rockford Railroad. 

We have regarded the Warsaw and Rockford Railroad, and the 
Central Military Tract Railroad as among the most important lines 
in the great system of public improvements concentrating at the 
city of St. Louis; but it appearing from our observation that every 
attempt on the part of the public press of this city, to give direc- 
ts n or encouragement to any scheme of improvement in Illinois, 
was offensive to the people of that State, we have refrained from 
noticing these works, lest we should do them an injury instead of 
a benefit. 

We deem it fortunate for the commerce of the Mississippi valley, 
and especially fortunate for the city of St. Louis, that there is a 
reasonable prospect of securing the construction of the Warsaw & 
Rockford railroad by the subscription of so small a sum as $200,- 
000, and we sincerely hope that the appeal in behalf of this work, 
which we publish below, will receive that degree of consideration 
which its importance demands. — Editors W. J. cS' C. 

St. Louis, November 3, 1853. 

The undersigned, beg leave to call to your attention, as briefly 
as possible, a few facts, showing the importance to St. Louis of 
the Railroad, proposed to be constructed under the charter of the 

Warsaw and Rockford Railroad. 115 

Warsaio and Rockford Railroad Company. The Report of 
the Engineers made last June, with the map accompanying, shows 
the general outline, but as this was founded, to some extent, on a 
simple reconnoisance of the country, it was thought better not to 
present the subject to the people of St. Louis, until actual instru- 
mental surveys had been made to demonstrate the truth of the 
estimate. These surveys have been made, under the particular 
management of W R. Kingsley, for some time the principal as- 
sistant of the Pacific Railroad, and by late report to the Board of 
Directors, fully confirms the estimates made in the original report. 

The Warsaw and Rockford Railroad is designed — 

1st. As one of the improvements in the navigation of the Mis- 
sissippi river, by connecting at all seasons the foot of the lower 
rapids, with the head of the upper rapids, a distance of about 120 

2d. By connecting the river with the different Railroads now in 
progress of construction, east and west (four in number), above 
the rapids, to make them to a certain extent tributary from the 
east to the Mississippi river, for the business that naturally should 
pass north and south. 

3d. By connection with the Illinois Central Railroad Branch at 
Galena, and with the Fon du Lac Railroad in Wisconsin, to form 
a governing channel of trade, available at all seasons for north- 
west Illinois, Wisconsin and Iowa. 

4th. By a connection from Alexandria with the North Missouri 
Railroad, and thus through St. Louis with the Mississippi valley 
Railroad to the Gulf of Mexico, to always (winter and summer) 
have for that portion of the great valley, a route as available, 
north and south, as on the many east and west routts now 
being constructed by eastern enterprise and ambition. 

Looking at the first division of the road (from rapid to rapid) 
as simply an improvement of the Mississippi river, it may be con- 
tended that the improvements to be ultimately made by the general 
government for the navigation of the rapids may dispense with the 
necessity for the Railroad. But who can tell when these improve- 
ments will be made. Eastern enterprise and capital have been 
freely used to control the trade above the rapids, and draw it by 
the Lakes, and Railroad, and Canals, to the eastern Atlantic 
shores; and this influence will, more and more be felt in the Halls 
of Congress. But it is undoubtedly the interest of the lower Mis- 
sissippi river, and especially of St. Louis, not only to improve for 
Steamboats the navigation of the Mississippi river, but also by 
Railroads, so as to give outlet all the year, for what the river on- 
ly affords accommodation for during a part oj the year. On this 
last fact is founded, to a great extent, the enterprise for roads 
east and west, above the rapids. They mu^t succeed, but, if the 
west is true to itself, only by such development of the country as 
will give abundant business in all directions. If St. Louis, and 

116 Warsaiv and Rockford Railroad. 

the lower Mississippi valley trust solely to the river, necessarily 
shut up by the ice of winter, for a part of the year, for the busi- 
ness of the upper valley — then must a much larger proportion of 
it pass eastward than would be the case if an equally convenient 
outlet was furnished southward at all seasons. 

Along the upper Mississippi valley a very large proportion of 
the trade has been to St. Louis. Now they see other outlets are 
shortly (not yet) to be opened, in some respects more convenient 
because always available. They look to St. Louis still; and, de- 
sirous to preserve that connection, liberally subscribe for the con- 
struction of a railroad towards that city ; but they look, also for 
some aid from St. Lords. 

Looking at the Warsaw and Rockford Railroad in its connec- 
tions, shown in 2 to 4 of the objects embraced in the construction, 
it needs no argument to show its importance to St. Louis and the 
lower Mississippi valley. An inspection of the map of route and 
connections of the road, suggests more reasons for its prompt con- 
struction than can be stated in this brief view. 

The Warsaw and Rockford Railroad Company now stand in this 
position : They have a liberal charter, giving them all legislative 
facilities for the construction of a railroad from Warsaw to Nau- 
voo, and thence to any point of intersection with the Chicago and 
Galena Railroad. A local influence was created (by the difficult- 
ies of navigation over the Lower Rapids), for a railroad from War- 
saw to Nauvoo, and considerable stock subscribed. But it was 
subsequently believed and advised that the 1st Division of the 
Road should embrace both rapids. This led to the survey and re- 
connoisance in March last, and subsequently to the instrumental 
survey, just completed. It was understood that St. Louis would 
take a reasonable interest in the work, and it was estimated that 
if the following basis for construction could be obtained, the work 
could speedily be completed, viz: 

Now subscribed or provided for $113,000 

Additional subscription in Warsaw and Nauvoo 10,000 

Pontoosuc 30,000 

Dallas 10,000 

Line of Road 50,000 

St. Louis 200,000 

Henderson county and Oquawka., 100,000 

Mercer county, Keithsburg and Millersburg... 100,000 

Fort Madison 25,000 

Rock Island city and county 125,000 

Davenport, Port Byron, Galena, etc 50,000 

On this the friends of the road in the upper country have ex- 
erted themselves, and have obtained subscriptions to the amount 
of $350,000 

Pacific Railroad. 117 

Henderson, Mercer, Rock Island Counties, &c, &c, 
to vote in November, the result not doubted, with en- 
couragement from St. Louis S00.000 

Needed from St. Louis $200,000 

It is now presented to your aid, with all others permanently con- 
nected with the commercial and real estate interest in St. Louis, 
to establish a fair basis for the prosecution of this work. It is not 
the desire of the Company to force this work to construction, 
against all the difficulties of the present money panic (not scarc- 
ity) in the market, but to so prepare themselves, by subscriptions, 
as to take advantage of the opportunities that may present them- 
selves. They have resolved to make the subscriptions only pay- 
able at the rate of 30 per cent, per annum, and not even at this 
rate unless the way can be clearly seen to the successful prosecu- 
tion of the work. The people in the upper valley look to St. 
Louis for aid, and unless that appears in some material form, it 
may be that the county votes necessary to secure a proper basis 
may be lost, and the interests and energies of the people there 
thrown to advance the Eastern connections, in which direction 
they can always secure aid of word and deed. 

Your attention is particularly called to the Charters and Engin- 
eers' Reports published in July, 1853. 

H. D. BACON, 1 


W. C. WAGLEY, f Co™"***"- 


Pacific Railroad. 

We are gratified to learn that the vexed question of location 
west of Jefferson City, has been finally settled by the Board of Di- 
rectors. We copy the proceedings of the Directors touching this 
subject from the St. Louis Intelligencer. 

St. Louis, November 14, 1853. 

At a meeting of the Board of Directors of the Pacific Railroad 
Company, held this day, the following among other proceedings, 
were had : 

A committee appointed at a previous meeting of the Board to 
examine into the validity, &c, of certain subscriptions made to the 
Pacific Railroad, submitted the following report, which was ac- 
cepted, viz : 

118 Pacific Railroad. 

The undersigned committee, appointed "to examine into the 
character and validity of certain subscriptions made by certain 
counties, say, Moniteau, Pettis, Johnson, Morgan, Benton, Hen- 
ry and Jackson, ask leave to report that they have performed that 
duty, and that they find the following persons fully authorized by 
the several County Courts to make additional subscriptions on the 
part of said counties, to the capital stock of the Pacific Railroad, 
to wit : 

For Jackson county, Wayman Crow, amount, $75,000 
" Moniteau " D. Rollins, " 25,000 

" Johnson " B VV. G rover, " 50,000 

" Morgan " G. R. Smith, " 25,000 

" Henry " do. " 50,000 

" Pettis " do. " 70,000 

Making on the part of said counties,.., $295,000 

Unconditional subscriptions 

In the following named counties we find the subscriptions on the 
part of individuals, amounting to 

Moniteau county, L81 shares $13,100 

Cooper " 420 " 42,000 

Morgan " 100 " 10,000 

Johnson " 248 " 24,800 

Lafavette " 255 " 25,500 

Benton " 18 " 1,800 

Making in private subscriptions $117,200 

Amounting in aggregate $422,200 

In regard to the private subscriptions above set forth, we are 
most positively assured by Messrs. Grover, Holden, Smith and 
Rollins, representing said counties, that the signatures are genu- 
ine, and that the parties are all able and willing to pay their re- 
spective subscriptions whenever the company may think proper to 
call for the same. The con ■ mittee, considering the question of the 
"free right of way" in the Johnson county route as part of the 
duty contemplated by the resolution above quoted, have examined 
the bonds of various counties, and individuals guarantying the 
same, and find for 

Cole county the bond of Messrs. Price and Cordcll. 

Moniteau •' " A. R. Nelson and others. 

Cooper " " Eli Stone do. 

Pettis " " G. R. Smith do. 

Johnson " " County Court. 

Morgan " " late Howard and others. 

Lafayette " " Isaac II. Wood do. 

Jackson " " G. R. Smith do. 

The original subscription lists, County Court orders, and right 
of way bonds, are in the possession of the proper officer of the Pa- 

Hickman and Obion Railroad. 119 

cific Railroad Company, and can be referred to, if your Board 
shall desire other information than contained in this report. All 
which is respectfully submitted. 

( S, S ned ) JohnC.Rtot, ? Committee . 

Hy. S. Patterson, ) 
To Thos. Allen, Esq., Prest. P. R. R. C. 
St. Louis, November 14th, 1853. 

The following preamble and resolution was then unanimously 

Whereas, The counties contiguous to and along the line of the 
inland route of the Pacific Raiiroad, and the citizens of said coun- 
ties, have in good faith, as we believe, secured to the Company the 
free right of way, and additional subscription of four hundred 
thousand dollars, as required by the eleventh section of the act of 
the Legislature, approved December 25th, 1852. It is, there- 

Resolved, That said Pacific Railroad, west of Jefferson City, 
be and the same is hereby located along the inland route, through 
Johnson county, to such termination in Jackson county, as shall 
be hereafter fixed by the Company, in accordance with the provi- 
sions of the Eleventh section of the act above recited. 

Hickman and Obion Railroad. 

South-western Kentucky and South-eastern Missouri, districts so 
long shunned by emigrants and neglected by capitalists, have re- 
cently become the theater of active and energetic measures in re- 
lation to public improvements. The men of these districts have 
had the sagacity to perceive and appreciate the fact that the na- 
tural point of connection between the railroad systems of the south- 
eastern and north-western States is below the mouth of the Ohio 
river, and they have shown a wise forecast in seizing upon the 
proper time to commence their operations. 

Perhaps no other people ever had it in their power to develop 
their resources in as great a degree at so little cost. It is not neces- 
sary that they should build great trunk lines to connect them with 
distant parts of the Union. Let them ascertain and establish a 
point on the Mississippi where the two great systems can be con- 
veniently connected, and they will encounter little difficulty in pro- 
curing the means to construct the short stems required to unite 
them with the great lines east and west of the Mississippi. By 

120 Hickman and Obion Railroad. 

establishing the practicability of a direct line, at a reasonable cost, 
from a point opposite Hickman, Ky., to the Iron Mountain, Mo., 
they will bring the influence and capital of those interested in the 
great lines leading to Mobile, to Savannah and to Charleston, to 
aid in constructing the work west of the Mississippi ; for it is ob- 
vious that the profits of all those works will be greatly augmented 
by a connection with the Mississippi valley railroad. It is not our 
purpose to indicate the point of connection on the Mississippi: we 
leave that to those more immediately interested and better ac- 
quainted with the country. The people of Hickman have acted 
with commendable energy ; and possessing a good situation for a 
commercial city, bid fair to draw the lines of improvement east of 
the river to that point. We learn from the "Argus" that seven 
miles of the Hickman and Obion railroad have already been put 
under contract to be completed by the First of December, 1854. 
Nor do they seem to confine their views to their own side of the 
Mississippi : the following preamble and resolutions adopted at a 
meeting of the citizens of Fulton eounty, on the 7th of November, 
1852, show the enlarged and liberal views by which they are gov- 

Whereas, The time is near at hand when a connection will be 
formed by railroad between St. Louis, Mo., and the Mississippi 
river below the mouth of the Ohio, and 

Whereas, A railroad convention of the adjoining States is to be 
held at Benton, Mo., on the 14th inst., to devise ways and means 
to accomplish that object and designate the terminus for the same 
on the Mississippi river, and whereas in the opinion of this meet- 
ing, Hickman, Ky., presents under the circumstances the most 
favorable point for the same. 

Resolved, That Fulton county and the town of Hickman will 
cordially co-operate with our Missouri friends in designating the 
point for said terminus, and aid liberally in the construction of 
the road. 

Resolved, That by tapping the Mississippi at Hiokman, the 
chain of railroad connection between the great Northwest and the 
South and Southeast would be complete — that there it meets the 
Nashville and Northwestern Railroad in a direct line for Nash- 
ville, Tenn., Charleston, S. C, and Savannah, Ga., also the 
States of Virginia and North Carolina; also the Mobile and Ohio 
Road with all their connections south and east — thus opening up 
to the mineral and agricultural interests of Missouri, a market 
without a parallel in extent and value. 

Resolved, That the route from Hickman to Benton or its vi- 
cinity has been found to be entirely practicable for a railroad, 

St. Louis 8? Neiv Orleans Railroad via JYcw Madrid. 121 

presenting no obstacles which are formidable; the Mississippi bot- 
tom being already levied and protected from inundation. 

Twenty-eight delegates were appointed by the meeting to attend 
the convention at Benton. 

^u ■w^-r-* 

St. Louis and New Orleans Bailroad via New Madrid. 

We find in the Journal of the Times, published at New Mad- 
rid, Mo., a well digested article entitled "St. Louis and New Or- 
leans," in which the author proposes a railroad connection between 
these cities by a line crossing the Mississippi at New Madrid. The 
writer says : 

,,In regard to this extensive road, this important fact should not 
be forgotten, that a large portion of it is already in contemplation, 
but with a desire to connect other points. This proposition is only 
an extension of a preconceived plan of roads. This proposed ex- 
tension increases the chances of each division of the road, and 
strengthens the entire scheme. 

The New Orleans and Jackson Road is now under contract. 
The road from Jackson to Memphis is regarded as a certaintv. 
The St. Louis and Iron Mountain road is under contract in part 
■ — all located. The only link in the whole chain from N. Orleans 
to St. Louis, missing, is from the Iron Mountain to Memphis — 
distance about 160 miles. 

The proposition and the facts are presented to the public. It 
may not be the best or most feasible plan which might be project- 
ed for connecting these points, but it is certainly the one some 
will regard as the best, most feasible, and more propitious of con- 

It is of no ordinary importance to this line that the point pro- 
posed for a crossing is superior in every particular to any other 
on the river, from Cairo to New Orleans. The Madrid Bend banks 
are high on each side of the river, with no impediment from high 
water — the country on either side being entirely free from inunda- 
tion — from swamps, or anything that could be regarded as an ob- 
struction — ad infinitum. The climate is mild ; no obstruction 
from ice has ever occurred here, nor has steamboat navigation 
ever been interrupted at this point by ice, low water, or other- 
wise. Another advantage of crossing at Madrid is, the connection 
the line in question will have with the Nashville Road." 

We regard a railroad connection between St. Louis and New 
Madrid as being of sufficient importance to authorize the building 

122 Lake Erie, Wabash and St. Louis Railroad. 

of a branch from that place to some point on the Iron Mountain 
road, whether such branch should ever become a link in the line of 
travel to New Orleans or not. But it is doubtless true that an ex- 
tension of the line to Memphis would enhance the value of the Iron 
Mountain branch, and, until a more direct route can be obtained 
to New Orleans, would be of great advantage to St. Louis. 

It shou'd be borne in mind that the improvements of the age de- 
mand an approximation to airlines, and we trust that the enterpris- 
ing citizens of New Madrid and Hickman will give this fact its due 
consideration before they determine on a route in the direction of 
St. Louis. 

Lake Erie, Wabash and St. Louis Railroad. 

Few of our readers, we believe, are aware of the steps which 
have been taken in the prosecution of this important enterprise ; 
and fewer still, perhaps, hate contemplated the peculiar office 
which this road is calculated to perform, by connecting the Lake 
Erie and Canadian systems of navigation, railroads, and com- 
merce with the great central system of the Mississippi valley at 
St. Louis. The following extracts from an "Exhibit of the Lake 
Erie, Wabash and St. Louis Railroads" cannot be otherwise than 
interesting to all our readers. 

[From the American Railway Times.] 

The valley of the Mautnee River, from the mouth on Lake Erie 
to Fort Wayne, and that of the Wabash River, thence to its south 
bend near Lafayette, form in their course a direct track, as far as 
the last named point, between Toledo and St. Louis. The work 
herein presented under the name of "The Lake Erie, Wabash and 
St. Louis Railroad," is a constituent part of line from Toledo to 
St. Louis, and represents the Indiana portion of that line, in length, 
168.5-1 miles. The following remarks, unless otherwise expressed, 
refer to the road in Indiana. The Ohio portion from Toledo to 
the State line of Indiana, 75 miles in length, under the title of tho 
"Toledo and Illinois Railroad," will be prosecuted at the same 
time and by the same parties, (though necessarily under different 
organization,) for which due arrangements have been made, by a 
perpetual lease of the Ohio road to the Indiana Company. These 
combined lines will introduce us into an existing chain of roads 
now nearly completed, through Illinois to Alton and St. Louis, and 

Lake E?-ie, Wabash and St. Louis Railroad. 123 

command, also, the other outlets of the Mississippi as high as Bur- 

Charter.— The company derives its charter under the general 
Act of the Legislature of Indiana, of May 11, 1852. ''To pro- 
vide for the incorporation of Railroad Companies ' Its organi- 
zation was completed by the election of officers on the 1st day of 
September, 1852. A through survey of the line has been made, 
under the direction of William Durbin, Esq., an experienced Civil 
Engineer, the results ot which are very satisfactory. Traversing 
one of the most extended and productive valleys in the West, whose 
staples for many years have swelled the markets of New Orleans 
and more recently (since the Wabash Canal was completed) those 
of Toledo and Buffalo, following the lines of commerce, starting 
from the most Western extreme of Lake Erie, and approaching 
the city of St. Louis, this work began very soon to attract public 
attention in the Atlantic States. For the cities of Boston and 
New York especially, the Wabash Valley has ever been regarded 
the natural route to St. uouis. It would have been sooner occu- 
pied with a railroad track, but that the jealousy of Ohio and Indi- 
ana for their canals denied to companies a charter, until a more 
enlarged policy under their new constitutions, opened the way to 
private enterprise by the general Railroad Laws of each of those 
States, lately passed. 

Subscriptions. — Subscriptions to the capital stock of the Lake 
Erie. Wabash and St. Louis Railroad have been made to the 
amount of two millions of dollars. Of this, $700,001) were taken 
in Indiana, and $1,300,000 in New York. — Among the share- 
holders are names prominently connected with our oldest and most 
successfull railroad enterprises, and well known in that relation, 
both in Europe and America. — An instalment of ten per cent, has 
been paid, an 1 further requisitions will be made monthly, as it is 
intended the work shall advance with the utmost rapidity. 

Construction. — A contract has been made with Messrs. Boo- 
dy, Ross & Co., of New York, to build, furnish and equip the en- 
tire line of road by the first day of May, 1855. The contract 
covers the road bed, and its superstructure of wood and iron, with 
the necessary side tracks, station houses, machine shops, and 
other buildings and fixtures, including a suitable and speciefied 
outfit of rolling stock, all to be finished and furnished as a first 
class road. The contractors, being men of great experience, hav- 
ing built with great success other important roads, (among them 
and most recent, the "Rochester, Lockport and Niagara Falls," 
and the "New Jersey Central ') the company have the most reli- 
able assurance that their work will be well executed and with signal 

Cost of the road. — The contract cost of the road with its fur- 
niture and equipment, will be a near approximation of four milli- 

124 Lake Erie, Wabash ana St. Louis Railroad. 

ons of dollars. As this covers everything but right of way and 
depot grounds, with some small amount of contingencies, the en- 
tire cost of the road in motion, with a suitable outfit of rolling 
stock, may be set down (including interest during construction,) 
at §4,500,000. The work has been apportioned to sub-contract- 
ors, some of whom are at work, six corps of engineers being en- 
gaged in repairing the line. — Releases of right of way are being 
taken, which in Indiana are generally voluntarily, or will cost but 
an inconsiderable amount. 

Local business. — No better illustration of the probable pro- 
ductiveness of this stock or of the business of the road can be giv- 
en, than its position on the map, indicating its connection with 
the Western system of land and water carriage. — A brief explan- 
ation, however, of some cf its local and domestic resources, will 
be appropriate. Pursuing a middle latitude, it p*asses through a 
region where wheat and corn equally abound, and reaches at its 
western end the country of pasturage. More cattle have passed 
the Wabash River at Attica, (where the road leaves the river,) 
than at any other point. TheMaumee and Upper Wabash sections 
are forest lands, covered with a steady growth of burr and white 
oak, black walnut, poplars, wild cherry, curled maple, &c. At 
Lafayette, the road enters the eastern margin of the prairie world, 
which stretching west to the Rocky Mountains, requires its supply 
of timber from behind. This timber will go westward to the Mis- 
sissipi, for house building, fencing, cabinet work, cooperage, and 
other mechanical uses. — The lumber traffic is now a profitable 
one on every Ohio and Indiana road, and none more so, than 
those approaching the prairies. The market for lumber west of 
Lafayette, is boundless, and this article alone would furnish a 
daily train of cars. Saw- mills are arising every five miles on our 
newly finished roads. * * * * 

Commands both sides of lake erie. — A road from St. Louis 
along the continuous valleys of the Wabash and Maumee, com- 
mands what no other St. Louis road can do, both sides of Lake 
Erie, and connects itself thus, with almost equal directness, with 
both the Canadian and American systems east of Toledo. Public 
opinion has already settled in favor of this as one of the cardinal 
routes, and as uniting not only large cities, great waters, and en- 
tire systems in our own country, but as part of a continental work 
connecting two nations, and adding to an internal water commerce 
already very extensive, the increased facilities of a land commerce 
by steam, at the very moment when our neighbors are endeavoring 
to make that connection available from the Detroit river to the 
mouth of the St. Lawrence. 

Commercial Record. 125 


In connection with the general view of commerce and finance 
contained in the leading article of this number, we commence the 
publication of a "Commercial Record," wnich we design to con- 
tinue in each succeeding number, provided our labors in this de- 
partment should receive the approbation of our patrons. 

In making up the "Commercial Record," we shall always aim 
to collect our facts from the most authentic sources, selecting only 
such as we may deem useful and worthy of being preserved for fu- 
ture reference. 

We cannot expect to do full justice to this department in the be 
ginning; but trust that when our arrangements for procuring facts 
shall have been completed, a few months of observation and prac* 
tice will enable us to give method and form to the "Commercial 
Record," that will make it acceptable and useful to individuals 
engaged in every branch of business. 

November 15, 1853. 

Owing to the low stage of water in the Mississippi and its tribut- 
aries, and the high prices of freights, from the month of August 
to the present date, the receipts of produce at St. Louis, though 
comparing favorably with the same period in 1852, have been much 
less than dealers were authorized to expect from the abundant 
crops produced in all parts of the country tributary to this market. 

The effects resulting from the difficulties of river navigation du- 
ring the current season cannot all be foreseen at present: but, as 
collections in the interior depend in a good degree upon the sales 
of produce, one of the consequences will be a scarcity of money 
for mercanti;e purposes until the opening of navigation in the 

On the 5th instant freights from St. Louis to New Orleans were 
quoted as follows: flour $1.20, pork $1.75, per barrel; and other 
descriptions of produce from 65 to 75 cents per 10U lbs. Such 
extreme prices were calculated to suspend transactions in produce, 
and could not be long maintained. Since then a rapid decline 
has taken place, and we now quote the following as the currtct 
rates: flour 50 cents ; pork 87^ cents; whisky £1A0 barrel: 
corn 40 cents per sack ; other descriptions ol pecuee in ro Zb to 
40 cents per 1U0 lbs.; cattle $8.00, and hogs §1.'50 per head. 

The crop of cereals, with slight exceptions, is abundant through- 
out the valley States ; and though fluctuating, piece l.a\e luii 
highly favorable to the producers. 


126 Commercial Record. 

Wheat. — Sales reported to-day ranging from $1.06 to $1.20 
per bushel. At New York, prices (reported by telegraph) of 
Western §1.75 ; Genesee $1.80; Southern $1.66; Pennsylvania 
$1.85; — export demand large. The quantity of wheat delivered 
at tide water by the New York canals, from the opening of navi- 
gation to 7thinst. inclusive, amounts to 6,767,178 bushels against 
5,471,495 for the same period in 1852. — Increase 1,295,683 bus. 

Flouii. — The receipts of this year will exceed those of 1852 by 
perhaps 50,000 barrels. Sales to-day of superfine and extra 
brands at from $5.75 to $6.18 per barrel At New York (same 
date,) sales are reported for State at from $7.00 to $7.06 ; Ohio 
$7.12 to $7.25 ; Southern $7.25 to $7.33; and at New Orleans, 
on 12th inst., the price of superfine flour was reported at $7.00 
per barrel. The quantity delivered at tide water by the New York 
canals up to 7th instant, is 2,421,472 barrels against 2,859,346 
barrels in 1852 — decrease 437,874 barrels. 

Corn. — Sales at from 38 to 45 cents, as in quality, sacks in- 
cluded. Sales at New York of this date: mixed 80^- cents, yellow 
82 cents. From appearances the receipts of this year will fall 
below those of 1852. 

The receipts of flour, wheat, corn and barley at tide water from 
the New York canals, for the first week in November, in 1853 and 
1852 have been as follows : 

Flour, bbls. Wheat, bu. Corn. bu. Barley, b''. 

1853 96,143 308,609 58,711 132,587 

1852 143,812 288,212 66,176 306,914 

Bee. 47,699 Inc. 20,397 Dec. 7,465 Dec. 32,291 
The aggregates of the receipts of the above articles so far for 
the years 1853 and 1852, have been : 

Flour, bbls. Wheat, bu. Corn, bu. Barley, b . 

1853. ..2,421,472 6,767,178 2,812,698 1,938,527 

1852. ..2,859,346 5,471,495 5,031,948 1,508,856 

Dec. 437,874 Inc. 1,295,683 Dec. 2,221,250 Inc. 429,772 
The receipts at tide water of the principal articles of produce, 
from the opening of the Canals to and including the 7th instant, 
have been as follows : 

1851. 1852. 1858. 

Canal open April 15. % April 20. April 2''. 

Flour bbls 2,885,292 2,859,346 2,421,47^ 

Wheat bush 2,680,150 5,471,495 6,767,178 

Corn bush 7,293,843 5,031,943 2,312,698 

Barley ....bush 1,215,183 1,508,855 1,938,527 

Oats bush 3,305,239 

Beef bbls 41,716 37,674 39,080 

pork- bbls 45,024 69,379 105,000 

Butter lbs 5,487,200 3,659,600 2,936,900 

Commercial Record. 127 

Lard lbs 9,270,800 9,869,400 11,305,900 

Bacon lbs 10,822,100 9,656,100 19,909,400 

Cheese lbs 18,128,600 11,753,000 5,606,300 

Wool lbs 10,337,200 7,531,200 6,098,400 

The receipts last year from November 7 to the close of naviga- 
tion, which extended into the month of December, of flour, wheat, 
corn and barley, were as follows : 

Corn bush 379,695 

Barley.... bush 771,630 

Flour bbls 604,772 

Wheat bush 1,283,451 

If we reduce the flour to wheat, allowing five bushels to the bar- 
rel, it will be seen, that the quantity of wheat delivered at tide 
water, in 1853, is 893,690 bushels less than during the same pe- 
riod in 1852. This added to the 2,221,250 bushels, decrease in 
the quantity of corn makes the aggregate delivery of these two 
articles less by 3,114,940 bushels than during the same period of 
last year. 

When we take into view the high prices of these commodities in 
New York, and the facilities of transportation from the lake region 
»nd from the States east of the Alleghanies, a strong presumption 
arises that the spring and summer supplies of breadstuffs for the 
eastern cities and for exportation must be drawn chiefly from the 
valley States, and that prices will continue to rule high throughout 
the season, even if friendly relations should be restored between 
Turkey and Russia at an early day. 

Tobacco. — The receipts for the present year are estimated at 
9,907 hogsheads and 8,832 boxes. The crop of 1853 is not ex- 
pected to exceed that of last year. 

Hemp. — It is believed that but little of the old crop is. left in 
the hands of the producers. The amount received during the year 
is estimated at 61,522 bales against 53,331 hales in 1852. Prices 
have been highly remunerating to the growers^ Sales of three small 
lots reported to-day at $120, $122 and $127 per tun. 

Lead. — The quantity received up to the present time is reported 
at 397,410 pigs against 416,985 in last year. The imports of 
the year will probably exceed the amount received in 1852 by a 
few thousand pigs. Prices have ruled high during the season. 
Sales of 1137 pigs Galena reported to-day at $6.40 — a silght de^ 
cline from former prioes. 

The Galena Jejfersonian, of the 10th inst., contains the fol- 
fowing interesting statistics of the products of lead in that region, 
furnished by Capt. Edward Bebee, of Galena, Illinois. 

Years. No. Pigs. Price. 

1841 452,814 not known. 

1842 , 447,909 $2 24 

1843 559,261 2 34 

1844 627,672 2 80 

1845 778,498 2 96 

128 Commercial Record. 

Years. No. Pigs. Price. 

1846 732,4U3 2 89 

1847 772,650 3 17 

1848 681,969 3 24 

1849 628,934 3 67 

1850 568,589 4 20 

1851 474,115 4 08 

1852 408,628 4 12 

It will be seen that the total production of lead in the past 12 
years has been 7,140 k 248 pigs; ox four hundred and forty -nine 
millions, eight hundred and seventeen thousand, three hund- 
red and sixty pounds! At an average price of three dollars 
twenty-four cents and sixty-three one hundredths ^ ft, or a total 
of $14,602,410. Of this lead, nine-tenths has been shipped from 

The effect of the California emigration upon the quantity of 
lead produced, is seen clearly in the table above. In 1848, when 
the fever was raging most violently, the falling off is most visible. 
The decrease has been rapid until the present year, though the 
lead actuary dug has all the while had the benefit of a rising mar- 
ket. The flood of emigration is turning this way again ; and we 
hope, at the close of navigation, to be able to say that the product 
of this year exceeds that of 1852 by 50,000 to 100,000 pigs. 
Enough is now known to warrant us in asserting that the increase 
will be considerable, though the precise figures cannot be set down. 
Hogs. — The hog crop of the Western States is believed to be 
more abundant than for several years past. Packing has not yet 
commenced at this point; and prices remain unsettled. We learn 
that $4.00 per 100 lbs. has been offered. At Cincinnati, en the 
11th inst., the market was reported dull, with small sales of extra 
hogs at 4| cents per lb. The sale of the hog crop will compen- 
sate, in some degree, for the large quantity of cereals, which must 
be withheld from market during winter. 

Salt — .The quantity received at St. Louis during the present 
year has fallen below that of 1852. We quote Turks Island at 
$1.50 per sack, and Kenhawa at 50 cents per bushel. 

Sugar. — The receipts during the current year have been large. 
Arrivals of the new crop, up to the present date, have been small. 
Prices are quoted at 4 to 4£ cents for fair, and 4| to 4J for good. 

Molasses. — Prime plantation selling from store at 25J to 26 

The stringency which has characterized the money market for 
several months still continues. Dealers in negotiable paper se- 
cured by Deed in trust on real estate readily obtain from 12 to 15 
per cent, per annum. But the rates of exchange would seem to 
indicate that money in the hands of the bankers was in quantity 
sufficient for all legitimate business transactions. Exchange on 





3 to 4 











Commercial Record. 129 

the eastern cities has stood at J per cent premium during the sea- 
son, and on New Orleans and Cincinnati at par. Bank issues of 
other States (denominated currency) constitute almost the entire 
volume of circulation in Missouri. 

The following table exhibits the rate of discount at which the 
bank notes of other States are purchased by the brokers of St. 

Alabama 3 p. c. disc Maryland, N. Carolina 3 p. c. disc. 

" Baltimore 1 p.c.d.Ohio 1 " 

" count, b. 2 " Pennsylvania 
" Massach. 1 " Philadelphial 
" Maine 1 " country b. 1 to 5 
" Michigan 3" Rhodelslandl 
" N.Hamp. 1 " S. Carolina 8 
" N.Jersey 1 " Tennessee 2 \ to 3 
" Virginia 1 " Wisconsin* 1 
New York 1 *« 

* Fire and Marine Insurance Company 3 per cent, discount. 

The banking system of Illinois seems, thus far, to have worked 
well ; and the registered notes of Illinois banks are generally pre- 
fered by the people to the small notes of eastern banks. Notwith- 
standing the late failure of the Massillon bank was calculated to 
excite a greater degree of caution on the part of the community, 
confidence appears to remain unshaken in the solvency of western 
banks in general. The New York banks are gradually strenghten- 
ing their specie basis, and their deposits are on the increase; while 
at the same time they are slightly contracting their circulation and 
loans. It will be seen from the following statement, that the in- 
crease of specie in the two weeks, ending on the 12th instant, was 
nearly $2,000,000. 

Weekly Statement of the JVew York Banks. 

Loans. Specie. Circulation. Deposits. 
Oct. 29, '53, $83,400,321 $10,866,672 $9,300,350 $53,335,462 
Nov. 5, '53, 83,092,630 11,771,880 9,492,158 55,500,977 
Nov. 12, '53, 82,802,409 12,823,575 9,287,629 56,201,007 

It is to be regarded as a remarkable feature in the commerce of 
the country, that a severe stringency should occur in the money 
market at a period when the precious metals were rapidly accu- 

The following statement from the Washington Union, which 
we find to be correct so far as we have compared it with public 
documents, shows the accumulations of the precious metals from 
the year 1847 up to October 31, 1853 inclusive. 

Depositee of California Gold at the Mints. 
Philadelphia Mint. 

In 1848 $44,177 00 

1849 5,481,439 00 

1850 31,667,505 00 

130 Commercial Record. 

1851 46,939,367 00 

1852 49,321,490 00 

1853 (to July 30th) 38,080,253 85 

Total $172,034,231 85 

Branch Mints. 

Dahlonega. Charlotte. New Orleans. Total. 

1848 $1,124 00 $1,124 00 

1849 669,921 00 669,921 00 

1850 $30,025 00 4,575,567 00 4,605,592 00 

1851 214,072 00 $15,111 00 8,769,628 00 8,998,865 00 

1852 324,931 07 28,361 76 3,777,784 00 4,131,076 83 

1853, (to 

J'y 30, 260,607 78 15,399 49 1,389,208 02 1,674,215 29 

Total 839,635 85 58,872 25 19,183,286 02 20,080,794 12 
Add deposites at Philadelphia mint 172,034,231 85 

Total California deposites to July 30, 1853 192,115,025 97 

Subsequent Deposites at Philadelphia Mint. 

August, 1853 4,469,000 00 

September, 1853 2,975,000 00 

October, 1853 4,327,000 00 

Total California deposites to Oct. 31, 1853. ..203,886,025 97 
We have thus the amount of gold of California production re- 
ceived at the mints up to the 1st of November, except the deposits 
of the last three months at the branch mints, which are not likely 
to have been of sufficient magnitude to make them material to our 
purpose. The next thing to be considered is the amount of specie 
exported from the United States, and this we are enabled to ex- 
hibit with sufficient accuracy. Official documents show that the 
entire exports and imports of specie, from 1847 (the famine year) 
to 1853, were as follows: 

Imports. Exports. 

1847 $24,121,289 $1,907,739 

1848 6,360,224 15,841,620 

1849 6,651,240 5,401,648 

1850 4,628,792 7,522.994 

1851 5,453,592 29,472,752 

1852 5,503,544 42,674,135 

Total 52,718,681 102,823,888 


The Iron Trade of Great Britain. 131 

Excess of exports over imports of specie for six years 50,105,207 
Add exports for the first ten months of 1853, as as- 
certained from returns and estimates, say 25,000,000 

Total export of specie 75,105,207 

The whole question may then be briefly stated as follows : 
Receipts of California gold to Oct. 31, 1853,... $203 ,886,025 97 
Exports of specie from 1817 to Oct. 31, 1863... 75,105,207 00 

Net increase of specie 128,780,818 97 

That a considerable portion of this money has been drawn from 
the ordinary channels of commerce for the purpose of building 
railroads is doubtless true ; but it has been infinitely better em- 
ployed in this way than if all had gone to swell the volume of for- 
eign commerce. In this, the country has acted wisely: and hav- 
ing received a wholesome admonition from the stringent state of 
the money market, we conclude that the prospect of rapid and 
progressive development of our national wealth was never brighter 
than now. 

The high prices of iron, and other useful metals, have given a 
new impetus to their production; and causes are operating in this 
and other countries which authorize the hope, that the production 
of iron in the United States is about to be established upon a more 
solid and permanent basis. The following article from an English 
paper contains facts and suggestions highly interesting to all who 
desire the growth of the iron trade in this country. We copy from 
The United States Mining Journal. 

The Iron Trade of Great Britain. — Its Present Condition and Prospects. 

The firmness of the iron m irket, notwithstanding the increased 
value of money, and the unsettled state of our continental rela- 
tions, is naturally engaging attention. It appears that produc- 
tion is, at least, stationary, if not reduced, that the stock of iron 
is diminished; and that the demand has greatly increased. 

It is worthy of enquiry, whether this anomalous position of the 
iron trade is merely temporary, or is likely to be maintained. The 
present position of the iron trade is anomalous; inasmuch as in all 
former periods of prosperity, it was pretty evident that, however 
large the existing demand, the supply would soon overtake that 
demand ; and, in all probability, so far exceed it as to create a 
fresh period of depression, which could be relieved only by a still 
greater demand. 

132 The Iron Trade of Great Britain. 

Any one who has watched the progress of manufactures in Great 
Britain during the last thirty years, and has observed the prodig- 
ious increase in the demand for iron,— from half a million ton3 
annually to two millions and a half, — must have been struck with 
the remarkable coincidences which have enabled the supply to meet 
the demand. Had it not been for the discovery of the carbonace- 
ous iron ores in Scotland, and the introduction of hot blast in 
smelting iron, the production in Great Britain would not have ex- 
ceeded one-half of the present amount ; and the recent discovery 
of the oolite iron ores in the midland counties of England appears 
singularly opportune for maintaining a supply of minerals ade- 
quate to the still increasing demand. 

It is true, there is a temporary deficiency in the supply of coal; 
but no one who is conversant with the subject can doubt that the 
opening of new coal fields would, ere long, obviate that difficulty. 
Materials for iron making are found in this country in sufficient 
quantity to meet any conceivable demand that can arise. 

A novel impediment has, however, unexpectedly presented it- 
self; and it is an obstacle by no means easy tj be overcome. For 
the first time in our acquaintance with British manufactures, a 
scarcity of labor threatens seriously to interfere with the progress 
of production. This scarcity will, in a great measure, be coun- 
terbalanced in several of our staple manufactures — such as th? 
woollen, silk and cotton — by improved machinery and the more 
extensive employment of women and children; but these resources 
are not available in the manufacture of iron. The manual labor 
of strong men is, and will be, the chief instrument in that manu- 
facture. Mining may be assisted by machinery ; but it must be 
mainly dependent on the sinews of robust men ; and it can never 
be carried on by women or children. Emigration has already taken 
away hundreds of miners, and thousands who might have become 
miners, if they had remained in England; and emigration will take 
away hundreds and thousands more. 

Under these circumstances, the probability is that, while the 
demand for British iron will continue to increase, the production 
will, for some time to come, remain nearly stationary, if it does 
not actually recede. The difficulty of procuring miners, and other 
workmen required in the manufacture of iron, will be an obstacle 
to the erection of new iron-works, however profitable the specula- 
tion may appear ; and the same circumstance will interfere with 
the extension of iron- works now in operation, particularly those 
in the hands of prudent and calculating proprietors, who wisely 
consider that, by attempting to extend their works in spite of the 
scarcity of labor, they may so enhance the rate of wages as to les- 
sen the aggregate amount of their profits. 

If these views are correct, either the export of iron or the con- 
sumption at home, or both, must shortly receive a considerable 

The Iron Trade of Great Britain. 133 

check. The general prosperity in this country has undoubtedly 
given an impetus to the home consumption of iron, which is prop- 
ably at least ten per cent greater now than it was two years ago. 
We have no means of accurately ascertaining the home consump- 
tion; but knowing the quantity of the iron made, and the quantity 
exported, we can very nearly approximate to the quantity required 
at home. The make of pig-iron in the years 1851 and 1852, may 
be put at 2,600,000 tons annually; and the present make does not 
materially vary. The exports in those two years were equivalent 
to rather more than half that quantity ; so that, after making al- 
lowance for improvement in trade at home, it may be fairly esti- 
mated that 1,400,000 tons pig-iron is now required for home con- 
sumption. The exports of iron having so increased in the present 
year as to leave little more than half the required quantity for 
home consumption next year, supposing the make and the export 
of iron both to remain at the present rate, is a fact which must 
soon press itself upon the attention af makers, consumers and 
merchants. Judging from the past, and taking into account the 
extraordinary stimulus given by recent circumstances to foreign 
trade, the exports should be much larger in 1851 than in 1853. 
The quantity of iron exported in 1850 was equivalent to 1,100,- 
000 tons of pig-iron; in 1851, 1,300,000 tons; and in 1852, 1,- 
450,000 tons. In the first eight months of this year, the export 
is equivalent to 1,245,000 tons of pig-iron, which is at the rate 
of 1,870,000 per annum. This quantity, deducted from a total 
make of 2,600,000 tons per annum, would leave only 730,000 
tons for home consumption, which is about half the estimated 
quantity required. 

The following statement exhibits a detailed account of the ex- 
ports of iron from the 1st of January to 31st or August in the 
present year : — 

Declared value. Equiv. in pi^-iron. 

Pig-iron Tons228,305 ...Tons 228,305 

Bar, bolt and rod 474,144 632,192 

Wire 6,395 ■ 9,592 

Cast 38,589 40,510 

Wrought, sundry sorts. ...119,600 159,466 

Steel 12,976 25,952 

Tin-plates £826,334 45,000 

Steam-engines ■ 305,857 20,000 

Machinery 826,057 40,000 

Hardware and cutlery 2,300,990 45,000 

Making Tons 1,246,025 

Add 50 per cent, for four months, Sept. 1 to Dec. 31, 623.012 

Total 1,869,037 

1U Self Intellectual Culture. 


Some Thoughts on Self Intellectual Culture. 

Continued f om page 60, 

And here, permit me to make one or two observations, concern- 
ing reading. The object is, the acquisition of knowledge. And 
knowledge does not consist simply in the recollection of facts and 
incidents and dates, but in the comprehension of principles, in the 
understanding of the various relations of things, their nature, con- 
stitution and analysis. Their essential properties, modes of sub- 
sistence, peculiar affinities, and natural conditions and vicissitudes 
ought to be investigated, comprehended and mastered. We ought 
clearly to understand what we read, appreciate the author's rea- 
soning, exercise fearlessly and independently our best faculties in 
forming opinions and embracing conclusions; and when we reach 
results, we ought to incorporate them with, and make them a part 
of, the very constitution of our mind. Nothing short of this, will 
be productive of permanent usefulness, or establish independent, 
high-toned, vigorous habits of thought; nothing short of this, will 
confer ornament upon character, or dignity upon human nature ; 
nothing short of this, will produce and nurture that stern inde- 
pendence of soul, that fixedness, solidity and energy of moral prin- 
ciple, and that plain, practical transparent philosophy so intimate- 
ly connected with all the duties and pleasures of life, and which 
exercise so majestic and sweeping an influence in the daily walks 
of life. 

He who adopts the opinions of others upon simple trust and con- 
fidence, surrenders recreantly the best gift and the highest jewel 
of God's bounty to the eternal spirit. He who yields his judg- 
ment implicitly to the conservation of another, is unworthy the 
name or the privileges of a Freeman. And I unhesitatingly af- 
firm that no man can with fidelity discharge the duties he owes his 
God and his country unless his cherished opinicns are the delibe- 
rate acts and fruits of his own best judgment. 

And who, permit me to ask, dares to attack this birthright of a 
free citizen? Who dares to take into his own keeping the intellec- 
tual freedom and the immortal interests of another? He who would 
thus rob us of our dearest rights: rights whose title- papers bear 
the seal of high Heaven, and assume responsibities periling his 
eternal welfare, is a traitor to his country, an enemy of his race, 
and an apostate from his God. Let it constitute the pride and 
glory of the American, to assert the independence and pre-emi- 
nence of his judgment, to adopt sentiments and conclusions with 
due discrimination, to base bis action upon an intelligent appreci- 

Self Intellectual Culture. 105 

ation of his position and his duties, and to vindicate his moral 
and intellectual freedom everywhere, and at all times. Let him 
not in a spirit of arrogance and pride rashly reject what he can- 
not comprehend, or treat with levity or contempt the opinions of 
others, but let him study with diligence, examine with patience, 
preserve an impartial mind, and rely upon it, the conclusions he 
may thus reach will be formed of sterling material, and prove of 
infinite value. They will wear well amidst the vicissitudes of life, 
and acquire brightness and polish from attrition. They will ele- 
vate and enrich and adorn character, and resting upon the found- 
ations of justice, their influences will be recognized and felt far 
beyond the period of our present existence. 

I have alluded thus earnestly to the subject of independent 
thought, because it is not to be concealed that there is a spirit 
abroad in our country hostile to its manly exercise and full devel- 
opment. Individuals are frequently charged with arrogance for 
an independent expression of opinion.. There are those in our 
midst who seem to imagine they possess a chartered power and an 
incontrovertible right to think and .act for, and dictate to their fel- 
low-men. This individual disposition is continually illustrated 
in our daily social and business intercourse, and its associate de- 
velopment and transcendent dominion in our political and ecclesi- 
astical organizations. This mighty influence, when thus exercised, 
is wrong, radically wrong! It is war upon our liberties, treason to 
our nature, and we must resist it. And to accomplish this suc- 
cessfully, to understand intelligently our relations, and maintain 
our freedom, moral and religious, civil and intellectual, we must 
cultivate our minds, enlarge the sphere of thought, and faithfully 
use all the powers which Heaven has bestowed upon us. 

Another most vital and efficient means within our power of pro- 
moting mental culture, of acting upon the public mind, and im- 
pressing its influences upon all, is in the delivery of public lec- 
tures. This is comparatively a modern element in the in- 
tellectual revolution, now in progress throughout the civilized 
world, and more especially in our own country. This means of 
instruction, until very recently, was principally confined to the 
academy, the cloister and the university, which were supposed to 
be the favorite retreats of genius and learning. Knowledge was 
so enshrowded in scholastic phrase, and so elaborated with meta- 
physical disquisition as to conceal its beauties, paralyze its ener- 
gies, and destroy its utility. Few persons were admitted to min- 
ister at its altars or to pay their devotions within its temples. The 
ground was consecrated to a privileged order; and the great mass 
of the people, the fresh, vigorous, elastic mind of the adventurous 
and enterprizing were excluded most studiously from its presence 
and all participation in its ennobling influences. But as the hu- 
man mind awakened to a sense of its rights, and became conscious 

136 Self Intellectual Culture. 

of its energies and its true position and dignity, this infamous 
system of exclusion was broken down, and the lights of knowledge 
began to illume the face of society. The barriers that separated 
the wise and learned from the ignorant and uncultivated, were 
prostrated we trust forever, and the genial influences of knowledge 
extended to all. Mere pretensions to Literature became subord- 
inate to solid acquirement, the senseless jargon of the schools 
could not withstand public scrutiny, and the abstractions of an 
airy metaphysician yielded to the profounder reasonings of an en- 
lightened philosophy. Knowledge is now presented in her natural 
grace and beauty, disrobed of her unmeaning decorations; capti- 
vating and delighting her votaries with her elegant simplicity, and 
scattering her imperial gifts so that all who will may enjoy them. 
Lectures have now become a popular and efficient medium for 
the communication of solid and useful information, and have aided 
and are now aiding essentially in promoting the cause and multi- 
plying the influences of public instruction. The lecturer possesses 
an important advantage over the mere writer. He can amplify 
more in his arguments, illustrate his principles by experiments, 
employ a more diffuse and ornate style, and give to fancy a strong- 
er wing and a loftier flight. And if to these, he superadds the 
gift of eloquence, his empire is unbounded. He can lead his aud- 
ience captive to his will, explore with them the depths of science 
and the sweetest flowers of poetry, point out the exquisite per- 
formances of art, ascend amid 

"The planet?, suns and adamantine spheres 

That wheel unshaken through the void immense." 

And while he improves the understanding and feasts the imagina- 
tion, he can direct the enraptured mind to the imperishable attri- 
butes and immortal destinies of the soul. 

I would, therefore, most earnestly urge the great importance of 
lectures as a useful, convenient and economical mode of arresting 
public attention, awakening the slumbering energies of mind, com- 
municating general and accurate views and principles of the arts 
and sciences, directing youth in the pursuit after knowledge, and 
creating a thirst for more extensive and profound erudition. 

A larger portion of the lectures which are delivered, are not only 
distinguished for their extraordinary ability and learning, but for 
the force of thought and eloquence which they bring to bear upon 
the cause of individual and social advancement. Many of them 
are indeed perfect gems of literature, cherished jewels in the crown 
of genius, concentrations of all that is vast and profound in phil- 
osophical investigation, or grand and impressive in intellectual 
character. Here, science nursues her arduous journey, and tells 
the story of her sublime discovery; here, elegant literature contrib- 
utes her fairest flowers, and pictures her loveliest productions; and 
here, imagination shadows forth her grandest conceptions, and 
gives form to her most beautiful creations. 

Self Intellectual Culture. 137 

Genius, too, that strange mysterious power, that spark of cel- 
estial fire, careering onward amid the infinity of space, now mount- 
ing up amid the sun and stars that gem the heavens, and now con- 
templating the beauty and grandeur of earth, now winding her way 
amid the deep recesses and solemn retirements of the soul, and 
anon soaring aloft amid cloud and storm and tempest, riding on 
the whirlwind, flashing in the lightning, she, too, brings her noble 
offering to this common altar, to enrich, to purify and to enlight- 
en. Examine these lectures. Where can you open upon richer 
veins of thoughts and eloquence! Where can you find nobler essays 
on humanity, higher reaches of intellect, purer strains of morality, 
profounder researches in philosophy, and more extended views of 
government? Nowhere in the whole range of written thought. 
They stand forth, peculiar and powerful instruments, in advancing 
civilization, and in establishing the glorious triumphs of mind, 
reason and religion. 

It is believed that many young men of fine talents and generous 
disposition are, by this means, lured from the haunts of dissipa- 
tion, and for the first time, impressed with a consciousness of 
their own duty to society, and of their capacity for self-improve- 
ment and distinguished usefulness. The diamond is not the less 
valuable because it lies buried in the midst of rude materials, nor 
is the human mind less susceptible of every great and good im- 
pression because it remains plunged in the veriest depths of ig- 
norance and vice. Truly has the poet said : 

"Full many a gem of purest ray serene, 
The dark unfalbom'd caves of ocean bear; 
Full many a flower is bom 1o blush unseen, 
And waste its sweetness on the desert air." 

And, perhaps, the impassioned speaker, whose lips are touched 
with the fires of eloquence, may communicate a kindred spark to 
some rustic mind, whose faculties have slumbered, and might have 
slumbered on forever, and kindle a flame there, that will burn and 
expand; and though the frosts of neglect may chill, and the winds 
of adversity may blow, yet it will continue to acquire volume and 
intensity until neighborhoods and states and empires shall fee] its 
genial warmth and bow beneath its consuming power. 

And to you of my readers, whom education and fortune have 
blessed with superior gifts above your fellow-men, I would say you 
are under solemn responsibilities to lend your influence and talents 
in promoting this important enterprize in the cause of human pro- 
gress. I speak not lightly when I say, your education and intel- 
lectual treasures constitute a sacred trust to be faithfully execut- 
ed, and you cannot, without a violation of duty, withhold your ac- 
quirements from the use of the public. Your talents are not your 
own; there are obligations, springing out of their possession, that 
compel you to lender unto your fellow-beings all the good within 
your power. 

133 Self Intellectual Culture. 

And exists there an educated citizen who would not cheerfully 
contribute to the public happiness and prosperity, and who would 
not rejoice to strike the finest chords of the soul, and fill them 
with the riches and harmonies of learning? Is there one who would 
not experience a holy, ravishing transport of joy to transfuse a 
hifh and sublime thought into the mind of another, which would 
grow up in greatness there, acquiring new powers, invested with 
new properties, grappling with new combinations, and which in its 
novel and regenerated state would be transmitted through future 
generations as the richest legacy of the human intellect? 

How grand the thought of Newton when the apple's fall led to 
the explanation of one of nature's mysteries ! How expanded the 
conception of Columbus, when he saw in prophetic vision, a world 
vast in its extent and mighty in its elements, as yet untrodden by 
civilized man ! How profound the idea and transcendent the joy of 
Franklin in drawing the lightning from the bosom of the distant 
cloud and guiding its course in its rapid flight! How lofty the con- 
ception and how illustrious the triumph of Fulton, when the effect 
of steam upon the business of life, and the mighty influences it 
must exercise upon the destinies of man burst upon his transported 
soul, and revealed themselves in all their prospective glory and 
majesty ! Oh ! there are thoughts in our midst, thoughts overflow- 
in^ with precious interests to our race; thoughts pregnant with im- 
mortal fires which might light up nations to happiness and peace ; 
thoughts which, if transplanted to some genial soil, would take root 
and flourish and expand and ripen into harvests of untold and end- 
less value. And it is by the free interchange of mind, by the re- 
ciprocal transfusion of thought, and by the sovereign, searching 
influences of great principles of human action and conduct, that 
these important ends are to be accomplished. Let us then earn- 
estly lend our assistance in enlightening the public mind, and 
strengthening its moral tone so that a consciousness of duty per- 
formed may be ours to shed a ray of lieht upon the evening of 
our lives. We know not how many youths may thus be educated 
to read and think, and hereafter become intelligent and useful cit- 
izens, through the influence of such humble yet honorable efforts. 
We know not how many anxieties of a f atner may be relieved, how 
many prayers of a mother answered, how many hopes of a sister 
realized. We know not what joy and sunshine may illuminate the 
social hearth, what great and lasting good may result to our coun- 
try, even from such occasional gatherings to aid the cause of learn- 
irg and morals and civilization amid the broad prairies and ma- 
jestic forests of our own great West. 

Another very important means of improvement.within the reach 
of every neighborhood is the establishment of debating societies. 
In a country like our own, where the honors and emoluments of 
public life are open to all, and where erery citizen is liable to be 

Self Intellectual Culture. 1 39 

called upon to participate in the political deliberations of the Re- 
public, the importance of public speaking is obvious. This can 
only be successfully acquired in youth, and by long and persever- 
ing exercise; and we know not. how many of the young men who 
grow up in indolence and obscurity, might by early culture and 
diligent study, have become distinguished ornaments of society. 
Debating societies elicit the various powers of the mind, and test 
their strength and capacity. It is in the collision of intellect, in 
the generous pride and emulation of controversy, that we some- 
times first become conscious of our sleeping energies, and draw 
successfully upon their great resources. It was in this humble yet 
glorious field of conflict, that many of the master spirits and giant 
intellects of the age, whose philosophy enlightens and whose elo- 
quence electrifies, first fought their battles and measured their 
atrength, and won their laurels ; and it is in this same field, that 
many a struggle will take place, and many a victory be hereafter 
achieved by those, who will in after days, become the strength of 
their country's defence, and the jewels of their country's greatness. 

These societies exercise an excellent influence in leading the 
young mind to habits of attentive reading and reflection. If a 
youth is desirous of communicating his ideas to others, he must 
first master those ideas, and make them his own. He is compelled 
to think deeply and comprehend clearly in order to encounter suc- 
cessfully the arguments and address of his antagonist. He knows 
that his weak points will be assailed, and perhaps his strongest 
fortresses either openly attacked or covertly undermined unless he 
is thoroughly guarded and ceaselessly vigilant. This is one of the 
most useful results flowing from these associations. They inspire 
confidence, lead to careful investigation, and establish mental and 
moral independence. And the accomplishment of these ends are 
worthy the highest efforts of our race. They elevate man to that 
rank in the scale of creation, comporting with his nature and des- 
tiny, and which God throughout all time designed him to occupy. 
It ought to be remembered in conducting these societies, that their 
object and true purpose, are to interchange our views, to mutually 
instruct each other, and to invigorate and discipline the faculties 
of the mind, and not to engender a spirit of mere controversy, cr 
cherish a foolish love of argumentation. The cardinal objects are 
the ascertainment of truth, the acquirement of habits of severe log- 
ical reasoning, and clearness, order and fluency in the expression 
of thought, as well as a chaste and graceful style of delivery. 

If these societies are properly regulated, and conducted in a 
ipirit of generous emulation, they will be productive of vast and 
extensive good ; but, if, on the contrary, they are used as instru- 
ments to gratify personal pique, or to display personal arrogance, 
or to encourage the exhibition of the ingenuity of sophistical rea- 
ionings, they will result in permanent injury to both mental and 
moral improvement. 

140 Self Intellectual Culture. 

The fifth and last means to which I shall allude as connected 
with our intellectual progress, is the cultivation of habits of ob- 
servation. These possess a peculiar and striking value, as the 
works of nature und the productions of art are everywhere around 
us, and continually before our eyes. The great and miscellaneous 
volume of God's workmanship belongs to us all, to be read and 
studied and admired. The creations of genius, elaborate and 
magnificent, belong to the world, and the "possessor's narrow 
claim" cannot prevent the man of taste and sensibitity from en- 
joying their beauties and feasting upon their wonders. Machine- 
ry, too, with its Briarean arms, its mathematical exactitude and 
stupendous energies, working, producing, never tiring, presents 
an object of exceeding wonder and astonishment. All these, in 
the philosophy they teach, in the genius they exhibit, in the ex- 
quisite beaucy and finish they manifest, in the glowing imagery 
they embody, in the sublime emotions they excite, and in the ele- 
vating and refined pleasures their contemplation yields, belongtous, 
to the world, to future generations. Every individual, I care notwhat 
maybe his situation in life, or amid what scenery he may have been 
cradled, has forever before him objects worthy of his mcst serious 
observation, and overflowing with profound instruction. He can- 
not turn his thoughts within himself without being filled with won- 
der and awe; he cannot allow them to wander abroad without ad- 
miring the grandeur and glory and diversity of God's works. An 
individual of observing habits must necessarily be intelligent. Ob- 
servation implies reflection, mental exercise, intelligent thought, 
and these constitute the original elements of all true greatness. 
We ought, then, to acquire these habits of observation in our 
vouth, and cultivate them assiduously throughout life, f;r they will 
prove a source of unmixed delight and happiness. New pleasures 
will continually spring up and adorn our path, new and pleasing 
trains of thought be ever suggesting themselves, and new and 
grateful scenes be ever present to the imagination; and the earth, 
the air, the ocean, and the heavens will administer to the improve- 
ment of our minds, the refinement of our taste, and the exaltation 
of our affections. The theme is one so delightful and interesting, 
so linked with loved associations and cherished reminiscences, that 
I would be pleased to dwell upon it, to unfold its beauties, to de- 
monstrate its dignity and usefulness, and to bathe the imagina- 
tion in its untold glories. 13ut ve have not the time to do so. 

[To be continued.] 

Valley of the Ohio. 141 

Valley of the Ohio. 


Author of the "History of the Coniinomvealth of Kentucky." 

Continued from page 60, vol. XI. No. 67. 


Some took refuge in the forts which had beep built; whilst oth- 
ers collected in houses, which were easily converted into temporary 
fortresses. Fort Redstone, (the present Brownsville in Pennsyl- 
vania,) on the creek of that name, and Fort Pitt, were the prin- 
cipal asylums for the people of the exposed frontier. 

To avert this impending storm of barbarian warfare, a formi- 
dable expedition into the enemy's country was now determined on 
by the government of Virginia. This was to consist of two bodies 
of troops, one to be commanded by Governor Dunmore, and the 
other to be commanded by Col. Andrew Lewis. The plan of op- 
erations agreed upon, was that the Colonels Charles and Andrew 
Lewis should raise a body of troops among the hardy, fearless and 
skillful riflemen of the western part of Virginia and North Caro- 
lina, who, down to our own times, have continued to form the most 
formidable arm of the western country of the United States. Gov. 
Dunmore was to march a body of men from the northern and east- 
ern counties. These two wings were to unite at the mouth of the 
great Kenhawa, then, by treaty with the Cherokees, the western 
boundary of the province of Virginia. About the 1st of Septem- 
ber, 1774, the western wing of the expedition assembled at Camp 
Union, (now the town of Lewisburg in Virginia. ) While the troops 
for the main expedition were thus collecting, and arrangements 
were made on a considerable scale for this campaign of the royal 
governor, it was thought advisable to despatch another expedition 
of inferior strength, and consequently susceptible of more rapid 
movement, into the Indian country. It might distract the com- 
binations of the enemy, and divert his inroads from the frontiers. 
For these purposes, Col. Angus McDonald raised a body of 800 
men, who, early in June, 1774, assembled at Wheeling. The party 
succeeded in penetrating to the banks of the Muskingum; but with- 
out doing the enemy any material damage, beyond and burning their 
slight and frail villages. So insignificant was the impression made 
on the Indians, by this expedition, that as our men returned, the 
savages followed their footsteps spreading barbarities wherever the 
precautions of the inhabitants had not disappointed their ven- 


142 Valley of the Ohio. 

The -western wing of the expedition was divided into two regi- 
ments, of four hundred men each; one commanded by Col. Charles 
Lewis, of Augusta, Virginia; the other by Col. William Fleming, 
of Bottetourt county ; the chief command was confided to Col. or 
rather Gen. Andrew Lewis, the same who had been honored by 
Washington as Major in his first regiment, in 1755. There was 
likewise a company of volunteers commanded by Col. John Field, 
of Culpepper county, another from Bedford, under Capt. Buford; 
ana two companies from the Holston country, then in dispute be- 
tween the colonies of North Carolina and Virginia. 

One of these was commanded by Evan Shelby, the father of 
Isaac Shelby, the future governor of Kentucky, who served as a 
subaltern in his father's company. The latter three companies 
composed part of a regiment under the command of Col. Christian, 
who was hurrying to join the main body. This, now, amounted to 
eleven hundred men, and commenced its perilous march to the 
point of junction, which had been fixed by Lord Dunmore, at the 
mouth of the Big Kenhawa. A march through a mountainous 
wilderness of 160 miles, which after a bpse of nearly eighty years, 
still remains to a great extent, was an enterprise of no little per- 
il and difficulty. It was to be prosecuted through a country pe- 
culiarly favorable to Indian ambuscade, and against the most war- 
like force of the north-western tribes or' Indians, a part of whom 
had, but 19 years before, almost annihilated a British army, fur- 
nished with all the apparatus of war. This was the first consider- 
able enterprise against these Indians since the defeat of Braddock; 
except the march of Col. Bouquet to the Muskingum; that officer, 
however, brought the Indians to submission, without any actual 
engagement. Such auspices would have been dismaying to any 
men, but the brave and experienced backwoodsmen of the western 
country. They had seen the tactics of Europe fail before the sons 
of the forest, when their own military notions, imbibed from local 
and personal experience, would most probably have preserved the 
royal army with its general from a murderous defeat. Trusting 
to their own native resources of skill and courage, they transported 
their provisions on pack-horses, all, that an obstructed wilderness 
would permit. After 19 days' march, the army, under the guid- 
ance of Capt. Mathcw Arbuckle, succeeded in reaching the Ohio 
river, where the GrCat Kenhawa enters into that stream. There, 
at the point between the two rivers, since known as Point Pleas- 
ant, an encampment was formed for the accommodation of the 
troops, until the eastern wing, under the command of the governor 
of Virginia, should arrive. Runners were immediately despatched 
up the Ohio to obtain intelligence of his Lordship. 
• In the meantime, information was received from him, that he 
had changed the whole plan of operations, upon the faith of which 
the mountaineers cf Virginia and North Carolina had risked their 
lives through a wilderness of unequalled difficulties. Notwith- 

Valley of the Ohio. 148 

standing this pledge of military co-operation, which ought for the 
most obvious reasons of safety and honor to have been held sacred, 
LordDunmore had determined to march across the Indian country 
to the Shawnee towns on the Scioto ; of this he informed Lewis, 
and ordered him to join there. 

It is difficult to determine, whether folly or perfidy prevailed 
most in so unprecedented a departure from his own plan of co-op- 
eration, as exhibited by this new and dangerous scheme of the 
royal governor. The danger to which he exposed each wing of 
the army, of being successively cut off by the enemy, in its sepa- 
rate march, into the Indian country, would point to the former 
solution of this extraordinary military disappointment; while the 
madness of proposing a concentration of his forces — not before 
they entered the enemy's country, but in the very heart of it, 
where the army must have conquered all antagonists before it would 
have been allowed to make such an advance as this — would seem 
more probably to implicate the fidelity of the governor to the col- 
onists. It may, however, be too wanton suspicion, to accuse the 
royal governor of an intention to sacrifice his left wing ; yet his 
conduct was as dangerous to that body of his forces, as if it had 
proceeded from the most deliberate treachery. Circumstances in 
the subsequent course of this nobleman's official conduct, almost 
justify these suspicions of his motives ; they were, indeed, enter- 
tained by the legislature of Virginia.* 

On the 9th of October, 1774, the discouraging intelligence of 
altered plans was received by Gen. Lewis from Lord Dunmore, 
through some Indian traders.;- The next day, the devoted band, 
thus treacherously abandoned by their commander-in-chief, still 
taking counsel from their own brave hearts, determined to pene-? 
trate deeper into the Indian wilderness. It was not so easily done, 
as it was readily adopted. 

Early in the morning of the 10th of October, 1774, two soldiers 
proceeded up the Ohio bank, for the purpose of killing game; they 
had got about two miles from camp, when they suddenly discov- 
ered a large body of Indians rising from their encampment. The 
enemy, on seeing the two white hunters, fired and killed one of 
them; the other escaped to warn his fellow soldiers of the impend- 
ing danger. To his commander, he communicated the fact that 
"he had seen a body of the enemy covering five acres of ground, 
as closely as they could stand. "J Gen. Lewis immediately ord- 

* Wi.-ts Henry, 148, 256. 

f Simon Kenton says: he had been so employed ; but reached Point Pleasanf 
before Lewis, and concealed his despatch in a hollow tree. While loitering 
about, be was fired upon by some Indians, who dispersed his party, and he made 
his way back to Louder's Fort, on the west fork of the Monon^aliela. McDon- 
ald's Sketches, p. 208. 

j; Proceedings of the Historical Society of Virginia ; they contain an inter- 
esting account of thi3 important action, by an actor in this perilous scene. Vol. 
I. 45. 

144 Valley of the Ohio. 

ered out a detachment of the Bottetourt troops, under Col. Flem- 
ing, and another from those of Augusta, led by Col. Charles 
Lewis; while the general remained in camp with the reserve. Our 
troops marched up the Ohio bank in two lines and met the Indians 
in the same order, about four hundred yards from the Virginia 
camp. The battle began about sunrise with a heavy fire f'r< m the 
enemy, which drove the Virginians back ; but being reinforced by 
Col. Field, the Indians now retreated, forming a line behind logs and 
trees from river to river. Thus our countrymen were completely 
hemmed in, between the Ohio and the Kenhawa. In this desper- 
ate position, with no chance of retreat, and but little of outflank- 
ing the foe, the battle raged with a ferocity and destruction un- 
paralleled by any other encounter, between our countrymen and 
the aborigines. 

At the outset of the engagement Col. Charles Lewis was killed, 
and Col. Fleming was wounded; Col. Field fell, the next victim of 
high rank. To these must be added five captains, three lieuten- 
ants and several other subalterns, amounting with the privates to 
seventy-five killed and 140 wounded; almost every fifth man in the 
detachment was either killed or wounded. With this prodigious 
execution by the Indians, fully retaliated by our own riflemen, 
scarcely at all inferior to the enemy, in any of their wily arts, the 
hostile lines alternately advanced and receded, covering both sides 
of the intervening trees with bullets and blood. 

In this fearful and obstinate contest, Gen. Lewis apprehensive 
of protracting the battle till night, ordered Capts. Evan Shelby, 
George Matthews and John Stuart to proceed with their compa- 
nies, into the rear of the enemy, and then turn upon them.* This 
most fortunate monoeuver was effected by marching up the Ken- 
hawa, as high as Crooked Creek, one of its branches, under the 
concealment of the high banks and the growth with which they 
were covered. So soon as the detachment reached its destined 
position, and began to fire on the enemy, they, fearing, as is sup- 
posed, that the reinforcement under Col. Christian, which was 
known to be on its march, had arrived, began to retreat, about 
sun down, precipitately over the Ohio, to their towns. 

This memorable battle, which has for its importance in western 
history, been to little known, was fought with the flower of the 
north-western tribes, in the meridian of their strength, and com- 
manded by some of their most distinguished chiefs. 

Among these was Cornstalk, a chief of the Shawnees ; he had 
the principal command assisted by other gallant spirits of the Red 
men, but whom our ignorance and the early contempt of our people 
mixed with no little hatred, for their barbarian enemies, preclude 
from any notice beyond their names. They were Red Hawk, a 

• Geo. Shelby's information to Col. Chas. T. Todd confirms the account in 
Border Warfare, 127. 

Valley of the Ohio. 145 

Delaware chief ; Scoppathus, a Mingo ; Ellinipisco, a Shawnee, 
and son of Cornstalk; Chiyawee, a Wyandot; and Logan, a Cay- 
uga.* The distinguished leader of these forest forces is said to 
have opposed the war; and wanted to go with a flag of truce, on 
the eve of the battle; but he was overruled by the resentments or 
the heroism of his people. When the battle had been determined on, 
the energies of this chief, like a true patriot, were all exerted for 
the honor, if not the benefit of his countrymen. He was frequently 
recognized encouraging his men, whenever they slackened in their 
efforts, by calling out to them in his native tongue : '-Be strong, 
be strong." When an Indian faltered in the performance of his 
duty, Cornstalk instantly cleaved his head with his tomahawk, as 
a warning to his followers of his discipline and fierce determina- 

A few hours after the battle, Col. Christian arrived with a rein- 
forcement of three hundred men; much to the relief of this gallant 
and hard tried body. 

On examining the battlefield, 21 Indians were found lying dead, 
12 others discovered behind logs and other concealments, be- 
sides many that were observed to be thrown into the river, during 
the battle. It was one, indeed, which deserves a high place in the 
history of the ruthless contest between the white and the red races, 
for the lovely and luxuriant land of the west — the interior world of 
North America — this new paradise of plenty and liberty for the 
children of the axe and the plough. No instance is known in our 
annals of so fair and pitched a battle between the two races ; un- 
resisted, on the 0!i3 hand, by the peculiar military arts of Europe, 
and on the other, by the ambuscades which constitute the fortres- 
ses of the forest. Neither party was unequally armed, no artille- 
ry ; it was an unmixed trial of native arts and familiar arms, in 
which a brave and skillful use of the rifle mainly decided the battle, 
with the exception of the happy diversion up the Kenhawa. This 
battle may well be pronounced a pure contest of hard fighting 
which covered the riflemen of the west with honors as durable as 
the mighty section of the republic, which it so essentially contrib- 
uted to conquer from the savages. In this encounter were com- 
pleted, if not" formed, some of the most efficient commanders in 
the west; it proved a most invaluable military school for our pop- 
ulation. The roll of officers in the battle of Kenhawa, or Point 
Pleasant, embraces the names of most of those who, in after times, 
signalized themselves in the great contest for the valley of the 
Ohio and its waters. The Campbells, both William and John, 
Isaac Shelby, George Mathews, afterwards a governor of Virgiu- 
ia, John Steele, William McKee, Charles Cameron. Bazalel Wells, 
Daniel Boone, and James Harrod, were actually engaged. Cols. 

* Border Warfare, 129. 

146 Valley of the Ohio. 

Christian and Floyd, of future fame, tried their utmost to get up 
in time for the battle.* 

After throwing up an entrenchment, at the junction of the two 
streams, which had been the seatcf the late battle, for the protec- 
tion of the wounded, Gen. Lewis, more true to his duty tlran his 
commander in chief, proceeded still deeper into the fastnesses of 
the enemy, and marched his troops on the route to join Lord Dun- 
more, at the head of the right wing of what should have been the 
combined army of Virginia. This advance into the stronghold of 
the enemy, affords the most decisive proof of the victory of the 

Dunmore appointed, to meet the Indians at Camp Charlotte, 
upon Sippo creek, about eight miles from the Scioto. The nego- 
ciation is said to have been conducted, on the part of the Indians, 
by Cornstalk, the hero of Kenhawa. 

This chief, at the first council of his tribe, after the bloody battle 
of Point Pleasant, is said to have called upon his brother chiefs, 
to declare what was to be done, when the whites were pressing 
upon them in two bodies? No one was prepared to give an answer 
to the soul-stirring interrogatory. Cornstalk then proposed that 
the squaws andpapoosesf should all be put to death, and then that 

f The Indian name for women and children. 
the warriors should march against the enemy and be killed too. 
Still no one would join in the appalling debate ; then said the en- 
ergetic chief, striking his tomahawk in the council post : "I will 
go and make peace." 

In the council, which was attended by the governor and the In- 
dian chiefs, the former reproached them with their various infrac- 
tions of peace and good neighborhood. Cornstalk reciiminated 
with singular spirit and dignity. On this occasion, the eloquent 
chief is said, by a witness who had listened to the favorite orator 
of Virginia, and her first governor, the great Henry, to have drawn 
a lively and afflicting picture of the ancient prosperity and power 
of his race, contrasted with their present diminished strength and 
unhappy condition. lie expatiated on the cheating of the Indian 
traders ; and to avoid these evils, he proposed that no white man 
should be allowed to trade with the Indians for his private profit ; 
that his white brethren should send their goods by the hands of 
honest men, who should sell them at fair prices. Above all, this 
patriotic and enlightened chief, half a century before our modern 
temperance reform, implored the governor, that no fire-ivater 
should be brought among them. 

The governor finally arranged the preliminaries of a treaty with 
the Indians; the purpose of which has been represented by two 

* The official account of this battle was written by Isaac Shelby, at the 
order of his commander, on a drum head; he had entered the hatlle as a subaltern, 
and came out a captain. This despatch may be found in Niles' Register, about 
1816, communicated by Col. Chas. S. Todd. 

The Bead Man's Race. 147 

writers in the western country of most ample opportunities of 
original information,* as a truce, and surrender of prisoners with 
hostages, as a preparatory to a definitive treaty, to be held the 
next summer, at Fort Pitt. Another writerf says, that peace was 
made wich the Shawnees, on condition, "that the lands on this 
side of the Ohio should be delivered up, and that four hostages 
should be immediately given for the faithful performance of these 
conditions." The term, this side of the Ohio, could hardly be 
the language of a treaty made on the northern bank of that river, 
to describe lands on its southern shore. Nor do any evidences 
exist that are known to the writer, which determine the exact con- 
ditions of such a treaty, beyond a proclamation by Lord Dunmore, 
of peace with the Indians. In this instrument, dated January, 
1775, J it is proclaimed, "that the Shawnees, from whose incur- 
sions the most dreadful effects were felt, to remove all ground of 
future quarrel, have agreed not to hunt on this side of the Ohio, 
and have solemnly promised not to molest any passengers on that 
river." This is far short of a cession of the southern side as as- 
serted by Burke ; though in yielding the right of hunting to the 
whites, the treaty yielded everything valuable to the Indians. 

[To be continued.] 

* Doctor Daddridge and Mr. Whithers, both of Virginia, 
f Burke's History of Virginia, III, continued by Mr. Giradin to the close of 
the siege of York. 

% Virginia Gazette of 1775, in Congressional Library. 

The Dead Man's Race. 


A moral this my tale combines — 
A truth from bad example ta'en, 
Which, to youth told atev'ning time, 
For like pursuits the eager wish 
May antedate, and serve to warn. 

The Pilgrim: a Tale. 

Over a wild and trackless moor, 

Homeward-bound, an honest boor 

Prick'd on his jaded steed ; 
The Sun was sinking down to rest 
On th' bosom of the blushing West, 
And o'er the earth -dark shadows prest 

Along with ghost-like speed. 

Note. — This Poem appeared originally in the Southern Literary Messenger, 
some years ago, and copied from that journal has had various newspaper publi- 
cations — in which it has undergone the usual emendations and typographical im- 
provements. [!] In a corrected form the author has permitted its reprint in the 
Jouenal & Civilian.— Ed. 

148 The Bead Man's Race. 

The bat vent flapping round and round, 
Dense gnat- clouds, with a murmurous sound, 

Hung in the stagnant air; 
And in some stunted pint tree hid, 
Shrill cried the gauze wing'd Katy-did, 
To answering cricket's chirp, that chid 

The silence broken there. 

And whip-poor-will, with plaint of woe, 
Soared o'er the marsh, whose sedge below 

Frogs croak'd in sullen mood ; 
Whilst might be seen oft here and there 
Some lonesome bird, that scanty fare 
Found in the wither'd fern and bare 

Soil of the solitude. 

Apace, eil'd Night, abroad the sky, 
Shut e'en these objects from the eye, 

In pall that mock'd the sight; 
Pale stars, that but a moment shone, 
From out the firmament were gone, 
And the Queen-Moon shed from her throne 

A wan and ghastly light. 

The night was chill ; scarce thro' the dark 
Shimmer'd the fire-fly's fitful spark 

Above the grassless plain ; 
Anon, big drops of rain fell fast, 
White vnpors rose like genii vast, 
And th' fingers of the winnowing blast 

Play'd with the steed's loose mane. 

On press'd the boor — his craz'd mind fraught 
With visions wild, by fancy wrought, 

fiend and spectre grim ; 
The goblin tales of boyish years, 
By Memory whisper'd to his ears, 
Roused in his heart its midnight fears 

Of some dread fate for him. 

He saw cast wide in fitful change, 

The mandrake's charnel fires strange — 

J;ick-o' the-lantern shone; 
High on a crazy gibbet hung, 
In heavy chains that clanking rung, 
To and fio a skeleton swung 

With dull atid mournful tone. 

His fev'rish brain distemper'd grew ; 
Bright gleams, with cold yet fire- like hue, 
Their wizard phantasms spread ; 

The Dead Man's Race. 149 

And shapes to his affrighted eye, 
From realm of Dream came wand'ring by, 
In garbs that rustled horribly, 
Like crispleaves o'er the dead. 

Some tune half whistled— loud he sung ; 
His voice in clamorous echoes rung, 

It startled him the more ; 
He bent him to the howling blast 
That told the tempest gathering fast, 
And urged the steed, with rein loose clasp'd, 

E'en swifter than before. 

A lightning flash ! — the sheeny light 
Gleam'd thro' the cloud- o'ershadow'd night 

With wildly vivid glare ; 
Asudden, saw the boor at hand, 
With joy, a shelt'ring cottage stand, 
And were dispell'd the phantom-band 

With inward mutter'd prayer. 

From the wet saddle to the ground 

He straightway leap'd with nervous bound, 

And smote the half- closed door : 
No voice return'd; he push'd it back; 
Revolv'd the hinge with jarring crack, 
And a faint starbeam found a track 

Across the gloom spread floor. 

He entered there ; an owl scared out 
The crumbling wall, flapp'd round- about, 

With shrill Tu-whit, Tu-whuu ; 
A snake wound up the tottering roof, 
A spider left its swinging woof, 
And a foul toad, from these aloof, 

Close in a corner drew. 

He groped about ; just then her light 

The Queen- Moon shed forth clear and bright 

Thro' c'oud rift parted wide; 
A straggling ray, like spirit tall, 
Glided within the cottage wall, 
And, beaming, swept Night's curtain-pall 

With luminous arms aside. 

Cold shrunk th' roots of his bristling hair, 
Blanch'd his swart cheek, grew fix'd his stare — 

His heart-pulse ceased to beat ; 
With sweaty brow and curdled blood, 
In formless horror mute, he stood, 

150 The Dead Man's Race. 

As coffin'd, and in shroud, he view'd 
*fl. stark corpse at his feet. 

Away! — away! those leaden eyes 
Wear murder's seal: in vain he tries 

To rend the demon spell ; 
A fiercer struggle: without heed 
He totters where his steps may lead ; 
The door is gain'd — the frenzied steed, — 
Jesli, enshield him well ! 

Again the dreary heath he scours ; 

But now, 'neath mantle murk, Air-Pow'rs 

About him seem to fly ; 
With eyeless skulls, before — behind, 
Shapes strive his rushing limbs to bind 
In fetters forg'd from the weird Wind 

That menacing howl'd by. 

The tempest in its threaten'd pow'r, 
From black, beieag'ring clouds that lour, 

Has woke to raging strife ; 
Broad sheets of lurid flame flash light 
O'er the awe-striken face of Night, 
And deep- voiced thunders lend their might, 

Wild with electric Lie. 

A blinding deluge surges fast, 

Till the wide waste, like ocean vast, 

Gleams with phosphoric glare ; 
Each blast- toss'd tree bends low its head 
Beneath the Storm's impetuous tread, 
And leaves and crackling branches dead, 

Whirl thro' the fear-struck air. 

His arms about his steed's neck flung, 
Closer and closer the farmer clung, 

As broke the thunder-peals ; 
Suddenly, smote his ears a sound 
Like his call'd name: he look'd around, 
And lo ! came rumbling o'er the ground 
Ji ctiffia set on w keels ! 

Upon the lid a demon lies, 

With forky tongue and lidless eyes, 

And tail in arrowy pride ; 
Blue lambent fires blaze on its brow, 
Aroun 1 it spreads a sulphurous glow, 
And it nods like hearse-plume to and fro, 

Some unseen Pow'r to guide. 

The Dead Man's Race. 151 

Right onward sped the steed'3 wild race, 
Right onward held the spectral chase, 

Over the gleaming waste ; 
Thro' red-seeth'd pools, with plashing sound, 
The snorting courser's wing'd hoofs bound, 
And they clatter o'er the turfy ground 

In hot and headlong haste, 

Fled heav'n above, fled earth below, 
Flash'd the white foam as on they go 

With whizzing sounds and din ; 
Like ghosts unhallow'd from the tomb, 
Frore mists glide rustling thro' the gloom, 
Chill winding-sheets for those whose doom 

No earthly goal may win. 

The farmer wax'd still deadlier pale, 
The laboring courser's strength gan fail, 

The Death-Fiend near'd his sice; 
It twitch'd his loosely flying rein, 
Clutch'd at his steed's erected mane, 
And struggled fiercely, nor in vain, 

To stay the ghastly ride. 

A loud shriek from his pent up breast 
Frighted the night-bird to her nest. — 

He fell upon the ground ; 
On the cold sod he senseless lay 
Thro' that dread night: the coming day, 
His helpless form was borne away, 

By friendly rustics found. 

A burning fever on his brain, 

And reason's voice forever seal'd — 
In fleeting intervals of pain, 

The farmer this strange tale reveal'd. 
Some said, he at a neighb'ring Fair 

The eve of that dire night was seen ; 
That pledging gay companions there 

In madd'ning bowls he late had been; 
And that the Spirit-Fiend had wrought 
The scenes with which his mind was fraught. 
But even supposing that such was the case, 
There were many believ'd in the Dead Man's Race. 

152 Southern Quarterly Revieiu. 


The October issue of this journal is before us. We have not 
space to notice its varied and valuable contents. The articles are 
of the usual ability and interest. There is no publication in the 
country which so favorably compares with the most popular of the 
transatlantic Reviews. Indeed, in the care and erudite research 
always evident in the preparation of its different contributions, the 
Southern Quarterly stands perhaps alone in conspicuous merit. 
South Carolina is -preeminent in literary enterprise as in political 
distinction. The truth is — her prominent statesmen, jurists and 
scholars, are the exponents and ornaments of her literature. Ele- 
gant letters and public affairs divide equally the habits and occu- 
pations of her people. She was early a leader in the emulous pro- 
motion of literary progress. It was, if memory serves us, in 1827 
that the "Southern Review," of which the Southern Quarterly is 
the worthy successor, was started in that State, under auspices 
soon giving it a reputation more brilliant than any like publication 
ever attained in this country. The masterly contributions of Le- 
gare — the recondite learning of Cooper — the philosophic disquisi- 
tions of Elliott, the elder — the antiquarian researches in literature 
and history of Nott — the elegant scholarship of Henry — and a score 
of others hardly less celebrated for splendid talents and all varied 
mental accomplishments, adorned and dignified its prolific pages. 
Apolitico-hternry journal, however, with changes in the particular 
circumstances of the times in which it had origin, and the passing 
from the stage of public life of some of the distinguished actors, 
whose especial organ it was chiefly designed to be, it became for 
awhile extinct. But its revival in the present publication quickly 
followed, and with a support in the energy and ability of its con- 
duct, establishing it in all its former popularity, and, as a purely 
literary work, upon a much surer and firmer basis. Its present 
prospects are still brighter than heretofore, and the whole South 
is, now interested in its maintenance and general circulation. The 
arr o "7 of its contributors embraces the best talent of the southern 
country. The names of Hammond, Thornwall, Holmes, Grayson, 
Bryan, Prescott, Miles, Simms, besides numerous others, are of 
classic celebrity in our national literature, and are the best guar- 
antee of the character and value of the work. We commend it 
cordially to our readers in the West, and particularly to our fel- 
low-citizens in Missouri. In the growing intercourse between the 
States west and those of the southern atlantio section, and the 
channels of future intimate connection that are daily opening, it 
is important to establish means for the commerce of ideas, and the 
intercommunication of views and opinions necessary to regulate 
and harmonize their mutual relations. Literary establishments 
must keep pace with commercial enterprise. While the one builds 
up internal prosperity, the other will foster social fellowship, and 
mould harmonious political sentiment and opinion. 



VOL. XI. December, 1353. No. III. 

Article I. 
Social and Commercial Aspects. 

The social and moral developments of the nineteenth century 
suggest a variety of topics worthy of investigation. Full of in- 
struction if observed in a philosophic light, they commend them- 
selves to the observation and study of all men who desire to com- 
prehend the true character of the tiroes in which they live. 

The social economy of the more enlightened nations is in a state 
of transition, and if we desire to avoid the evils and avail ourselves 
of the benefits which may result from the changes going on, we 
should observe the phenomena as they occur, and, if practicable, 
learn to interpret their meaning. 

From a momentary view of the social aspects, it will be perceived 
that freedom of thought, self-confidence, and less veneration than 
in former times for long established institutions and doctrines, are 
distinguishing traits in the character of the present generation. 

And though it may be doubted by some, whether these features of 
the times betoken good or evil, it must be admitted that they are 
the necessary precursers of a more enlightened and higher state of 
civilization. The consequences of these developments will doubt- 
less be modified by the social condition and peculiar temperament 
of individuals and nations. 

In Europe, freedom of thought and the moral courage which it 
imparts, prepare the minds of men for political revolutions, but 
revolutions being full of peril, and not always practicable, men 
choose expatriation rather than submission to unjust institutions. 
Hence, we perceive the source of the mighty tide of emigration 
flowing from Europe to the sliores of our own continent. This 
must be regarded as the most remarkable, and in many respects 



15S Social and Commercial Aspects. 

the most important social movement of the age. Several years 
elapsed after the commencement of this movement before its effects 
could be correctly observed or appreciated, but its agency in de- 
veloping the resources of the country, and in expanding our com- 
merce, is becoming daily more apparent. 

Without the labor of these emigrants, it would be utterly im- 
practicable to carry out our immense systems of public improve- 
ment in a reasonable time; for the number of operatives required 
for this purpose, if taken from agriculture, would raise the prices 
of labor and provisions to rates that would bring embarrassment 
to every department of industry, and put an end to the construction of 
railroads. But with a continual supply of labor from other coun- 
tries, the Western States, by the exercise of a reasonable degree 
of prudence, will be able to prosecute their public works with suf- 
ficient expedition, and escape the revulsions which have been oc- 
casioned by enterprises of like nature in other countries. And, 
in the meantime, agriculture instead ot being impeded, will expand 
its operations, and find a better market for ail its products. 

But in addition to all this, the demand for iron created by the 
construction of railroads, and the scarcity of mining operatives in 
Great Britain occasioned by emigration, have given an impetus to 
its production in this country, that will enable us before the expir- 
ation of many years to control the iron trade at home and proba- 
bly throughout the world. 

Nor should wc overlook the handy craftsman, whose wares we 
have been consuming, and to whom in return we have been send- 
ing bread and provisions across the Atlantic. 

By transferring his art and implements of trade to this country 
he saves to producers and consumers the cost of exchanging com- 
modities at a distance of several thousand miles, aids in building 
up cities anil a home market for. eur agricultural products, and 
le:sen.-5 our dependence on the industry of other nations. 

But there is still a broader view of this subject : the railroad 
from the Mississippi to the Pacific mu-t be built'clii fly.bytbe labor 
of emigrants; and we may add, that without their aid it is scarcely 
probable that this enterprise could be carried on successfully dur- 
ing the existence of the present generation. 

It is a curious and interesting fact that the people of Europe 
should voluntarily become the instruments of developing the re- 
sources of this country; that they should contribute in su great a 

Social and Commercial Aspects. 159 

degree to the construction of railroads calculated to unite the peo- 
ple and strengthen the bonds of union between the States ; open 
our mines; build up manufactures, and extend our commerce west- 
ward to the shores of the Pacific, and thence to Asia. No friend, 
no enthusiastic lover of this country and its institutions, could 
have devised a sclie'i e better calculated to advance the grandeur 
of the nation, and establish upon a.broad and permanent basis its 
political and commercial supremacy. 

While Great Britain is extending her commerce east by military 
power and civil oppression, individuals, born her subjects, are as- 
sisting to raise up a rival in the west destined to meet her upon 
the opposite side of the globe, and by the arts of peace win the 
laurels for which she has been fighting for more than a century. 
Truly, the ways of Providence are wonderful, and the councils of 
rulers folly. The policy of certain governments in Europe designed 
to perpetuate unjust institutions, is operating with signal effect in 
developing the physical resources and moral power of the United 

When the laboring classes of Europe contrast their condition 
with that of the people of this country, and perceive no ground to 
hope for improvement, their veneration for the land of ther birth 
and ior the institutions which oppress them, is weakened; a sense 
of individuality is awakened, am feelings of manhood aroused, 
which urge them to seek a home in other lands wheVe the rights of 
men are equal, and the pursuit of happiness is open to all. Many 
years may elapse before the consequences of this movement are 
fully developed, but in addition to those already noticed there are 
others not less interesting which may be regarded as almost cer- 
tain. In a social point of view, we conclude that the condition of 
the masses in Europe — the people as distinguished from the rulers 
and privileged orders — will be greatly improved by the operation 
of the causes enumerated. 

For it may be regarded as an axiom that, when an enlightened 
people possess sufficient independence of mind to judge of the in- 
stitutions under which they live by the effects produced upon the 
happiness of the community, the government, whatever be its na- 
ture, must conform to their wants and opinio: s. 

The nature of the social consequences in this country admit of 
more doubt than in Europe. The danger here is in the excess of 
the progressive element, and this excess is annually augmented by 

160 Social and Commercial Aspects. 

imigration ; for individuals of mature years, in whose nature the 
conservative principle predominates, rarely abandon the soil of 
their birth, and the institutions under which they have been reared, to 
seek their fortunes in strange lands. Hence we observe that the 
immigrants to this country generally affiliate with the progressive 
party. This is a fact which should be borne in mind by the states- 
man and by the people in general, and cause them to be more 
circumspect in the adoption of new measures. For though the 
progressive element be necessary to give energy to a people, and 
to prevent the government and wealth of a country from falling 
into a few hands, yet, when this element is found to exist in ex- 
cess, it leads to aggressions upon the rights of other nations, and 
to speculations in property, politics and religion. 

The traits which we have noticed as characterizing the times, 
are prominent in the aspects of morals and religion. But it is to 
be deprecated that freedom of thought, one of the highest privil- 
eges of man, indicates a strong tendency to licentiousness; that 
self- confidence is leading to fanaticism ; and that, owing to the 
want of veneration for the teachings of Christianity, religious ab- 
surdities at war with the common sense, and even with the common 
decencies of a civilized people, are propagated with zeal, and adopted 
with avidity. 

We respectfully commend these phenomena to the observation 
and study of those who have assumed the responsible office of 
teachers of the sublime truths of Christianity. Let these things 
incite them to greater diligence in their vocation. It may be, the 
fault is theirs. They may have insisted too much upon a belief in 
dogmas inconsistent with the lights of the age. They may have 
neglected to fortify and inf'orce sacred truths by evidence drawn 
from the economy of the physical and moral nature cf man, and 
from his relations to the universe. Have they not clothed religion 
With a mantle of gloom, and taught that she demands sacrifices in 
conflict with individual interests and social enjoyments? Have they 
labored to reconcile philosophy and religion, and to show that, so 
far from being twain, the truths of the one are those of the other, 
and that their united lights and combined influence are necessary 
to elevate the individual and social condition of man to that happy 
state designed to be established by the christian dispensation? 

Never has there been a time so favorable for extending the area 
©f Christianity as now. We are entering upon a full tide of com- 

Social and Commercial Aspects. 161 

merce with the Isles and with the great Orient of the ancients; a com- 
merce which in volume will surpass that carried on by the merchant 
princes of Tyre, as far as the volume of the Mississippi surpasses 
that of the Euphrates. By this means the Caucassian and Mon- 
golian races, the christian and the pagan, will be brought into so- 
cial contact. And hence the privilege and duty of christianizing 
Asia is about to devolve upon the American people. 

In view of these facts, may we not conclude that we are entering 
upon a great crisis in the history of civilization, an era when the 
old system having performed its office, and exhausted its powers, 
is about to give place to a new order? 

In this glance at the social aspects of the times, while we find 
evils to deprecate, we still discover what are conceived to be good 
grounds for the conclusion that the great elements of civilization 
are srill in the ascendant. 

The principles of civil liberty are gaining strength ; the exhibi- 
ts ons of licentiousness which occur, seeming at times to endanger 
the purity and permanency of our institutions, like succulent 
shoots, are evidences of the richness of soil and vigorous condition 
of the plant from which they spring. In communities where a 
majority of the people are prosperous, conservative principles must 
prevail. Wealth is a conservative element under all forms of gov- 
ernment, and even the restless and unprincipled innovator, if suc- 
cessful in his schemes, settles down into a state of the most ob- 
stinate conservatism. Public improvements calculated to improve 
the means of social intercourse, and facilitate the exchange of 
commoiiries, are also to be classed with the conservative elements 
of nations. A sense of national grandeur, though it may lessen 
respect for the people of other countries, is nevertheless a potent 
element in sustaining the institutions of the country to which men 

If we bear these principles in mind while taking a view of the 
vast resources of this country, the facilities which it affords for the 
acquisition of wealth, the spirit and the means of public improve- 
ment which we possess, and the rapid strides which we are making 
towards national greatness, we shall find little cause to distrust the 
permanency of our institutions, until we shall have reached, and 
perhaps surpassed, the grandeur of every other nation whether 
ancient or modern. 

162 Social and Commercial Aspects. 

But the elements enumerated are to be regarded as accidental* 
arising from the physical condition of the country and from the 
peculiar characteristics of the race to which we belong. They are 
but the gross materials constituting the framework of our institu- 
tions, liable to change and decay, unless preserved by principles" 
imperishable in their nature. To make our institutions perpetual, 
moral improvement must keep pace with the progress of physical 
science, with the acquisition of wealth, with the expansion of com- 
merce, with the enlargement of territory, with increase of popula- 

This is the point which must finally determine our destiny as a 
people. The inherent energies of our race will develop our phys- 
ical resources, and extend the area of our institutions. But it re- 
quires enlightened, energetic and unceasing exertions on the part 
of the statesman, philosopher and divine, to develop the moral ele- 
ments which are essential to sustain a perpetual state of progress. 

The statesman must ook to the means necessary to ensure th 
education of the destitute, that to the equal rights to which men 
are entitled by birth there may be added equal opportunities of 
comprehending the duties which each individual is bound to ob- 
serve and perform as a member of the community. Else how can 
he enact laws to punish the delinquences of those who may fall in- 
to crime by reason of their ignorance without violating the eternal 
principles of natural justice? 

The philosopher must study the individual man, investigate his 
social and moral natures, and, observing their phenomena, deduce 
thence his duties and the true objects for which he was created. 

In the exercise of his functions, the teacher of religion should 
continually bear in mind, that Christianity is a social institution, 
designed by its founder to bind the whole human family together 
by social love instead of human laws, and that future rewards 
depend chiefly upon the performance of social duties under the in- 
fluence of this sublime principle. 

Should our readers object to the introduction of these grave 
topics in a work relating chiefly to the industrial pursuits and busi- 
ness affairs of men, we beg to remind them that happiness is the 
end proposed to be attained by each and every pursuit adopted by 
man. But if, while engaged in their respective vocations, they 
neglect to observe the social aspects, and allow political errors and 
social vices to grow up and g.iin strength, they will fad in the at- 

Ji JVew Plan of Constructing Railroads. 163 

tainment of the chief object for which all men labor. An enlight- 
ened community possessing sound morals, and a free government 
wisely administered, are necessary elements of individual prosper- 
ity. They encourage habits of industry by making its rewards 
more certain, and enhance the value of those rewards by combin- 
ing social with physical enjoyments. They make sure to the la- 
borer the fruits of his toil, and protect his accumulations for the 
benefit of his offspring, and hence ethics and the science of gov- 
ernment are to be regarded as legitimate branches of political 


Article II. 
A New Plan of Constructing Railroads. 

No suggestion touching improvements in traveling which have 
come under our observation has afforded us more pleasure than 
those contained in the following article. We know that one not 
a machinist or an engineer is liable to be deceived in such matters; 
but the plan proposed by the writer for constructing railroad tracks 
and machinery with a view to the greater capacity of both, seems 
so plain that we scarcely feel a doubt of its success in all respects, 
except in the point of reasonable safety, at a speed of one hundred 
miles per hour. Indeed so high a rate of speed can hard y be de- 
sirable. If with the improvements proposed a speed of fifty miles 
an hour can be attained and kept up with safety through the whole 
liae from the Mississippi to the Pacific, we think the most ardent 
progressive in the land ought to be content. 

At the first view, the additional cost may seem to be an objec- 
tion, but this will not prevent the adoption of the plan upon all 
great lines cf travel in case the author's views should be realized. 

We trust, Mr. Robinson will be able, in some way, to make a 
satisfactory test of his invention, before the railroad to the Pacific 
is commenced ; and if such a test can not be made by individual 
means, we would suggest that Congress be applied to for an ap- 
propriation for that object. — Sr. Ed. 

Louisville, November 28, 1853. 
My Dear Sir: In my last, I promised you an explanation of 
the plan I had previously suggested to you for improving the speed, 
safety, and comfort of railroad traveling. Knowing the interest 

164 t/3 New Plan of Constructing Railroads. 

you feel, as a public spirited raan, in all legitimate works of pub- 
lic improvement, and particularly in the great project of a rail- 
road to the Pacific ocean, and feeling confident of jour ready ap- 
preciation of any plan for the construction of that road which will 
combine desiderata absolutely necessary to its prompt and speedy 
Completion; as well as to its safe and successful operation when 
completed, I have the more readily promised this, as I consider 
the plan peculiarly fitted for this road, and upon a scale fully com- 
men.-urate with its importance. The want of the desiderata re- 
fers I to, although felt upon all of our long main lines, must be 
mo'-i seriously felt upon ihat than any other, precisely in propor- 
tion to its length and the primitive state of the country through. 
wlaci it must pass. The conditions, which every practical rail- 
road man must concede as necessary to enable this road to tri- 
umph, in our generation, over all the difficulties in the way of 
ii- l.struction, and regular, systematic, and successful operation, 
are: 1st. Great, increased speed, with at least the same safety as 
at the present rates. 2d. Greatly increased safety. 3d. Increased 
capacity, with accommodations and comforts for travelers far be- 
yond any that can possibly be obtained on our present roads. And 
all these conditions must be obtained with a durable and substan- 
i road bed upon "terra firma." By the method I have sug- 
gested, the very elements, out cf which ony one condition is com- 
plied with, are the elements out of which all others are fulfilled, 
and there can be no question as to obtaining the following results, 
\vi: The ea-y attainment of a speed of one hundred miles per hour, 
increased safety, even almost to the extent of absolute immunity 
tr a derailment, by reason of unseen imperfections in the track, 
and from the breaking of axles, increased accommodations and 
e iVeniences, even to the extent of sleeping rooms, eating rooms, 
Bit irig rooms, and all the comforts which may be had upon our 
Steamers-. This, at first, may seem rather a startling proposition, 
but is it half as startling as was deemed the first proposition of 
running a locomotive engine at a speed often miles an hour? It 
will be remembered that a noble English gentleman agreed to eat 
the first engine which should ever accomplish this speed. With 
all that has been accomplished since that time, I am yet unable to 
sit quietly down in the conclusion that perfection has been attained 
in the manner of constructing railroads and railroad machinery, 
but I have faith to believe that as many and as great improvements 
are yet to be made as have been made since the "Rocket" made 
her first memorable trip. 

Both theoretically and practically, the obstacles which prevent 
a speed of one hundred miles per hour upon our present roads are 
sufficiently obvious. It is an indisputable fact that, in order to 
increase the speed of locomotive engines, increased diameter of 
driving wheel is necessary, and then increased boiler or evaporat- 
ing surface is necessary to create power for these large whee Is. 

A JVeio Plan of Constructing Railroads. 165 

Granting that this increased power could be obtained to the extent 
required for a speed of one hundred miles per hour, it is manifest 
that, with driving wheels of the proper size, say ten to twelve feet 
in diameter, engines upon the ordinary general plan of construc- 
tion would be so high, in proportion to their base, that the speed 
would be unsafe. The sp^ed would be unattainable for the reason 
that the engine could not be kept upon the track. Absolute per- 
fection in a railway track is not to be attained, or, if it was, it 
could not be maintained. The crushing of the timber under the 
rails, the giving away and settling of th« joints, the settling of the 
earthwork, the crushing and wearing of the rails; all these are 
contingencies not to be avoided, and occurring more or less, as 
the materials are better or worse out of which the road-bed and 
tracks are cor.s f rueted. With our best rail-ways thoroughly bal- 
asted, with the cleanest gravel and the best materials throughout, 
these difficulties occur in every rod, and a speed of one hundred 
miles per hour would not be safe, even if the requisite wheels and 
■power could be obtained. But the power cannot be obtained to 
the required extent for any useful sew ict upon the ordinary gauge 
of road. 

These difficulties would naturally bring us to the conclusion that 
a wider gauge is necessary. Increased width would of course give 
more space for boiler, would admit larger wheels without raising 
the center of gravity, and would thus permit increased speed with 
Safety. That is to say, the inequalities and imperfections of the 
track remaining the same, a higher rate of Bjpeed would be allow- 
able, and attainable upon a wide than upon a narrow gauge, This 
theory, however, only applies, in its fullest extent, upon a straight 
line of road. An increase of gauge brings ap other difficulties ; 
viz: increased friction upon curves, increased torrion of axles, in- 
creased wear and tear of road by reason of the necessarily in- 
creased weight of engines, &c; andi'li these without attaining ad- 
vantages of speed, safety, capacity, and convenience to the extent 
required. I consider any material increase of gauge, therefore, 
inadmissible, although I consider an increase of base an absolute 
condition in obtaining these advantages. 

To establish the assertion I have made with regard to the limit 
of speed of engines with limited drivers, I beg to state the results 
of experiments made in England within a year or two past, with 
an engine constructed upon the most approved proportions, having 
drivers seven feet in diameter. I have not the published statement 
at hand, but the experiments were first upon a cold inclement day, 
a wet rail, with an unfavorable wind, and under circumstances en- 
tirely at variance with the necessary conditions for making high 
speed. The result was seventy-one miles per hour, ti.e engine 
having a surplus of steam and "blowing off" all the time. A few 
days subsequent to this it was again taken out, under what were 
considered the most favorable circumstances, fair weather, dry 

166 *fl JVeiv Plan, of Constructing Railroads. 

rail, and no wind. The result was precisely the same, a speed of 
seventy-one miles per hour, and with no apparent difference in the 
amount; of surplus steam. The conclusion is irresistible: The speed 
of the engine was not limited by outside conditions of track or 
weather, but depended entirely upon something inherent in the 
engine itself — the absolute incapacity of the pistons and connec- 
tions to move any faster — the inability of the steam to enter the 
cylinders and exhaust with any greater rapidity. It follows there- 
fore that had the engine been constructed with larger driving-wheels, 
it would have had capacity for a higher rate of speed, for there 
was no difficulty experh need in generating steam. But it is ques- 
tionable whether with the increased drivers and tee consequently 
increased beigbiof boiler, it would have been compatible with safev 
ty to have drives it even at so great a speed as seventy-one miles 
per hour. It may tiot. therefore, be impossible to manufacture 
an engine, simply as an experiment, which could be driven at a 
speed of perhaps one hundred miles per hour, provided the con- 
dition of the track did not present insurmountable difficulties — 
These 1 liave before referred to. To a certain extent they are 
unavoidable^ ami the motion, both vertical and lateral, thereby 
created will always present an insuperable obstacle to any great 
increase of -peed upon the ordinary gauges, even if power for'n/ purposes could be obtained. The most perfect track if 
examined critically will show a succession of vertical curves by 
settling at the joints , even if depressions are found at no other 
poiu These low points, if equally depressed, when opposite, 

create a vertical motion only, and when laid alternate or riot op- 
posite, create a lateral or vibratory motion still more inconsistent 
with high speed. It is found that in consequence of the loose na- 
ture of Uie material near the sides of the road bed the harrier and 
mo, material in the center becomes a fulcrum upon which 

the track vibrates-, and where a depression is found in one rail, a 
corresponding elevation is very generally found in the opposite 
ons'. This is more particularly the case where the joints of the 
rails are lai I alternately. There is, then, at the centre a neutral 
point where there is no disturbance. Could a load be sustained 
at this point, it is evident that no motion under such conditions 
would be communicated to it, or, taking the worst feature, viz: 
a settling of one rail without the corresponding elevation in the 
other, a 'i I it is evident that but one half as much disturbance oc- 
curs at the centre as at the depressed rail. Under the present 
mode of construction, the car-bodies and their loads are sustained 
at points nearly over each rail, and, as a necessary result, a dis- 
turbance of the level of the t T ack causes a disturbance of the level 
of the car and its load. The higher and wider these are, the 
greater and ue re dangerous is the motion. 

x, if a car-body be sustained by a single point only at the 
centre of each of the trucks under it, and this car- body be of suf- 

Jl JVew Plan of Constructing Railroads. 167 

ficient width to extend cut on one side projecting beyond the rails 
far enough to be sustained by another truck having another bear- 
ing at its center only, either of these trucks might be dis:urbed in 
its level by a depression in one rail and a corresponding elevation 
in the other, without in the least disturbing the level of the car- 
body. It is precisely upon this principle that I have designed a 
road. 1 propose to lay four parallel rails of the ordinary pattern 
and weight, forming two distinct tracks, each of a gauge of two 
and a half to three feet, and having an intermediate space of five 
to six feet. These tracks I propose to lay upon distinct and sep- 
arate sleepers, having a trench or ditch between them, but to con- 
nect them by ties of iron or other suitable material so as to pre- 
serve a uniform gauge in the intermediate space. I propose to 
construct narrow trucks for each track and rest each car-boiy upon 
four trucks sustained by a single bearing only at the center of 
each. It is perfectly evident that the car-body and its load would 
have no vibratory motion communicated to it by the inequalities 
incidental to each independent track, and that its level could not 
be seriously disturbed, unless one track should be absolutely lower 
than theothe 1 ". Against this latter contingency we have a base of 
twelve feet for a c.r no higher than is now used upon a base of 
less than five feet. By an arrangement of this kind, the friction 
upon curves is gieatly reduced (lor we have only a gauge of two 
and a half or three feet,) the vibration and tortion of Ue axles is 
lessened, w'jile, at the same time, the capacity of the axles to re- 
sist all strains is immensely increased, and yet we have the indis- 
pensable condition required for high speed, a wide base. Thus 
are combined all the advantages ever claimed for a wide gauge 
with all the advantages that can pos-ibly be claimed for the nar- 
row gauge, and yet all the disadvantages ever urged by the re- 
spectivcchampions of either, as belonging to the other, are entirely 

I propose also a peculiar system of laying these four rails, and 
that is with the joints of the outside ones opposite each other, but 
alternated with the joints of the inner rails, which shall also be op- 
posite each other. It will be perceived that by this system each 
independent track is laid with alternate joints, but always occupy- 
ing the same relative position with the joints of the opposite track. 
The inevitable depression of the joint causing a corresponding el- 
evation of the opposite rail at its center, the middle of each track 
or the half way point between the two rails is a neutral point where 
there is no motion, and the inequalities of each track are such that 
the opposite trucks are either inclined toward each other or from 
each other at precisely the same momer t, thus counteracting each, 
other and avoiding both the vertical and lateral movement of the 
car-body caused upon an ordinary road by either opposite or al- 
ternate joints. 

There would be, of course, a tendency of these centre bearings 

168 Ji JVeio Plan of Constructing Railroads. 

upon which the car-body rests to approach each other or recede 
from each other as the inclinations of the tracks should be inwards 
or outwards The simple apparatus used in all well- constructed 
car trucks provides fully for this tendency, permitting the truck 
to move a short distance laterally or to incline without moving the 
center bearing at all. Upon curves where it is now found neces- 
sary to incline the ears by raising the outer rail, so much as often- 
times to create alarm among the passengers, the level of the car- 
body may be perfectly preserved and the object fully gained by 
inclining each distinct track, but keeping the center always upon 
a level. I propose to connect opposite trucks in such a manner 
that one shall act as a guide for its mate. The most dangerous 
causes of derailment are not great obstacles extending across the 
track, because such obstacles, whether placed by design or accid- 
ent, are to be guarded against by a suitable police, but by far the 
most serious danger is from unseen defects in the track itself, or, 
rather, in a single rail of the track, such defects as would not be 
apparent to the casual and careless glance of the repairer, or as 
could not readily be seen by the guard or engine driver of a train. 
A broken chair allowing the ends of the rails to slip by each other, 
a short and sudden crook in the rail, a worn rail with a short de- 
pression crushed in its surface, the breaking of a rail, the sudden 
settling of a joint under a passing load, all these are causes of de- 
railment at high speed, and are causes, too, from which the most 
serious accidents may occur, because not being readily perceived, 
they are met with while running with entire confidence. The con- 
nection I propose would prevent any truck, meeting unh such ob- 
stacles, from turning upon its center so as to leave the line of the 
rails without the opposite truck to which it is attached should turn 
also, and the probability of conditions of this kind sufficient to 
cause derailment, occurring upon both tracks at precisely opposite 
points, is 6>o remote a contingency that I think I am warranted in 
claiming that the plan involves almost absolute safety. 

As a general thing, the ends of the rails, it is well known, are 
the poitits where they first fail, and this simply because they are 
generally the lowest points. An unavoidable effect, from the man- 
ner cf constructing our present roads, is, that when a wheel sinks 
into the depression caused by a yielding joint, the car-body re- 
ceives a "cant" in that direction and the impingement upon the 
rail increased by the whole impetus of the load. If we keep the 
load still and resting upon a single point precisely in the center of 
each truck, it is manifest that, no matter how much the truck may 
be twisted or distorted out of level by the inequalities of the track, 
the weight is distributed alike upon all the wheels, and the jcint 
or depression is not subjected to any greater impingement than 
any other part of the rail. Both rails and machinery are thus re- 
lieved, and an immense saving is made in the most important 

A JVeiv Plan of Constructing Railroads. 169 

item of cost in operating railways, even at a far higher than ordin- 
ary rate of speed. 

It is found practicable upon all our roads to run cars construct- 
ed with a width about double that of the gauge. Taking this as 
a proper proportion, I consider it safe to construct cars of twenty 
feet width for a base of twelve feet, particularly as it is not neces- 
sary to increase the height materially. Carrying out the propor- 
tions in fall, if we double the width of track, we may not only 
double the width of car but may also double the height, the center 
of gravity remaining in the same relative oosition. But as the 
height is not increased seriously, with the increased base the center 
of gravity is much lower than in cars of ordinary construction. — 
This, independent of any other consideration, would permit in- 
creased speed. 

The cars may be of any length within the limit of required 
strength, but say, for example, sixty feet. You can readily im- 
agine what convenience and accommodations maybe provided upon 
cars of these dimensions, and it is perhaps unnecessary for me to 
make any suggestions. Sixty passengers may have comfortable 
sleeping accommodations in a night-car of this size, not upon 
shelves hung around the sides of the car but in state-rooms. More 
than that number could sleep in a car if arranged with berths upon 
the sides and with the portable apparatus used in our steamboat 
cabins for the center. Other cars may be finished for cooking and 
eating rooms. Cars for day. trains may be divided into saloons 
and sitting rooms, with sofas, tables, &c, or may be provided 
with uniformly arranged seats as in our present cars. All the ac- 
commodations that can possibly be required by travelers can be 
had to such an extent as to render it unnecessary for them to 
alight between the Atlantic and Pacific. Am I not warranted, 
therefore, in saying that the proposed method of constructing rail- 
ways and railway machinery will give ease of motion to the car ; 
will lessen the wear and tear of both road and machinery ; will 
largely increase the comforts and accommodations of travel ; will 
immensely increase the capacity of the road for any kind of traf- 
fic ; and will permit a speed of one hundred miles per hour with 
increased safety. It remains to be seen whether the proper ar- 
rangement of machinery can be had and the power generated to 
accomplish this speed. 

I propose to construct a double locomotive, using the center 
space between the tracks exclusively for the boiler. There would 
be two distinct sets of driving wheels opposite each other — two 
cylinders on each side, with all the requisite machinery and trucks, 
forming substantially two distinct locomotive engines constructed 
for a gauge of two and a half to three feet, with a large and ca- 
pacious boiler between them, the two sides acting entirely inde- 
pendent of each other, and having no connection whatever, except 
that they would be attached to the same boiler. The axles of th« 

170 JLNew Plan of Constructing Railroads. 

driving wheels not extending across the space occupied by the 
boiler, it matters not how large the drivers are — the boiler re- 
mains in the same position, placed as near the surface of the road 
bed as ti*.e fire-box will permit. Immense power for propelling 
the large drivers is obtained by the four cylinders* and in order to 
supply steam, we have room for inserting a boiler of five feet in 
diameter if required. The fire-box, being directly in the rear of 
the driving wheeis, may be enlarged, even to the full width of the 
track, and, if necessary, small auxiliary boilers may be placed be- 
tween the driving wheels on each side of the main boiler. Thus 
are obtained all the conditions for speed — large drivers, powerful 
machinery, and unlimited capacity for generating steam, and, at 
the same time, the center of gravity is kept near the surface of 
the track, and the height of the engine not at all dependant upon 
the size of the drivers. The same principle of sustaining the load 
at points precisely in the centre of the tracks, as arranged in the 
case of the cars, may be retained in the construction of the loco- 
motive, and the leading and trailing wheels may be connected, as 
a means of safety, in the saaie manner. The weight of engine, 
ami also the weight of cars, is increased beyond those now in use, 
but the number of rails for sustaining them is proportionally in- 
ci eased. And this is a peculiar feature of the invention to which 
I wish to call your attention. In enumerating the disadvantages 
attendant upon an increase of gauge, I have mentioned the in- 
creased wear and tear of rails bv reason of the increased weight of 
machinery. It might be asked — why not as well make the rails 
heavier? whv not have two rails weighing; each one hundred and 
twenty pounds per yard? The answer to this is — that all experi- 
ence proves the durability of a rail, or its capacity to resist the 
action of heavy loads, nut to depend so much upon the weight per 
li .ear foot, after reaching a certain limit, as upon the tenacity or 
adhesiveness of the particles of the iron — the rail itself mvy not 
break or bend, and yet its surface ciushes and laminates under 
the action of heavy locomotives so as to be unfit for use, and still 
nearly all of the original iron is left. Nothing is added to the 
capacity of the iron to resist this crushing or lamination ot the 
surface by making it heavier or stiffer. Manifestly the proper 
way and the only sure way to preserve the rails while increasing 
tl ■ weight and power of the engines is not to increase the size of 
the rails but to increase the number of wheels or the number of 

The center space between the two tracks is available for way 
trains running short dislar.ces made up'of ordinary engines and 
cars — or it may be used for the repair and gravel trains of the 
road. For these latter the arrangement is peculiarly apt, for the 
ballasting may be deposited in each track where it is needed in- 
stead of being wasted upon the slopes of the embankments or in 
the ditches ox the cuttings. At stations in large and important 

*d New Plan of Constructing Railroads. 171 

towns, turnouts and branches from the narrow tracks maybe con- 
structed upon which cars propelled by horses may be used, con- 
necting the trucking operations in these towns directly with the 
larger cars at any point upon the tracks. I suggest these minor 
matters as conveniences following directly in the wake of the con- 
struction of a road of this character. I have submitted this plan 
to some of the most eminent theoretical and practical railroad men 
in the country, both East and West, and with the exception of one 
single objection, it has been universally approved. It has been 
unhesitatingly conceded that every result I claim for it can be at- 
tained. The objection made by a few individuals is its increased 
cost. Let me reply to this objection with a few practical state- 
ments and I have done. The cars I propose to build are about 
twice the size of our present cars. If provided with the same kind 
of seats and no better or nnre luxurious accommodations they will 
certainly contain twice as many passengers. Having twice the 
number of rails and bearing points under them, we may load them 
twice as heavily, and may we not as cheaply construct the one car, 
carrying one hundred and fifty passengers, as the two cars carry- 
ing seventy-five each? It' we reflect a moment, we must decide 
that the same capacity would be obtained for a less cost in the 
large cars than in the .small ones. The increase is principally in 
the width — the same sides and the same windows that are required 
for the small car answer for the large one. So is it with the freight 
cars; if twice the size and costing twice as much per car, it is suf- 
ficient to assert that they carry twice the load. Suppose the en- 
gines each to cost twice as much as the ordinary engines, they 
als;> have twice the capacity. 

For an equal amount of traffic then, the equipment cannot pos- 
sibly cost any more upon this than upon any road. There would 
be the extra cost of two rails, with the chairs and spikes and the 
labor' of laying them. Estimating them at 1U0 tons per mile at 
present rates, and this additional track might cost $8,5i>U per 
mile. The additiona 1 width of road bed would be about $5.U00 
per mile upon an average road, making a total extra cost of $13,- 
5u0 per mile only, while quadrupling its capacity. I cannot con- 
sider this objection as being worthy of any serious consideration ; 
for once demonstrate that by this plan the results I claim can be 
obtained, and that the Mississippi river and the Pacific ocean can 
be brought withm eighteen hours of each other, and I say the 
magnificence of such an accomplishment will warrant almost any 
expenditure. Those who admit the feasibility of the whole thing, 
and yet object on the ground of this comparatively trivial increase 
of est, might, with equal propriety, object to the construction of 
our present railways because they cost more than turnpikes. The 
particular applicability of this plan to the Pacific road needs but 
little comment. Aside frem any considerations connected with the 
operation of the road when conwleted, there is one consideration, 

172 A A^eiv Plan of Constructing Railroads. 

connected with its construction, arguing incontrovertibly in ita 
favor, viz: That the time in which the work can be constructed is 
not limited by any difficulties in the grading of the road bed and 
its preparation for the rails, but simply by the laying of the track. 
The materials for this must be transported from its termini, and 
the contingencies attendant upon this transportation over any new 
road with incomplete and imperfect regulations, without frequent 
or convenient stations, without assistance in case of accident, ex- 
cept at long intervals, always delay and embarrass this work. I 
know from practical experience, that, with proper supplies of ma- 
terials, one mile of track per day maybe laid down quite as easily 
as one quarter of a mile, for this depends only upon the number 
of men employed, but I also know that, as an average, not more 
than one quarter of a mile per day is laid upon any road of fifty 
miles in length where the materials are transported over the road, 
and this entirely in consequence of the delays and contingencies 
connected with this transportation. If this be the case upon a 
road of fifty miles in length, how must these difficulties multiply 
upon a road five hundred or one thousand miles in length. Is it 
not therefore an unanswerable argument, granting all that is 
claimed for this plan, that the facilities of all kinds for transport- 
ing men, supplies, and materials being increased four-fold, the 
speed and certainty of transportation and delivery being increased 
in the same proportion, can it, I say, be denied that the work can 
be accomplished in one quarter the time that would be required if 
constructed upon the ordinary plan. There can be no doubt that 
the saving consequent upon this increased speed and certainty of 
delivery will counterbalance the increased cost of the road. 

In common with, I believe, every "Young American," I have 
the strongest desire to see this road commenced, but I also desire 
to see it commenced upon a plan which will not be a thing of by- 
gone days, before it is half done. No one great improvement in 
locomotion has been made since the first introduction of railways. 
That was a great step. All the rest has been by slow degrees and 
small improvements in the details. I believe the time has arrived 
when another great step must be soon made. Certainly, if to be 
made within the next quarter of a century, it would be well that it 
should be made before the Pacific road is built. 

Such, in as brief a manner as I could well explain it, and with 
as few comments as the interesting nature of the subject would al- 
low me to use, is the character of the plan I suggest. I have pre- 
pared models of both locomotive and cars, which are in Portland, 
and at your service, as is also this rather lengthy communication 
from your most obedient servant, 

Chief Engineer Louisville & Covington R. R. 
John M. Wood, Esq., Portland, Me. 

Address of Uriel Wright. 173 

Article III. 

Address of Uriel Wright before the First Agricultural Fair in 


Continued from p. 30. 

I pass to the second proposition — Is it the duty of the State to place a thor- 
ough agricultural education within the reach of her youth? and if so, how? I 
assume that she has not yet done it. I assume that within her boundaries, all is 
not known that ought to be and can be known by proper appliances, to elevate 
the condition of agriculture — that the State has not furnished the means ot ac- 
quiring this knowledge — and my purpose is to show, if I can, that she is under 
an obligation to make this knowledge accessible. 

On Monday, the 12th day of June, 1820, the people of Missouri in conven- 
tion assembled, at St. Louis, established a "tree and independent Republic" and 
ordained a written constitution. 

For the period of little more than one year, the Republic, thus formed, was 
in a peculiar sense "free and independent"— for while its people had passed out 
of their Territorial form, the Republic they formed, was out of the Union. But 
I am not dealing with this peculiarity in her history. The Republic established 
Was "free and independent." Its foundation was laid in the capacity of its peo- 
ple for self-government; and knowledge, by the character of the structure, became 
its necessary support. Knowledge diffused, knowledge in the people, who were 
recognixed as the only source of power in the State, so that by the act which 
gave the form of government, a duly was created and imposedupon the government 
to instruct, to inform and enlighten the understanding, to instill into the mind 
principles of arts, sciences and morals. 

Thai is education, and the implication carries it to the mind which holds the 
sacred deposit of power; and that is the popular mind. If the constitution or- 
dained by the people had been silent, the form of government created a duty to 
educate, of perfect obligation, but the constitution is not silent; it speaks; it is not 
content to rely in this behalf upon even a necessary implication, but it puts down 
what is implied in apt and emphatic words. It gives to education a separate 
article, and the first words ot the first section are : 

"Schools and the means of education shall forever be encouraged in this 

There is the duty which devolves upon the State, and its double origin, both 
sacred. There is the duty which rests upon her now, and wdl remain upon her 
so long as she remains a free State. Beyond that hour, I take no interesl in her 

Education is to be encouraged in this State, not for a time only, but for all 
time. The men who framed this article had clear ideas. They looked to the 
past and to the future — they knew that liberty was a hard thing to get, and a 
still harder thing to keep, and they connected means with the end. They were 
not content to start with liberty and end with something else. The horizon of 
Freedom was not bounded to their vision. They looked to no future that was 
not free. By a clear logic they saw that if liberty was dependent upon know- 
ledge for a single day, it must be dependent on it forever, and therefore rejecting 
all temporary expedients, they declare the union of liberty and knowledge per- 

The organic law of Congress creating the Territory, eight years before, had 
said : ' ; As religion, morality and knowledge are necessary to good government and 
the happiness of man, schools and the means of education shall be encouraged;" 
— but the framers of our Constitution reject the preamble, and change the phrase 
by adding a word of perpetuity. They reject the preamble, not to weaken, but 
to strengthen the law. They cut off all argument— they silenced all debate 
about the value or object of education, for ihey knew that the legal effect of a 
preamble oftimes narrows the law. Ihey put education now and forever upon 
the fooling oi'a duty absolute, requiring no argument for its enforcement. They 
left it as the plain duty of a free State, arising out of her freedom and insepara- 
ble from it. 


17-4 Address of Uriel Wright before the 

This connection between liberty and knowledge is a legacy of the Revolu- 
tion. No men who have ever lived on earth, saw or felt the force of this idea as 
did the men of the Revolution — or so struggled to make it a living idea. In many 
ways they impressed it. It is to be seen in all their inculcations — but I cannot 
forbear to remind you of the mode in which one of the great actors of that age 
sought to transmit the thought to succeeding ages. He was not content that it 
should be seen in his life, it must speak from his grave — and therefore, penning 
the epitaph which survives him, Thomas Jefferson wrote these words i 

"Author of the Declaration of American Independence 

Founder of the University." 

The chisel of the lapidary has engraven the words upon the hard nd im- 
perishable marble of his tomb — and the stone helps biography and history to 
carry d-wn the truth to succeeding generations. 

Education is therefore to be encouraged — encouraged by the State. The 
words of the constitution are not addressed to the individual citizen either as a 
mandate or admonition. They are an injunction on the law making power — 
the General Assembly. 

The duty cannot be shuffled off upon others, while faith is kept with the 
constitution. Whatever individuals or societies may do, there is still an existing 
obligation on the State. There is no possibility of evasion ; the obligation must 
be met. The government is built not upon a throne or a peerage — not upon the 
aristocracy of blood or wealth — not upon any arbitrary or artificial distinction in 
man. Its foundation is mind — and the State is pledged to see that it shall be 
educated mind. 

But is the State pledged to encourage agricultural education ? By the second 
section of the same article of the constitution, it is provided that the Legislature 
shall take measures for the improvement of such lands as have been or may here- 
after be "-ranted by the United States to this State for the support of a seminary 
of learnin tr — and it is further declared by the constitution, that the funds accruing 
from such lauds, by rent, lease, or in any other manner, or which may be ob- 
tained from any other source for purposes aforesaid, "shall be and remain a per- 
manent fund to support a university for the promotion of literature and of the arts 
andsciences. ,, The Legislature is also in the same section pledged to "the im- 
provement and permanent security of the funds and endowments of such insti- 

Take these sections together, and you see the whole mind of the framers of 
the Constitution. You see what they meant by Education, and who should have 
it. A school in every township, and the poor taught gratis ; a university dedicated 
to Literature, to Arts, Sciences; funds for their support— permanent funds — out of 
the reach of legislative power, and never to be blended or mixed up with the 
revenue of the State — object and means, guarded with unusual care. 

But what shall be taught — what literature, what arts, what sciences? The 
letter?, arts, and sciences then known, or a select portion of them — or such as 
should rise with advancing civilization and knowledge? All of them — there are 
no restrictive words. The only limitation is that which arises out of the great 
object of instituting a free government, which is the liberty and happiness of 


If Agriculture, as an art or science, tends to elevate the character of man — 
to enlighten his understanding, to promote his happiness, to advance his prosper- 
ity, and qualify him as a Trustee of Liberty — it is within the provision of the 
injunction, and must be encouraged by the State. 

And who doubts, that it is the precise office of agriculture to produce just 
such results as I have named? It is wise and provident that Ihe pursuits of men 
should be diversified. I make no war upon the diversion of labor. I honor hon- 
est toil, whatever may be its vocation , and least of all would I underrate the 
value of what are called the liberal professions; but unmistakably, of all the avo- 
cations of man, agriculture is the noblest and most useful. In proportion to 
their numbers, the lernples of Justice are thronged by fewer agriculturists than 
by any other class of men. In the jails and penitentiaries they are hard to find, 
and the poor-house does not number them among her tenants. These are decisive 
tests of the influence of vocation upon character. 

As to prosperity, agriculture is the only producer. She feeds the world. 
The struggle of all other vocations is to get the riches she affords. They con- 

First Agricultural Fair in Missouri. 175 

sume her products. In this eternal scramble, what one vocation gains, another 
loses. Take me as an illustration of the non-producers of the earth. 

What I make somebody must lose. I add not an atom to the wealth of the 
world. If, quitting the law, 1 should go to California and discover rfgold mine, 
still I would not have added one atom to the wealth of the world. Gold is not 
wealth — it is not value — it is only its representative. But the agriculturist cre- 
ates wealth; and after his greatest gains he may lie down on his pillow and say : 
"I have taken nothing from any human creature; no man has lost because I have 
gained ; Nature only has suffered under my toil, and man is enriched by it." I 
would have him add, "What Nature has suffered must be restored to her, and I 
will invoke Science to help me to make restitution." Finally, as to the influence 
of occupation upon freedom — no enlightened statesman has ever doubted that 
Agriculture is the safest keeper of the ballot-box. 

How shall the State "encourage" agricultural "education?" The State may 
encourage agriculture in many ways. This organization is one of them. It 
stimulates the pride of the farmer — it collects for exhibition the most favorable 
specimens of certain products of the farm — -it begets emulation among the tillers 
of the soil, and, what is perhaps more valuable, it leads to interchange of ideas 
between agriculturists, and thus tends to disseminate whatever practical knowledge 
is now possessed by them. But it creates no knowledge ; it does not augment in- 
formation; it does not furnish agricultural education. It does not teach. You 
come with what ideas you have gathered in your experience, and such may be- 
come known to a greater number of persons by the interchange of thought; — 
but the sciences auxiliary to agriculture are not here taught. You neither ex- 
periment nor investigate — -you exhibit. If in your respective districts, any sue- 
sessful mode of culture of a grass, a grain, or an animal has been practised, that 
knowledge may well be imparted here to others, who will go back to their 
farms, resolved to submit to experiment what has here been communicated. The 
value ot such ideas may thus be tested by a wider field of experiment, and every 
such test may help to the ultimate deduction of a law or principle — general uni- 
versal, or only special. 

If every farmer came here with carefully prepared statistics, showing the 
nature of his soil, the character of the seasons, the kind and quality of his seed, 
the mode of culture adopted by him, the quantity per acre of his yield, the na- 
ture of his manures, and how and when prepared, and when applied ;, together 
with the value of his land and the cost of production, embracing the wages of 
labor, when hired, or the value when not, &,c. Such statistics gathered by this 
Association and carefully preserved, from year to year, might, in the shape of 
authentic facts, form a body of information, not only useful in showing the actual 
condition of our agriculture, but in leading to improvements in the art. They 
might be eminently serviceable to a Board of Agriculture as guides to investiga- 
tion. They might lead to the true mode of culture where conflicting results fol- 
lowed the same mode of culture, or to the suggestion of such modifications as 
would be called for by different soils and local circumstances. But this Associ- 
ation, in its widest operations, could not furnish agricultural education. 

The State might encourage agriculture by the establishment of a Board of 
Agriculture whose duty should be to collect and distribute all knowledge now 
known pertaining to the culture of the soil, or the growth of animals, aided by 
statistics furnished by the census, embracing a wide range of knowledge not now, 
by law, furnished by our census tables. It might be made their duty to examine 
and report the condition of the best conducted farms within the Stete, showing 
how results were reached in "tUeir culture. A commissioner of high scientific 
attainments might direct the action of the Board. 

The State may encourage agriculture by disseminating the knowledge con- 
tained in the best agricultural periodicals published within the State, or else- 
where. — Their office is a useful one, richly deserving patronage and support; 
but, after all, the chief function of the paper is to spread what is already known. 
It extends the knowledge of the practical operations of individual farmers, but it 
does not furnish agricultural education. This Society, starting under State patron- 
age — the individual Associations which are rising up in various portions of our 
country — every paper and periodical specially devoted to the art of husbandry — 
the industrial exhibitions of the world, are, each and all, movements in the right 
line. They speak the wants of agriculture. They indicate the strong convic- 
tion of the popular mind that the art of husbandry needs support; that the time 
has come when agriculture shall no longer be left to help itself — when it shall 

176 Address of Uriel Wright before the 

cease to be the only art in an age ot marvelous progress, left to struggle on, 
without the fostering aid and care of the Government. But they do not furnish 
what agriculture needs. 

Agriculture, like every other art, must be educated We educate for the 
iaw — we educate for medicine — we educate for war, for war upon the land, and 
war upon the sea. We educate for all arts and sciences, save that, art or science 
which is the noblest of them all, and upon which all other arts and sciences de- 
pend- Three-fourths of our population are farmers, and will be for centuries to 
come, and yet there is not one institution in the United States in which a young 
man can acquire the important art of becoming a truly intelligent and skillful 

I have indicated some of the sciencees which are the necessary allies of Agri- 
culture. In some of the colleges of our country a portion of these sciences are 
taught — but they are not taught thoroughly, and what is worst of all, they are nut 
taught in connection with the art of husbandry. 

The round of studies crowded in a collegiate course of three or four years 
forbids thoroughness in any. Take chemistry as an illustration. How many 
practical Chemists does Yale or Cambridge turn out ? Has she ever graduaded 
one Agricultural Chemist? Is organic chemistry taught at all? Tiie student 
learns the rationale of an experiment — he does not experiment himself — lie does 
not analyse. I would not undervalue the advantages arising irom even the su- 
perficial knowledge of science acquired at these institutions. All knowledge is 
useful — and the graduate may be master of principles and laws, which, after ap- 
plication and study, may ripen into science. But with such know edge of the 
natural sciences as acquired at our best seminaries of learning, can the graduate 
rank as a skillful farmer? Can he be regarded as a farmer at all ? 

Agricultural education is theory and practice blended. It is knowledge ap- 
plied — applied in the daily operations of husbandry. It is science, by the hand 
of labor, applied to the field, to the meadow and the barn-yard. The educated 
farmer is one who knows how to conduct his farm in conformity with the laws 
of nature. We have no institution at which this knowledge can be applied. Un- 
til such institution be established, let this Society, and kindred associations, live 
and work. Let the Agricultural Editor toil on with his press — supported and 
cheered by the farmer — by the influence of a healthy public opinion, ami, if need 
be, by the State — and let a part of that work and toil be to demonstrate to the 
General Assembly, both the necessity ot such an institution, and the obligation 
to establish it. 

Our Government is popular — the men who make laws are only agents. The 
interest of agriculture is the greatest interest; the numbers engaged in it are a 
majority. Let its voice be a controling power in the State, lknow that imped- 
iments "will rise up to stop this scheme ot benefaction. Prejudice will shake its 
hoary brow at it. Ignorance, venerable also for its antiquity, will smile at the 
thought of analyzing nature; and economy, in its Jewish gaberdine, will count 
the cost. Knowledge has ever had enemies, and these are her hereditary foes. 
It would be strange, indeed, if agricultural learning should not cost. Despotism 
cog t s — Monarchy costs. — Thrones and diadems are costly things. Liberty costs. 
Our own American liberty was won at great cost — and I trust it will be main- 
tained at every cost. 

Knowledge will cost — but we are able to buy it. I hope we shall not give 
more for it than it is worth. But ignorance, prejudice, and parsimony are not 
the proper appraisers of its value. 

It will be said, if Agriculture needs teaching^ and for teaching must have 
the school, the experimental farm and the college, why have they not been es- 
tablished heretofore? This question might be answered by putting others, em- 
bracing the history of all progress. Why is chemistry, as a science, only a cen- 
tury old ? Why is agricultural chemistry half a century younger ? Why is or- 
ganic chemistry younger still? Why did not Franklin invent the telegraph ? 
Why did this world wait for Fulton to make a steamboat? And for Gray to 
invent the locomotive ? Why, indeed, is it that there is such thing as prrgress 
in human affairs? The propriety or necessity of educating agriculture c::n never 
be detei mined by such enquiry ; but it is not difficult to trace some of ihe causes 
which have led to the present neg ected condition of the art of husbandry in our 
own country. 

Bishop Berkley's celebrated prophecy as to the march of ''empire," might 
with equal truth have been uttered of agriculture — for since the world began 

First Agricultural Fair in Missouri. 177 

empire and agriculture have traveled together, and their course has been ever 
toward the setting sun. The decline of Roman power began with the decline of 
her agriculture — and Rome fell when her luxurious population, deserting her 
fields, looked for distant provinces for supplies of corn. I know it has been said 
that the Spartans conquered the adjacent States of Greece because the soil of 
Sparta was too poor to produce corn. But the short-lived plunder cannot shake 
the eternal truth, that the stability of a nation's power depends upon its soil. 

Our own country, then a part of the British Empire, attracted the attention 
of this eminent prelate and philosopher, and its immense resources then but dimly 
seen, may have inspired a prophecy, which will be remembered when his meta- 
physics shall be forgotten. His benevolent spirit originated a vast missionary 
scheme for the conversion of the red man of the wilderness — and he sailed to 
this country to execute it — but after a residence of two years his policy was 
frustrated by the administration of Walpole. I do not think it out of place to 
add — as a just tribute to agriculture — that Christianity must take agriculture with 
her into the forest, before she can reasonably hope to subdue and convert the 
heart ot the savage. The hoe and the plough are the true pioneers of the Bible. 

The vast area of this country compared with its population, and the richness 
of its virgin soil, conspired to bring about a careless culture — ending in the pres- 
ent state of agriculture in America, Man has relied more upon the bounty of 
Providence than upon his own skill. West of every worn-out field lay acres un- 
touched by the hand ot toil. West of every Slate exhausted by injudicious hus- 
bandry, lay territory in its virgin state, too tempting to the emigratory principle 
in man. It has been deemed less difficult to open a new farm than to improve an 
old one. Ourpopulation,by a law seemingly as irresistabie as that which carries the 
waves of ocean to the shore, have from the Atlantic board, passed the Allegha- 
nies, climbed the Rocky Mountains, and descended to the Pacific. Nothing in 
the world's history is like it. In 1620, the men of Plymouth Rock saw the first 
light of morning gild the waves of the Atlantic, and now their descendants see 
twilight deepen on the smooth waters of the Pacific. 

A continent has within the period of a little more than two centuries, been 
subdued into civilization by our people, and much the largest portion of it has 
been compassed since the Declaration of Independence. In this eventful period, 
government, laws, and institutions have arisen — the creations of American mind 
— which extort the admiration of the world — but the genius of our people has 
cot, heretofore, been led by inventive necessity to study the mysteries of the pro- 
duction of the earth. No famine has ever swept over this our own beautiful por- 
tion of the globe. With small toil its population has been fed, and a surplus pro- 
duce has gone to supply the wants of older and more crowded nations. America 
has had more land than laborers, and accordingly we see the inventive mind of 
our country creating laborers out of wood and metal, and sending them to the 
field to do the work of men. In this department of enterprise, with the untaught 
study of only twenty-five years, we lead and teach the nations of the earth. And 
in any field of human enterprise, set but an object and a motive before the mind 
of America, and she will win trophies against the competition of a world. 

Bounded now by two oceans, the period has arrived in the history of our 
country, when the public mind is directed to the improvement of our present 
possessions, and the agricultural mind of our country, especially, to the improve- 
ment of the soil within its present boundaries. The indications are unmistakable, 
as they are wide-spread. North and South, East and West, the cry is up, -'why 
shall not Agriculture be an educated art?" Why shall not educated mind, go 
from the halls of learning, to the farm, as it goes everywhere else? How the 
young mind shall be educated to fit it for the field, has not been decided. It is a 
great question, requiring thought and mature deliberation. It is a subject worthy 
of the best energies of the best minds of America. Whatever suggestions I offer, 
is with diffidence, but by whatever steps of progress led, it seerns to me, the end 
must be, the school, the experimental farm, and the college. I know no other 
mode by which Science — Agricultural Science — can be so taught as to blend 
theory and practice — the highest consummation of art. In other countries im- 
portant attainments have been already reached by these instrumentalities. Europe, 
engaged for centuries in the cultivation of the arts of war, has since the fall of 
Napoleon, turned its attention to the arts of peace. In the short period of its 
repose, three hundred and fifty schools and colleges exclusively devoted to agri- 
cultural education, have arisen, ?urrounded by experimental farms, upon which 
the sciences taught have been practically applied. Necessity, that wonderful 

178 •ftddress qf Uriel Wright before the 

mother of invention, has forced Europe, with its crowded population, to seize 
upon the first years of peace, to learn how to make the earth more bountiful. — 
Germany, France and England, within that period, have given birth to chemists 
of world-wide distinction, who have illustrated the power of Science over the 
soil. Government has been wise enough to put by the side of all engaged in the 
culture of a plant, or the growth of an animal, the chemist who has studied the 
laws of vegetable and animal physiology. The man of science has been able to 
teach the sheep-grower how to improve his wool. The testimony is uniform to 
this great practical test of usefulness, that wherever these institutions flourish, 
Agriculture is most elevated as an art. 

Distinguished travelers, the reports made to our Patent Office, and the in- 
structive evidence furnished by professor Hitchcock in his celebrated report on 
the condition of agriculture in Europe, made upon personal inspection, establish 
the truth of the proposition. 

The Royal Agricultural College, at Cirencester, has six professors, and sev- 
en hundred acres of land for agricultural purposes. The school at Grignon, 
near Paris, has also six professors — and in this school, where the education is 
thorough, the entire course is three years. The experimental farm attached to 
it contains seven hundred and fifty acres. France has at present seventy-five 
agricultural institutions. The present ruler of the French nation has shown— 
whatever else he has exhibited in his imperial sway — sagacity and wisdom in his 
department of agriculture. At Versailles there is a National Agronomic Insti- 
tute, employing nine first class professors and three thousand six hundred and 
fifty acres of land. The course of instruction in France embraces a wide range 
of the sciences. Thus the Grignon school teaches algebra, geometry, mechan- 
ics, surveying, leveling, stereometry, [the measuring of solied bodies,] and lineal 
drawings in the mathematical sciences — in the physical sciences, mineral chem- 
istry, mineralogy, geology, and botany — organic chemistry or agricultural tech- 
nology, agricultural arboriculture, sylviculture, veterina'y art, agricultural zo- 
ology and equitation, in what are denominated technological sciences and rural 
architecture, forest economy, farm acccounts, rural economy and rural law, in 
the noological sciences. This institution has already graduated six hundred 
students. Prussia alone has three superior schools, two intermediary schools, 
twelve inferior schools, thirteen special schools, and two connected with colleges 
and universities. 

They abound in the various principalities of Germany, in Italy, and Ihe Au- 
tocrat of Russia, in his wide domains, has found it necessary to establish sixty- 
eight agricultural institutions. The superior schools rank with our best colleges, 
in the extent and variety of the sciences studied, and the intermediary schools 
may compare favorably with most of our colleges. The institute established as 
late as 1818, by the King of Wuertemberg, has a royal domain of eight hundred 
and twenty-five acres, one director, six professors, besides six other functionar- 
ies charged with various labors. The instruction given is embraced in three de- 
partments. First- — Agricultural matters. Second — Forest matters. Third — 
Auxiliary sciences. Omitting all that relates to the forest, let us glance at what 
is included in the agricultural course and the sciences in aid of agricultnre. 

First — Climate. Second — Soil. Third — Manures. Fourth — Tools and im- 
plements of tillage. Fifth — Of clearing up o! ground. Sixth — Of meadows and 
pastures. Seventh — Of agriculture in general. This is divided into ploughing 
and other tillage, seed plots, [of grain and root culture.] threshing and preserva- 
tion of grain. Eight — Of special agriculture. All cultivated plants are treated 
of particularly. One course of studies is viticulture, embracing the culture of 
the vine, and vine making. Another, the culture of fruit trees. Another, the 
rearing of cattle — the various races, their crossing, and the treatment of their 
young. Another, the rearing of the horse — his natural history, the different 
methods of raising, the choice of animals for reproduction. 

The treatment of mares and colts, another rural industry in winter, — the 
manufacture of beet sugar, of liquid manures, &c, in summer, the manufacture 
of vinegar, cider, lime, and draining tiles, and the last course in agriculture em- 
braces the whole field of rural economy: as valuation o( real estate, general cir- 
cumstances of the country, of farms in general, and the different parts of the 
same farm, of the home means of maintaining its fertility, of systems of culture, 
of labor and the infernal organization of a farm, of the relation between the num- 
ber of beasts and the land worked, of the capital of the farmer, of the different 
modes of working a farm, and the last, agricultural book-keeping. 

First Agricultural Fair in Missouri. 179 

I glance only at the sciences auxiliary to agriculture — higher arithmetic; al- 
gebra, trigonometry. 

The science of measuring solids, applied geometry, mathematics applied to 
the culture of trees and the entire forest, and their valuation ; physics, mechan- 
ics, chemistry, vegetable botany and physiology, special and rural botany, zo- 
ology, veterinary medicine ; the natural history of domestic animals, their anat- 
omy, animal physiology; Ihe care to be taken of animals, the treatment and med- 
icine for slight diseases, the description of diseases, pathology and therapeutics; 
veterinary surgery, the internal diseases of animals andmurrains; rural construc- 
tions, prepairing plans and drawing of machines. 

To illustrate these courses of instruction, the means are ample. Among 
them, the operations on a large farm, annexed to the Institute, a forest of fire 
thousand acres, a botanic garden, a library, a geological and mineralogical col- 
lection, a collection of woods, seeds and resins from the forest, a collection in 
comparative anatomy, and a collection of specimens of wood; specimens of agri- 
cultural products; models of instruments of tillage, models for physical science, 
and collections for chemistry and the laboratory. 

I should weary you by any further detail of the system of instruction estab- 
lished at the most celebrated of the Agricultural colleges of Europe. They form 
an interesting study for the statesman and the man of science, when he comes to 
the model which shall be adopted in our own country. 

The question has been vexed in Europe, as to the manner of teaching the 
youth who devotes, himself to the business of husbandry. In Prussia, and in many 
parts of German}-, they begin with the practice and end with theory. The student 
is made familiar with all the manipulations of husbandry, before he masters the 
science which directs them. Perhaps you will pardon me if I bring before you 
a nearer view of the working results of these Institutions. 

At Breslau, in Prussian Silesia, in September, 1845, a meeting of German 
agriculturists was held, numbering about one thousand members. Several sov- 
ereigns were present by deputies — the agricultural societies were represented by 
their ablest members, and the most distinguished scientific Professors of Agri- 
cultural Institutions, formed a constituent part of the assembly. After a speech 
from the President of the body, on the condition of agriculture in Silesia, the 
organization of six committees, to report upon six subjects, to wit: 1. Agricul- 
ture proper. 2, Raising Stock. 3, Culture of the Forest. 4, Technical branch- 
es. 5, fruit and Vine culture. 6, Wool-growing. 

The examination of sixteen students came off — students who had been in- 
structed in various agricultural institutions of Prussia and Germany These young 
gentlemen v^ere seeking to become qualified to conduct the operations of Baron- 
ial estates. The eldest was twenty-three, and the youngest, sixteen years of 

After answering various questions in writing, connected with their studies, 
they were taken to an estate called Rosendale, near Breslau. In the yard the 
pupils were shown a wagon, marked in thirty-six parts — a plough in thirty-five 
parts — a harrow in six parts — making altogether, eighty-two separate parts. 
Eacli pupil had to put down on paper, the name of each part to show whether 
he was acquainted with all the parts of the different implements, and in case of 
breakage, to mention the most efficient mode and means ol repairing. 

A sheep was then brought forward, and they were required to put down on 
paper, the answers to the following questions : 1st. Is this sheep healthy — and 
why ? 2d. How old is this sheep ? 3d. What is his age in shepherd language ? 
Each pupil was next required to catch a sheep himself and examine it, and report 
whether it was diseased, and the signs of the disease. They were also to point 
out upon a sheep the places where the worst wool grows, and on which the best 
— and likewise to designate the places where the faults of wool are most liable to 
be inherited. Several head of cattle were now brought before them, and the fol- 
lowing questions propounded : 

1. How much milk can a cow of this breed give, when fed with grass or 
other green fodder ? and how long since she had a calf? 

_ 2. How many pounds of fodder does a cow of this breed require per day, 
during summer — how much during winter — and the cost? 

3t How many calves has this cow had ? And how old is this cow? 

4. What breed is it, and why do you say so? 

5. How much will she weigh of meat ? how much of tallow ? 

180 Address of Uriel Wright before the 

They were then examined upon horses. The horses being first inspected by 
the pupils, the following questions were required to be answered : 1. What are 
the peculiar qualities of this horse as a plow horse ? 2. Which of these qualities 
are requisite for a good plow horse, and which are not? 3. How old is this 
horse ? 4. Several places were designated on the horse, and the pupils were re- 
quired to tell what diseases affected this or that part, and the remedy. 5. The 
anatomy of the horse, and the hoof especially, became the subject of examina- 

The pupils were then conducted to the barns, where they had to show their 
skill in making straw bands, in cleaning grain and in sowing- grain, &c. After- 
wards they were taken to the fields — first to one of light soil, and then to one of 
heavy soil, and the following questions were put to them. 1. What is the name 
of this kind of soil ? 2, What are the names of the principal parts of 
which this soil is composed ? 3, What is the name of the subsoil, and is the sub- 
soil retentive or not? 4, What kind of crop succeeds best on this kind of soil ? 
5, How large would you make the beds on such soil, and why ? 6, Is this soil 
heavy or light, cold or warm ? These and similar questions were asked of the 
soil at different spots. They were then asked, in writing, the following ques- 
tions. 1, In the case of a heavy soil sown with wheat and oats, and in that of a 
light soil sown with rye — state for every month how much ploughing and har- 
rowing has to be done, and with how many horses or oxen ? How much manure 
will yon require, expressed in loads ? Do you call that light or heavy manur- 
ing? How will you treat the manure in the stable, in the dunghill, and in the 
field ? When you have at command drainings of your ordure pile and mineral 
manure, how and for what crops would you use them ? What kind of weeds ap- 
pear in the summer crop ? What in the winter ? — and how would you destroy 
them? How keep them from coming up ? ff you have good and bad meadows, 
to what kind of cattle will you give your best, and which the worst kind of hay ? 

In the department of economy — involving the relation between the various 
kinds of labor to be performed, and the force necessary to its accomplishment, 
the examination was conducted with great rigor. It embraced the preservation 
of every crop — and the distribution of the labor as well as its amount. So also 
the subjects of drainage and ditching, and other farming operations in their min- 
utest detail, were put to the pupils with rigid severity. The examination closed 
with the important theme of Agricultural Book Keeping — showing the entire 
operations of a farm — the relative distribution of forces — and the cost of food 
consumed by each animal — and the wages of labor. 

I give you the collected mind of this august assembly of Agriculturists in 
the form of four propositions reported by committees, and adopted by the meet- 
ing — 

j. — Educate the masses for their pursuits in after .ife. 

2 — In regard to Agricultural education — the practical must be thorough. 

3 — In Theory, all high scientific speculation should be avoided ; and its ap- 
plication to practice alone he taught. 

4 — To establish Boards of Examination over all Germany, with proper ex- 
aminers lor every district. 

Under such maxims the educated agriculturist will not be apt to run wild 
upon beautiful but visionary fancies. Theory is tested by the true touchstone of 
truth — the capability of being reduced to practice. 1 trust we shall! ever avoid 
the Sangrados of Science. 

There is no universal sovereign specific for the cure of sick soils. Above 
all other pursuits, agriculture demands the eo-operation of knowledge and ability 
— theoretic acquaintance and practical skill, insight and outsight. 

I would have my country profit by the wholesome lessons of all countries, 
but just distinctions must be made, arising out of difference of circumstances. 
The course of instruction suited to Europe will require modification here. We 
must adopt its agricultural learning, as we adopt the common law of England, 
onlv so far as it is suited to the nature of our institutions and local condition. 
Light, heat and moisture, climate and seasons are important agents greatly mod- 
ifying in different localities the processes of nature. The education for America 
— mu^t be American. 

Who shall teach ? will be the enquiry of adversaries. The question is per- 
tinent and the objection plausible. Who shall teach ? The answer is two-fold. 
Our institutions of learning in the beginning were conducted by European mind. 
In founding the University of Virginia, Mr. Jefferson relied upon Europe for 

First Agricultural Fair in Missouri. 181 

Professors in several important brandies of science. But I take high ground. 
Mind, like commerce, obeys the law of demand and supply. Create a demand 
for intellect in any walk of human enterprise, and it will be supplied. I feel my 
breast swelling with the proud thought, that the intellect of my country will hon- 
or every draft that may be made upon it, under whatever exigency of progress. 

In England, the pride of birth impairs the usefulness of her best agricultural 
college. The sons of noblemen will not work, save by the side of their peers. 
The young sprigs of nobility lose caste if seen toiling by the side of a youth whose 
father never wore a star or garter ! What artificial things aristocracy makes of 
men. Will the day never come, when ribbons sliall cease to dwarf man ? When 
the now impassable barriers of caste, shall be broken clown, or perish piece- 
meal, by that law of decay which attaches to all things immature? When human 
progress shall no more be arrested or impeded by the conventionalisms of rank, 
creating distinctions in man, which the vision of his Creator is not sharp enough 
to see? 

If there be, within the sound of my voice, one father whose parental pride is 
seeking to gratify itself by placing his son in a position above the rank of farmer 
— if there be h^re one Madame Deschapelles, who sighs to wed her daughter to 
a title — one beautiful, proud Pauline, who yearns to glitter as the bride of nobil- 
ity? — to that father I say, You have forgotten the lessons of the father of your 
country; — to that matron, You will never be the mother of a great American 
statesman; — to Pauline, True nobility in man is never found above the dignity of 

And if there be in our State one youth of promise, who feels within his 
breast aspirations kindled by the pride of intellect — who whishes to make his 
mark upon his age and generation — who scorns to be ignorant, and would rise to 
knowledge, but would avoid the fields as not being the path that leads to fame — 
I have some special words for him : "Young man, what do you aim at ? what 
model of excellence is in your mind? to what country and what age do you look 
for an example? Are you fascinated by the deceptive halo which antiquity throws 
upon the men and deeds of remote ages? Then go to Rome in her purest, palmiest 
days — when to be a good citizen was to be a good farmer — when to be a skillful 
agriculturist was the highest distinction of a Roman citizen — when unskillfulness 
in farming was visited by the rebuke of the Censors. Study the names of such 
Komans ot that period as history makes immortal, and you will find that they 
come down to us, not by the names given to them at birth, but by titles derived 
from the plants and grains brought to greatest perfection under the culture of 
their own hands. In that school of virtue and true glory you will find that his- 
tory had a holier office than to record the intrigues and battles of ambition. Or, 
if willing to take a model from the short but glorious career of your own coun- 
try, look at the names which make a part of our national property. Of all the 
men who have shed lustre upon our annals, how few can you number who were 
not farmers ! 

Be assured, there is not an error more mischievous to start with in life — no 
one apter to mar the usefulness you aim at, than the mistake of supposing any in- 
compatibility between husbandry and greatness. Statesmanship, which opens to 
noble ambition the widest paths of honorable fame, is only farming on a large 
scale. Are you captivated by the exhibition of intellect in its highest reach, 
winning loftiest honors at the bar and in the Senate? Contemplate the life and 
death of Daniel Webster. See how his mind acquired strength of fibre, in his 
farm life, amidst the hills of New Hampshire ; watch it in the acquisition of 
knowledge at college; its earliest triumphs at the bar ; pursue it to the Senate 
Chamber ; the scene of its matured splendor; follow it in the quiet shades of 
Marshfield ; and every where you will behold its unbroken allegiance to the soil. 
In the last days of his life, what brings him from the sick chamber to the porch, 
to look for the last time upon a scene lit up "by the sun in heaven?" Upon what 
does his "last lingering glance" fix itself? The ocean is at his feet; hp hears its 
murmurs, and the sea breath fans his whitened locks ; perhaps his soul-seeking 
sympathy with its own elements of grandeur, gazes on what in nature was the 
type of its depth and rower ? No ! no ! it is not that; his deeply poetical nature 
turns from the contemplation of mere physical nature in her sublimest aspect and 
seeks the "utterances of life" in pastoral simplicity. He turns from the se?; his 
eyes are on the fields enriched by his culture; on the lowing herds who miss the 
hand that fed them. In that moment, whatever are his other aspects, he stood 
revealed to us and to the world, as the farmer of Marshfield. 

182 Iron Mines, and Iron Trade 

Mr. President, we live in a remarkable age. The human mind, starting out 
in new paths of inquiry, has established a new dominion over the physical world. 
On the sea, and on the land, Time and Space, the old foes of progress, are nearly 
conquered — conquered by Science. Once they were Despots, but now, reason- 
able Rulers, confined within certain well defined limits of power. The spirit of 
progress demands yet further restrictions. See how science has laid her hand 
upon the sea! Commerce once ciep from headland to headland in timid crafts. 
Science gave her the compass, and she went from shore to shore. Naval archi- 
tecture then becatrfe underwriter for the safety of cargo and crew. The mad 
waves which once severed nation from nation, science turned into the theater of 
national contests in peace and in war ; and weary of the laggard and fickle mo- 
tion of the winds, she seized the invisible strength of water, put it into iron har- 
ness, and defied both wind and wave. She made "her home upon the deep," but 
her greater triumphs are on the land. The locomotive is swifter than the steam- 
shin. By their united power, oceans dry up, continents shake hands, and Ariel's 
girdle belts the earth. Men are made of wood and metal and stone — swift men 
— strong men — enduring men — who live and work, without food, without sleep, 
and on small pay — but amidst all this marvel of progress, which changes the 
commerce and character of the world, puts new ideas in the heads of statesmen, 
and reverses the policy of cabinets, how little has been accomplished by science 
to augment the productive power of nature ! She has been treated as if the prin- 
ciple of decay could never touch her bosom, nor the process of exhaustion di- 
minish its supply. Agriculture is the only art left behind in this unparalleled 
advance of all other arts and sciences. Is this neglect, a necessity or an over- 
sight? That is the great question for solution. Let Ihe agricultural mind of Mis- 
souri determine it. 

The earth belongs not to those who now live on it. It is an estate in perpe- 
tuity. We are the tenants of this age, and there are countless ages of remainder- 
men. Responsibility to God and man rests upon all who injure or destroy the 

Article IV. 

[From the Railroad Record.] 

Iron Mines, and Iron Trade of Ohio and Cincinnati. 

The production and manufacture of iron is of immense import- 
ance to any country, or state. It is speciully important that iron 
mines should be near any large town, like Philadelphia, Cincin- 
nati, or St. Louis, which must depend chiefly on a trade with the 
interior — always largely increased by a capacity to manufacture 
iron articles of all sorts. Of the great advantage Cincinnati has 
derived from this source, we gave one example, in our last num- 
ber but one, in the manufacture of marbleized mantels by Hor- 
ton and Macy. 

We shall not exaggerate, when we say that in Cincinnati, and 
its suburbs, there are not less than sixty iron factories of the 
largest sort — which, with their dependent work-shops, give em- 
ployment to fully?t'e thousand operatives. 

This immense development of the iron manufacture has arisen 
chiefly from the nearness and excellence of the Ohio Iron Mines. 
This fact a?so insures the continuance and extension of this kind 

of Ohio and Cincinnati. 183 

of industry far beyond its present limits. It is also quite sure to 
result in raising up large towns, in the mineral region, where coal, 
iron, and stone, lie contiguous to each other. We have an ex- 
ample of this in the rapid growth of Ironton, which is only one of 
many towns, which will grow up to magnitude and prosperity in 
the same region, as time and capital develop the mineral resour- 
ces of that section. As the iron business has risen to so much im- 
portance, and is so intimately connected with railroad traffic, it 
may be interesting to give an outline of the Iron Mines, and Iron 
business of Ohio. 

The iron ore of Ohio is found almost entirely east of the Scio- 
to, and occasionally in the form of bog ore, in the north. The 
principal depositories are in the counties of Adams, Scioto, Law- 
rence, Jackson, Vinton, Hocking, Gallia, Athens, Muskingum, 
Licking, and in the same geological section continued to the Lake. 
The furnaces are found almost entirely in Adams, Scioto, Law- 
rence, Jackson and Gallia. One has recently been built in Hock- 
ing, and one on the edge of Athens. 

The Iron works, and Iron produce of Ohio, are : 


Furnaces 35 

Tons of Iron Ore used 140,610 

" Pig Iron made 52,658 

Bushels o Coal consumed 605,000 

" Coke and Charcoal 5,428,800 

Operatives employed 2,415 

Capital invested $1,600,000 

Value of Products (in 1853) $2,000,000 

In the production of Pig Iron, Ohio is the second state in the 
Union, being next to Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania produces half 
the Pig Iron of the United States, and Ohio about one-tenth. 


Factories 183 

Pig Metal, Iron, and Ore used tons, 41,000 

Castings made " 38,000 

Coal consumed bush. 840,000 

Coke and Charcoal " 355,120 

Operatives employed 2,758 

Capital employed $2,000,000 

Value of products $3,200,000 


Factories 11 

Pig Metal used tons, 13,675 

Blooms " 2,900 

184 Iron Mines, and Iron Trade 

Coal consumed bush. 600,000 

Coke and Charcoal " 466,900 

Operatives employed 708 

Wrought Iron produced tons, 14,416 

Capital invested $700,000 

Value of products $1,500,000 

In the manufacture of castings, Ohio is the third state; and in 
wrought iron the sixth. The establishments for the manufacture 
of castings are one-seventh in number of those in the Union. — 
The following general view will give the relative standing of the 
principal states in the manufacture of iron : 

Iron Works. Value of Products. 

Pennsylvania 631 $20,327,000 

New York 401 7,941,000 

Ohio 229 6,700,000 

Virginia 122 2,450,000 

New Jersey 108 1,975,000 

Tennessee, 81 1,610,000 

These states produce more than two-thirds the iron ore and iron 
manufactures of the United States. Both Tennessee and Kentucky 
are destined to produce and manufacture an immense amount of 
iron ; but, at present, Ohio is much ahead in that department of 
industry, and has raw material to supply her manufactures for 
generations to come. It is destined to enter very largely into the 
business and construction of railroads. It is a very extraordinary 
thing, that in view of the very great superiority of American iron 
rails in wear, that our Railroad Companies have not obtained more 
at home. The system of buying iron for bonds will prove a very 
bad one, if it diverts the support which ought to have been given 
to American industry into foreign channels. We undertake to say, 
that if the English did not sell their iron for bonds on a very long 
credit, they would not have been able to sell one-fifth the amount 
which has been brought to this country. 

Having given an aggregate view of Ohio iron manufactures, it 
may be well to note its growth. This is quite extraordinary. 
The comparisons of results, under the censuses of 1840 and 1850, 

1840. 1850. 

Ironworks 92 229 

Operatives 2,581 5,881 

Value of products #3,421,000 $6,700,000 

This comparison shows that in the aggregate, the iron business 
of Ohio increased 100 per cent, in ten years. From the aspeots 

of Ohio and Cincinnati. 185 

of business in the last three years, we may safely anticipate that 
it will increase yet more rapidly in time to come. 

Looking specially to Cincinnati, we find here an immense and 
rapidly increasing iron manufacture. As the pig metal and bloom 
brought to Cincinnati, with much of the iron bar, is used in vari- 
ous manufacture, the annual imports of iron from the iron region 
is a fair test of the progress of iron manufacture and consumption. 
Here we extract the following return of iron imports into Cincin- 
nati from the "Price Current:" 

1848-49. 1852-53. 

Iron, tons 1,768 14,124 

" pieces 187,864 294,001 

" bundles 29,889 66,131 

" pigs tons 15,602 30,171 

We then find that, in the short space o?four years, the import 
and manufacture of iron in Cincinnati has increased at least 150 
per cent. We discover further, that while, at the present time, 
about 55,000 tons of iron are produced in Ohio, 44,000 tons are 
imported into Cincinnati. A part of this import comes from Ken- 
tucky, Pennsylvania, and Tennessee ; but much the larger part 
from Ohio. It is, therefore, very evident that Cincinnati is the 
great market and manufacture for Ohio iron ; and indeed for that 
of Upper Kentucky. At the very point in the Ohio Valley, which 
is left out of the coal and iron seams — as if to depend solely on 
agricultural products — she has, by virtue of steam communication 
and her own enterprize, become the very best point, and actual 
center of all those branches of industry which depend upon coal 
and iron to develop. She has put her long arms into every mine 
and every granary, supplying herself with material and food, which 
genius, enterprize, and industry, have converted into the elements 
of wealth and prosperity. 

186 Juvenile Reform Schools. 

Article V. 

JUVENILE REFORM SCHOOLS.— Petition of M. Tarver to the 
Congress of the United States. 


The undersigned, a citizen of the city of St. Louis, State of 
Missouri, respectfully represents to your Honorable body that the 
action of the thirty-second Congress upon the Homestead bill and 
other bills, relating to the disposal of the public domain, and the 
general approbation with which those measures seem to have been 
regarded by the people, have led him to conclude that the policy 
of looking to the public lands as a source of revenue, is destined 
to give place to one more liberal and philanthropic. 

Proceeding upon this assumption, your memorialist respectfully 
suggests that among the many objects claiming the consideration 
of your Honorable body, none possess higher claims than the cause 
of intellectual and moral improvement. Intelligence and virtue 
constituting the only solid basis of democratic institutions., the 
first and highest duty of the government, is to make sure the 
foundations upon which it reposes. 

By referring to history, it will be found that the decline and 
final dissolution of all the great nations which have passed away, 
may be traced to the vices of their cities ; and it will be conceded, 
as your memorialist believes, that similar causes are not less fatal 
to democratic than to monarchical institutions. Nor are the cities 
of the United Stales less fruitful in vice than those of other coun- 

According to data, believed to be authentic, there were twenty- 
one thousand two hundred and ninety-nine commitments to the 
prisons of New York city, in the year 1850. It is true, all these 
mav not have been voters ; but it is reasonable to infer that the 
number of depraved individuals who are entitled to vote in that 
city, is at least equal to the number of commitments. That such 
men can be bribed, it would be folly to doubt; but the extent to 
which they may control the policy and future destiny of the na- 
tion, depends upon contingencies which none can foresee. 

Though the criminal record of the city of St. Louis may not 
contain facts as startling as those which have been shown to exist 

Juvenile Reform Schools. 187 

in New York, yet most of the causes of moral degradation in the 
latter prevail in the former. 

Situated at the commercial center of the basin of the Mississip- 
pi, St. Louis is the point of destination for a large portion of the 
immigrants intending to settle in the Valley States. And though 
industrious, honest and respectable as a body, many arrive de- 
stitute of money, and not a few ignorant and vicious. The hos- 
pitals and poor-house are crowded with the sick and disabled, and 
the house of correction with the idle and profligate. The latter 
possessing no disposition to engage in rural occupations, remain 
in the city, and hence, in addition to the vices of local origin, 
there is almost a daily importation from other countries. 

Thus far, the city authorities and citizens of St. Louis have 
acted most liberally in making provision for the unfortunate, and 
with becoming energy in correcting the vicious; but the continual 
and accumulating demands upon their means for immediate relief 
disable them from making appropriations to establish reformatory 
institutions upon foundations sufficiently broad and permanent to 
countervail the fruitful sources of vice which menace the city with 
the evils of pauperism and crime. 

In view of these facts in connection with the immense quantity 
of lands held by the General Government, a wise policy would 
seem to demand an appropriation of a sufficient quantity of the 
public domain to establish and support institutions calculated to 
prevent the growth and accumulation of pauperism and crime in 
the city of St. Louis, and in other cities affected by similar causes. 

Will your Honorable body give a homestead to every individual 
who may settle upon and improve the public domain? The con- 
sequences of such a measure would be but temporary. It may 
expedite the settlement of the public lands, and improve the con- 
dition of individuals, but the condition of the next generation, as 
a community, would be no better than if the lands had been sold 
by the government, at a reasonable price. 

Should Congress make donations to aid in the construction of 
railroads and canals, such a policy would be wise and just ; yet, 
all these improvements will be made, in their proper time, by in- 
dividual enterprise and capital; and when done, the wants of com- 
merce will be as well supplied, and the wealth of the nation as 
great, as if the work had been done at the cost of the government. 

188 Juvenile Reform Schools. 

Will you donate lands to ameliorate the condition of the Indi- 
gent Insane? Truly, this would be a philanthropic and praiseworthy 
act, but its influence would be limited to a small number of indi- 
viduals who are incapable of crime, and can in no way endanger 
the stability of our institutions. Or, will you distribute a part of 
the public domain among the States for the support of common 
schools? Such a measure would be worthy of the age, worthy of 
the country, and worthy of American statesmen. 

If one, or even if all these measures should be favored by your 
Honorable body, still there is an additional argument in behalf of a 
grant in aid of Reformatory institutions: Juvenile Reform Schools 
for large cities, where, instead of being sent to the work-house or 
prison, and compelled ever after to live an outcast and a pest to 
society without hope of amelioration, the youthful offender — the 
offspring of vicious and degraded parents — shall be separated from 
his associates in crime, and educated and trained to some honest 

Missouri is the largest of the Valley States : and it is but rea- 
sonable to conclude that she will, in time, contain a larger num- 
ber of inhabitants than any other State of the Union. St. Louis 
is destined to be a mighty city, controling, in a great degree, the 
social condition of the State, and affecting indirectly the policy of 
the nation. And if in proportion to her population she should 
ever contain the number of paupers, and the amount of depravity, 
which are known to exist in some of the large cities, contingencies 
may arise when this accumulated mass of ignorance and vice will 
control the destinies of the republic. Hence, the social condition 
of the citizens of St. Louis, and of other large cities, has a rela- 
tion to the well-being and permanency of the Union, which may 
well claim the consideration of American statesmen. 

And believing that none of the objects herein mentioned possess 
higher claims to a portion of the public domain, your memorialist 
respectfully prays your Honorable body to donate to the State of 
Missouri, a reasonable quantity of land, to be held in trust for the 
establishment and perpetual support of a Juvenile Reform School, 
embracing such objects, and to be established under such rules and 
regulations, as the legislature of said State may prescribe. 

And your memorialist will pray, &c. 


National Finance. 189 

Article VI. 
Report of the Secretary of the Treasury. 

The subject of "National Finance," involving the question of 
protection to American industry, and the principles of free trade 
with foreign nations, affects, either directly or indirectly, every 
branch of industry in this country ; and, consequently, the facts 
developed by the operations of the existing tariff of duties, com- 
mend themselves to the careful observation of every American 
citizen. The most imposing fact presented in the following report 
is the excess of duties collected beyond the wants of government, 
during the last fiscal year. 

We have ever been the uniform advocates of protection to Amer- 
ican industry; but are constrained to admit that the degree of pro- 
tection should be modified by the amount of revenue required for 
the support of the government upon liberal and just principles, ad- 
ministered with economy. 

Frequent adjustments of the tariff are to be deprecated: no 
change can be made without affecting adversely the interests of 
some one, or perhaps many branches of industry. Hence it will 
be wisdom on the part of Congress, before making any important 
change in existing regulations, to consider well whether the excess 
of revenue has not been occasioned by causes temporary in their 
nature; and if so, whether it is not better that there should be an 
occasional surplus than a general deficit? 

The suggestions of the Secretary of the Treasury, touching the 
enlargement of the "free list," command our approbation. This 
is doubtless the true mode of reduction, so long as it acts upon 
commodities which do not come in competition with American in- 
dustry. But we find articles in the "free list" proposed by the 
Secretary which, in our opinion, deserve protection in as great a 
degree perhaps as any now on the duty- paying list. We notice 
the more objectionable articles in the order in which they stand on 
the list. 

Copper in pigs, bars, plates or sheets. Copper when old and 
fit only to be remannfaetured, and copper for sheathing of ves- 
sels, is proposed to be admitted free of duty. The two main objects 
of a tariff — revenue for the support of government and protection 
to American industry — are most fully recognized by the Secretary 


190 National Finance 

in his report, but he seems nevertheless to have studiously avoided 
the word "protection," for it does not appear even once in con- 
nection with the subject. Now, if we keep these two objects in 
view, it must be admitted that the policy of abolishing the duties 
on copper is, to say the least of it, very ill-timed. Great Britain 
has long controlled the copper trade of the world. We have been 
dependent upon her for our supplies, and it is only within a few 
years that a spirit of mining for copper has been awakened in this 
country. Much labor and capital has been employed in explora- 
tions, and there ure but few instances where sufficient progress has 
been made to compensate the labor and money expended. And 
should the duties be taken oft of foreign copper at this particular 
juncture, it would operate unjustly to those who have so recently 
engaged in the business, and act as a check to this branch of in- 
dustry, from which it would not recover for many years. 

Earthen and Stoneware, are also put upon the "'free list." 
Our objections to admitting foreign copper free of duty, apply in 
all their force to these articles. 

Madder, ground, and madder root. Until very recently the 
culture of this plant has been almost entirely neglected. Ic is now 
beginning to attract attention, and if it should be found profitable 
to the grower, we shall soon supply the home demand. We think 
it would be an unwise policy to abolish the duties on the foreign 
article at present. 

Red and White Lead. It is proposed to place these articles 
also upon the free list. To this there is a two-fold objection: it is 
calculated to affect adversely both the mining and manufacturing 
interests of the country. We can perceive no argument that will 
justify the prostration of this branch of industry, that would not 
apply with equal force to any other in the land. 

Steel, in bars, cast, shear or German. We can perceive no 
good reason for making a distinction between this article and iron, 
and trust that if any change be made, Congress will place both 
upon the same footing. 

Wine of all kinds, except champaigne, imitations of wine, 
and adulterated wines. The proposition to place this article on 
the free list, suggests many interesting topics relating to the his- 
tory of the country. Formerly, wine was regarded as a luxury 
enjoyed chiefly by the rich, and was therefore deemed a very prop- 
er object whence revenue should be derived. This was a just view 

Report of the Secretary of the Treasury. 191 

of the subject when the Statesman was compelled to look around 
for objects of taxation which were best calculated to equalize the 
burthens of the community; but now the question arises, to what 
extent can articles of luxury be relieved from duty, with a view to 
the protection of labor? And did we not possess an extensive re- 
gion favorable to the production of wine, we should unhesitatingly 
assent to the proposition of the Secretary of the Treasury, to place 
that article on the free list. But the culture of the grape, so lone 
neglected in this country, is beginning to receive considerable at- 
tention in several of the States. This branch of industry is now 
in its infancy, struggling against the difficulties incident to all new 
pursuits, and if the action of the government should materially 
affect the prospects of profits to be derived from it, there is great 
danger that it will be abandoned entirely. 

We have long regarded wine-growing as worthy to be classed 
among the most important branches of rural industry. It claims 
the countenance and care of the philanthropist as well as of the 
statesman. For while it is calculated to increase the volume of 
national wealth, it will be found a more potent friend to the cause 
of temperance, than the Maine liquor law combined with all the 
associations which have ever been formed to prevent the use of 
destilled liquors. 

The Secretary of the Treasury has excepted Champagne from 
the free list; if this exception could be extended so as to embrace 
ail those sorts of wine which are most likely to compete with our 
own products, then we should not object to relieving all others from 
the payment of duties. 

There may be other articles amongst those proposed to be placed 
on the free list liable to similar objections ; but we have aimed to 
notice only those which seemed most likely to affect adversely the 
industrial pursuits of the country. 

It is worthy of notice that notwithstanding the Secretary of the 
Treasury discriminates between articles which should be "taxed," 
and those which should be placed on the free list; yet he proposes 
to divide all dutiable articles into two classes, and tax all con- 
tained in each at the same rate. This mars the symmetry of his 
whole system. All articles, except a few of but little importance 
placed on the hundred per cent, list, are to pay a duty of 25 per 
cent. The tariff is to be lowered on some, and raised on others, 
without regard to the effects which may be produced upon the in- 

192 National Finance 

terests of producers or consumers; and all the evils incident to dis- 
turbing the rates of duties are to be inflicted upon the country for 
no better reason than that the measure will "give greatly less 
trouble in the collection of the revenue." We must be allowed to 
protest against a policy which, looking to the ease and conven- 
ience of those engaged in the public service, takes no cognizance 
of the convenience and interests of the people. Furthermore, we 
must say that we cannot perceive wherein the trouble of collecting 
duties would be materially lessened by establishing a uniform rate. 
We take no party view of this subject. We find much in the 
report to commend : it is our duty as journalists to express our 
opinion touching all subjects aftecting the common welfare of the 
nation. — Sen. Ed, 

Treasury Department, > 
December 6, 1853. $ 

The estimated receipts for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1853, 
were as follows : 

From customs $49,000,900 00 

lands 2,000,000 00 

miscellaneous sources 300,000 00 

Balance in treasury July 1, 1852 14,032,136 37 

65,932,136 37 
And the estimated expenditures 60,560,056 86 

Estimated balance July 1, 1853 5,372,079 51 

This balance to exist after applying $7,199,477 77 to the re- 
demption of the public debt. 

The actual receipts for the fiscal year ending ^une 30, 1853, 
were as follows : 

From customs $58,931,865 52 

lands 1,667,0&4 99 

miscellaneous sources 738,623 89 

Making the total receipts 61,337,574 40 

Add balance in treasury July 1, 1852 14,632,136 37 

Total sum for the service of the fiscal year 

ending June 30, 1853 75,969,710 77 

The actual expenditures for the fiscal year 1853 were, viz: 

Civil List $4,784,396 93 

Foreign Intercourse 599,030 14 

Miscellaneous 11,792,369 70 

Report of the Secretary of the Treasury. 193 

Department of the Interior 5,529,535 87 

Do. of War 9,947,290 59 

Do. of the Navy 10,891,639 59 

Public Debt 10,482,555 39 

54,026 ,818 21 

Balance in the treasury July 1, 1853 21,942,892 56 

(As appears by the accompanying statement A.) 
The estimated receipts for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1854, 
were as follows : 

From customs $49,000,000 00 

lands 2,000,000 00 

miscellaneous sources 200,000 00 

Add estimated balance July 1, 1853 5,372,079 51 

Total estimated sum for the fiscal year ending 

June 30, 1854 56,572,079 51 

And the estimated expenditures were: 
Balance of former appropriations $6,879,883 28 
Permanent and indefinite approp. 9,172,829 68 
Specific appropriations asked for 30,151,040 64 

— 46,203,753 60 

Which would leave an estimated unexpended bal- 
ance in the treasury on July 1, 1854, of 10,368,325 01 

The actual receipts for the 1st quarter of the fiscal year 1854, 
ending September 30, 1853, were as follows, (as appears by state- 
ment B,) viz : 

From customs 19,718,822 00 

lands 1,489,562 05 

miscellaneous sources 147,994 87 

Making total receipts 21,356,378 92 

To which add the actual balance in the treasury 

on the 1st July, 1853 21,942,892 56 

Making the total sum of 43,299,271 48 

The actual expenditures for the same first quarter were as fol- 
lows, viz: 

Civil list, foreign intercourse, and misceHaneous 4,381,091 62 

Interior Department, Indians, and pensions 846,213 01 

War Department 2,935,861 40 

Navy Departement 3,140,129 35 

Redemption of public debt 3,778,088 32 

15,081,383 70 

194 National Finance: 

Leaving a balance in the treasury, September 30, 

1853, of. 28,217,887 78 

The estimated receipts for the second, third, and fourth quart- 
ers of the fiscal year ending June 30, 1851, are as follows : 

From customs 37,000,000 00 

lands 3,000,000 00 

miscellaneous sources 300,000 00 

40,300,000 00 
To which add the balance in the treasury, Sep- 
tember 30, 1853 28,217,887 78 

Making a total sum of 68,417,887 78 

The expenditures estimated by the Departments for the second, 
third, and fourth quarters of the fiscal year ending June 30, 1854, 
are as follows, viz : 

Civil list and fore gn intercourse, &c £13,570,833 54 

Deficiencies in the Postoffice Department 1,895,445 63 

Interior Department 2,6l!9,350 10 

War Department 12,874,817 22 

Navy Department 8,135,280 67 

Public debt [interest] 3,145,556 00 

Do. [redemption] 15,000,000 00 

Total estimated expenditures 57,251,283 16 

This will leave an estimated balance in the treas- 
ury on the 1st of July, 1854, of 11,266,604 62 

The balance of the appropriations for the year 

ending June 30, 1853, which remained unex- 
pended on that day, and which is liable to be 

expended in the year ending June 30, 1854, is 17,630,758 75 
The specific appropriations for the year amount 

to. . 34,051,269 58 

The indefinite appropriations for the year are, as 

far as ascertained by actual payment, to Oc- 

ber 1, 1853 $5,100,425 75 

As estimated for the residue of the 

year 0,365,526 95 

11,465,952 70 

Making the whole amount of appropriations lia- 
ble to be expended in the year 1854 63,147,981 03 

The estimated receipts for the fiscal year endiDg June 30, 1855, 
are as follows : 

Report of the Secretary of the Treasury. 195 

From customs $51,000,000 00 

lands 3,500,000 00 

miscellaneous sources 500,000 00 

Making the sum of 55,000,000 00 

Add the estimated balance in the Treasury on 

the 1st of July, 1854 11,266,604 62 

This makes the total estimated resources for 
the fiscal year ending June 30, 1855 66,266,604 62 

The estimated expenditures for the same year is as follows : 
Balance of former appropriations, which will be 

expended this year §6,805,126 44 

Permanent and indefinite appropriations 8,285,716 14 

Specific appropriations asked for this year 35,909,434 54 

51,060,277 12 

This sum is composed of the following particulars, viz : 

Civil list, foreign intercourse, and miscellaneous $12,161,436 09 

Expenses of collecting revenue from customs.... 2,200,000 00 

Expenses of collecting revenue from lands 129,900 00 

Deficiency in the revenues of the Postoffice De- 
partment 2,700,000 00 

Army proper, &c 11,989,397 50 

Fortifications, ordnance, arming militia, &c 2,049 334 00 

Improvements, &c 311,500 00 

Indian Department 1,784,471 84 

Pensions 1,876,072 95 

Naval establishment, including dry docks and 

ocean steam mail contracts 12,712,358 74 

Interest on the public debt 3,145,806 00 

Making in all the sum 51,060,277 12 

Leaving an estimated balance in the Treasury, 

July 1, 1855, of $15,206,327 50 

To be increased about ten millions by that part of the appropri- 
ation not expended within the year, and subject to any reduction 
that may be made in the tariff for half the year, or to any sum 
which may be applied to the public debt during the year. 
The public debt on the 1st of July, 1852, was as follows : 

Loan of 1842 $8,198,686 03 

Loan of 1843 6,222,931 35 

Loan of 1846 4,999,139 71 

Loan of 1847 26,214,050 00 

196 National Finance 

Loan of 1848 15,740,000 00 

Texan idemnity 5,000,000 00 

Do. notissued 5,000,000 00 

71,374,807 09 

Old funded and unfunded debt 114.118 54 

Treasury notes outstanding 132,161 64 

Debt of corporate cities 780,000 00 

72,401,087 27 

The sums paid for redemption of public debt during the fiscal 

year ending June 30, 1853, and the premium, &c, were as fol- 
lows : 

Loan of 1842 $167,485 60 

Loan of 1843 4,296,862 50 

Loan of 1846 68.240 00 

Loan of 1747 1,668,650 00 

Loan of 1848 193,300 00 

Total stock redeemed 6,394 ; 508 10 

Premium on the same, $420,498 64; since which time, and up 
to 3d December, 1853, the public debt has been reduced to $56,- 
836,157 52, leaving the public debt on the 3d December, 1853, 
as follows : 

Loan of 1842 $6,872,135 54 

Loan of 1843 92.800 00 

Loan of 1846 4,048,400 00 

Loan of 1847 20,738,700 00 

Loan of 1848 14,444,491 80 

Texan idemnity 4,887,000 00 

Do. notissued 5,000,000 00 

Debt of corporate cities 24,000 00 

Old funded and unfunded debt 114,118 54 

Treasury notes outstanding 114,511 64 

56,336,157 52 

The accompanying table C. exhibits the time of redeeming and 
purchasing the public debt, and the amount of premium paid for 
it, from the 1st July, 1852, to the 3d December, 1853. 

From this table it appears that $3,342,150 was redeemed and 
purchased from the 1st July, 1852, to the 4th of March, 1853, 
and $12,722,779 75 from the 4th of March, 1853, to the 3d of 
December, 1853. 

Within a few days after the 4th of March, 1853, it was ascert- 
ained that the sum of $1,750,000 had been advanced by my pre- 

Report of the Secretary of the Treasury. 197 

decessor to a broker in New York, and $493,000 to a firm in 
Washington, for the purchase of the public debt. 

These accounts have been closed in part by the transfer of the 
stock agreed to be purchased, and in part by replacing the money 
in the public treasury. There has been no loss from these trans- 
actions ; but it was considered that such an advance of money to 
agents for the purchase of the debt was of doubtful policy, and 
might become hazardous, and lead to a misapplication of the 
public funds, and to favoritism. It was determined not to con- 
tinue that method of redeeming and purchasing the public debt. 
Public notice wa9 at once given that the .$5,000,000 loan of 1843, 
bearing ive per cent, interest, and redeemable on the 1st July, 
1353, would be redeemed at the treasury on that day, or at an 
earlier period, as set out in the notice ; and that interest would 
cease on it from and after the 1st July, 1853. The notice, marked 
D, accompanies this report. 

The daily payments at the treasury, in discharge of the public 
liabilities and the redemption of said loan, did not equal the re- 
ceipts. A large surplus accumulated in the treasury, and became 
a cause of alarm in commercial and financial circles. It was hoped 
that the accumulation in the treasury would exercise a beneficial 
restraint upon importations and speculative credit enterprises, and 
brings the business of the country into a safe and wholesome con- 
dition; yet, under the apprehension that a panic might arise from 
a too stringent operation of the treasury, it was determined to 
make advances to the mint for the purchase of silver for the new 
coinage, and to enable the mint to pay promptly and in advance 
of coinage for gold bullion. 

The amount of money on deposit in the mint on the 4th of 
March was $6,098,220, and was increased by the'lst of July to 
$8,517,890 05, and was on the 25th of November, 1853, $11,- 
451,039 30. This enabled the mint to give gold, which circulated 
as money, for silver that was out of circulation, because of the 
premium upon it; and for gold bullion that could not circulate as 
money until coined. 

It is believed that this operation tended to lessen the effect of 
the accumulation; but the accumulation still continuing, it was 
thought advisable further to lessen it by the purchase or another 
portion of the public debt, at the current market price, in the 
cities of Philadelphia and New York, as authorized by law ; and 
an arrangement was made with a broker, at each of those places, 
to make such purchases, to be paid for on the assignment and de- 
livery of the stock at the treasury. These purchases were con- 
tinued until the 1st July, 1853, and ceased after that date. The 
amount still continuing to accumulate in the treasury, apprehensions 
were entertained that a contraction of discounts by the city banks 
of New York would result from the weekly statements required 
from those banks under an act of the Legislature of that State, 

198 National Finance 

and, combining with the fact of the large amount in the treasury, 
might have an injurious influence on financial and commercial 
operations. With a view, therefore, to give public assurance that 
money would not be permitted to accumulate in the treasury, if 
the public debt could be had at the current market price, a public 
offer was made on the 30th July to redeem at the treasury, be- 
tween that time and the 1st of December, the sum of $5. 000,000 
of the loans of 1847 and 1818, at a premium of 21 per cent., and 
interest from the 1st of July, 1853, on the principal. And on 
the 22d August another public offer was made for $2,000,000 of 
the loans, payable in 1856 and 1862, the former at a premium of 
Sh per cent., and the latter at a premium of 16 per cent., with 
like interest from the 1st July, 1853. These notices, marked E 
and F, accompany this report. It was thought that such a public 
offer for the stocks, at the then current market price, would be ex- 
pedient on the part of the government, and just and fair to the 
holders, have a beneficial effect upon the money market, and se- 
cure a larger amount of the public debt than any other mode that 
could be adopted. The result has been satisfactory. 

The balance of the loan of the three corporate cities of the Di- 
strict, assumed by Congress in 1836, being $720,000, a commun- 
ication was sent to the agent of the trustees of the loan, and a 
price agreed and accepted, to the extent of $696,000 ; and it is 
expected that the balance will be obtained, at the same price, in a 
short time. 

An offer was also made for part of the $5,000,000 Texan 
bonds, bearing 5 per cent, interest, and a purchase of some of 
them effected, in the manner stated in the tables. The fact is 
established, that the public debt of each description can be ob- 
tained at the premiums offered and paid, and that the premiums 
may be reduced as the time fixed by the terms of the law for re- 
demption approaches. 

The balance in the treasury on the 30th of September, with the 
estimated receipts for the 2d, 3d, and 4th quarters of the present 
fiscal year, being so far in excess of the estimated expenditures 
for the same time, will justify the further application of $15,000,- 
000 to the purchase of the debt, and leave a sufficient surplus in 
the treasury for any practical purpose. The purchase of the debt 
has therefore been continued, and $7,567,495 94 expended in the 
purchase during the 2d quarter of the year. It is considered that 
the present prosperous condition of the treasury, growing out of 
the great prosperity of all the industrial pursuits of the country, 
affords an opportunity to apply the surplus to the discharge of the 
public debt, and that it should not be left to embarrass the opera- 
tion of the government in aDy future contingency which may re- 
quire all its energies and resources. 

The estimated receipts of the second, third and fourth quarters 
of the present fiscal year have been predicated on the present high 

Report qf 'the Secretary of the Treasury. 199 

price of^the great staples, on a good foreign demand for our sur- 
plus, and on large duty-paying importation, computed in view of 
the large stock of importations on band and the stringency in the 
money market both hero and in England, and the effect of the 
short crop there. 

The estimated receipts for the fiscal year 1854 do not reach the 
actual receipts of the fiscal year 1853, although the first quarter 
of 1854 exceeds the corresponding quarter of the year 1853 by 
$5,025,207 20. 

The estimated receipts for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1855, 
have not the results of the first quarter to veryfy them, nor the 
unquestioned data of good crops and high prices; but the estimate 
rests upon an average of preceding years, with an estimated in- 
crease proportionate to an increasing population and capacity to 
purchase and pay, calculated without regard to the chances of 
war, short crops, commercial embarrassment, or a reduction of the 

The imports of the fiscal year 1853, including specie, have been 
$267,978,647, and the exports have been $230,452,250. A fair 
estimate for profits on our exports and the freight of our vessels 
would cast the balance of this account in our favor, without esti- 
mating the money brought in by emigrants, of which no account is 
taken. It is believed that a large stock of imported merchandise 
remains in the hands of the merchants, and for that reason, and 
because of the stringency in the money market, both here and in 
England, it is calculated that there will be, during the remaining 
three quarters of the year, a diminished importation, compared 
with that of the first quarter. 

The estimate for the fiscal year 1855 has not been made to ex- 
ceed that of 1853, for the reason that it is believed that the causes 
of diminished importations during the latter part of the fiscal year 
1854 will be extended into a part of the succeeding fiscal year, 
and because the agitation of a reduction of the tariff will have a 
tendency to prevent importations beyond the actual dengand for 

Most articles of manufactured merchandise, like the annual pro- 
ductions of agriculture, are necessarily consumed within the year, 
and again restored by productive industry for the succeeding year; 
and, with a population able to pay, there is a great uniformity in 
the annual amount of imports and exports. There are often causes, 
however, which prevent a regular and progressive increase ; such 
as short crops, low prices for exports, either at home or abroad, 
without the disturbing influence of war. Still it is believed that 
the receipts of the fiscal year 1855 will be sufficient to meet the 
expenditures of the year and a reasonable purchase of the public 
debt, and justify a reduction of the duties by adding to the free 
list and reducing the tax upon many other articles of importation. 

200 National Finance 

The table R, accompanying this report, exhibits the foreign 
articles imported free of duty, and their value, for the six years 
from 1848 to 1853, inclusive, and also the foreign articles im- 
ported paying duty, with their value and rate of duty, for the same 

The table I, accompanying this report, exhibits a separate list 
of the foreign articles which it is hereby proposed shall be added 
to the free list for the purpose of reducing the revenue. The rev- 
enue collected from the articles in table I, for the last year, is 
about $8,000,000, in which amount, it may be computed, the 
revenue will be reduced, by the adoption of the proposed addition- 
al free list. 

This will leave the revenue larger than a proper and economical 
administraticn of the government will require ; and, for the pur- 
pose of further reduction, it is now proposed to arrange the articles 
paying duty in two classes — the one class contained in the table 
K, accompanying this report, to pay what may be considered the 
high duty of 100 per cent., and the other class to pay the mode- 
rate duty of 25 per cent., and to include all imported articles not 
in the free list nor in the table K of high duties. This equaliza- 
tion will reduce the revenue about $4,51)0.000. This still leaves 
the revenue computed upon the imports of 1853 at about $45,- 
000,000 from customs, below which point it is not proposed to 
reduce the duties until the public debt is paid. The change now 
proposed in the rate of duty is designed to take effect from and 
after the 1st January, 1855. 

The effect of making the duties 25 per cent, on all articles im- 
ported not included in the free and higher lists, will be to give 
greatly less trouble in the collection of the revenue, and to raise 
the duties on some articles and reduce them on others. When the 
duties are raised, the change may act in restraint of importation, 
and, when reduced, in their favor; and the one result, to some ex- 
tent, will counteract the other. The proposed reduction, had it 
been applied during the last year, would leave an abundant reve- 
nue for all the reasonable wants of the government in time of 
peace, and allow the proper addition to the army and navy to 
meet the exigencies of an augmenting population and an increas- 
ing commerce, and leave the receipts from the sale of public lands 
to be applied to the purchase of the public debt, to which these 
proceeds are pledged by law. 

It is not proposed to enter into any extended argument to prove 
that the articles in table I should be added to the free list, nor to 
prove the propriety of the proposed reduction of duties to the uni- 
form standard of 25 per cent. When revenue is not needed, art- 
icles of general use for manufacturing and other purposes, not the 
growth or production of the United States, or but partially so, 
should not be taxed; and no higher taxes should be levied on other 
importations than may be necessary for the economical wants of 

Report of the Secretary of the Treasury. 201 

the government, thus leaving commerce as free and unrestricted 
as possible. Let the tariff be reduced as Congress, in view of the 
present wants of the government, shall deem best, the increasing 
population, production, industry, and enterprise of the nation will 
still necessarily add to the importations, and consequently to the 
revenue, what shall be needed for increased expenses. 

The tables accompanying this report exhibit the free lists of 
England, France, Belgium, Portugal, Brazil, Austria, Spain, 
Russia, Cuba, the Zoll-Verein, Chili, Netherlands, Hanse Towns, 
Norway, Mexico and Sweden, and mark the progress of free trade 
among commercial nations. Unrestricted commerce, binding the 
nations of the earth in stronger bonds of peace by mutual bene- 
fits, has numerous and increasing advocates in this and other com- 
mercial countries. The principle of free trade may not yet be 
sufficiently verified from experience, in this and other nations, to 
justify its full adoption, but the progress towards free trade, now 
proposed, will be justified, it is believed, by both public opinion 
and public interest. It is considered that the taking off the duty 
on the raw material used in our manufactories will counteract the 
reduction of duties on foreign manufactures, and, when compared 
with the operations of the present tariff, will not materially affect 
the interests of domestic industry or commerce. 

It is not proposed to change the principle of advalorem duties, 
but it is for the consideration of Congress, whether a specific duty 
on iron, made from the average of the last three or four years' ad 
valorem duties, might not give greater stability to the iron busi- 
ness, and more satisfaction to consumers, and, at the same time, 
prove equally beneficial to the revenue. 

It is proposed to make salt free of duty. The average annual 
revenue from that article, for the five years to 30th June, 1852, 
is only $232,284, while the annual fishing bounties, exclusive of 
the drawback on pickled fish, for which the salt duty is a pretext, 
amount to $289,413, besides other heavy annual expenses to pre- 
vent frauds. A report upon the subject of the fishing bounties, 
from J. Ross Browne, with its references, is herewith submitted. 
For the reasons stated in that report it is recommended that the 
fishing bounty be repealed, and that branch of industry be left to 
the fair competition which causes other maritime enterprises to 

The table of imports and exports for the fiscal year ending June 
30, 1853, accompanying this report, and heretofore mentioned, 
compares favorably with those of! preceding years, and marks our 
increasing capacity for commercial intercourse. The table of 
tonnage, which also accompanies this report, shows that our ton- 
nage is now 4,407,010 tons, and exceeds that of any preceding 
year by 268,000 tons. These tables prove that we enjoy a pros- 
perous commerce, with an increasing capacity to extend it. 


National Finance .* 

The table exhibiting the operations of the mint also accompan- 
ies this report. It shows the entire coinage to 31st October last 
to have been $870,008,192 50; the gold coinage, from the 1st of 
January to the 31st October of the year 1853, to have been $46,- 
998,945 60, and the silver coinage $6,996,225, and proves an 
active and growing demand for gold and silver as a currency for 
actual use, whilst the imports of gold and silver, including what is 
brought to the Atlantic from California, without estimating for 
that brought in by emigrants, compared with the exports of gold 
and silver, prove that, within four years, the large amount of 
$135,972,095 78 has been added to the gold and silver coin re- 
maining in the country. Should this increase continue for but a 
short term of years, this country will be able to dispense with banks 
of issue, and their attendant evils, and have the gold and silver 
currency contemplated by the constitution. The operations of the 
mint and its branches for the past year show a very favorable re- 
sult, and the recoinage of silver has, in many places, removed the 
inconvenience arising from small bank notes and want of change. 
It may reasonably be expected that the supply, in the course of a 
few years, will be ample, and extended to every section of the 

The following is a table of the articles proposed to be placed on 
the free list by she Secretary of the Treasury. 

Table i. Free List. 

Acids — Benzoic, Voracic, Citric and 
Tartaric, Aloes, Alum, Amber. Am- 
bergris, Alcornogue, Ann at o Rancor 
or Orleans. 

AngOra, Thibet, and other Goat's Hair 
or Mohair, manufactured. 

Animals, Living. 


Antimony, Crude and Regulus of. 

Argol or Crude Tartar. 

Arr'iw Root. 


Assa toetida. 

Animal Crbon, and all substances used 
exclusively for manures. 


Barks used for medicines, dyeing, tan- 
ning, or other purposes. 

Barytes, Sulphate of. 

Barilla or Soda Ash. 

Bells when old, and Bell Metal fit only 
to be remanufactured. 

Berries, Nuts, and Vegetables, used ex- 
clusively in Dyeing or in composing 
Dyes : but no 'article shall be classed 
as such that has undergone any man- 

Berries, Flowers, and Barks. 


Bitter Apples. 

Bleaching Powderor Chloride of Lime. 

Blue or Roman Vitriol, or Sulphate of 

Bolting Cloths. 


Boucha Leaves. 

Books, Magazines, Periodicals, Pam- 
Jjhl'ptsj and illuminated Newspapers, 
bound or unbound, being editions 
printed prior to the year 1830. 

Brass in bars, pigs, plates or sheets. 

Brass, when old and fit only to be re- 

Brazil Paste. 

Brazil Wood, Brazillette, and all other 
Dye Woods in stick. 


Brimstone, unrefined or in rolls. 

Bronze Liquor. 

Bronze Powder. 

Burgundy Pitch. 

Bun stones, wrought or unwrought. 



Calomel, and other mercurial prepara- 

Cameos and Mosaics and imitations 
thereof not set. 

Camphor, crude. 


Report of the Secretary of the Treasury. 
Table i. Free List. — Continued. 


Cassia Buds. 



Chronometers, box or ship, and parts 

Clay, wrought and unwrought. 



Cocoa and Cocoa Shells. 

Cocoa Nuts. 

Cordilla or Hemp of Tow or Flax. 

Coffee, from whatever country imported. 

Copper, in pigs, bars, plates or sheets. 

Copper, when old and fit only to be re- 

Copper, for sheathing of vessels. 

Copperas or Green Vitrol, or Sulphate 
of Iron. 

Cork Tree Bark, unmanufactured. 

Cream of Tartar. 



Diamonds, Glazier's, set or not set. 

Diamonds, Gems, Pearls, Rubies, and 
other precious stones and imitations 
thereof; compositions of glass, Paste, 
&c, set or not set. 

Dragon'* Blood. 

Dried Pulp. 

Earthen and Stone Ware. 

Emery in lump, not subrenized. 

Engravings, Etchings, or Plates, bound 
or unbound. 

Extract of Indigo. 

Extract and Decoctions of. 

Logwood and other Dyewoods. 

Extract of Madder. 



Fruit, green, ripe, dried, pressed, or 

Fuller's Earth. 

Furs, dressed or undressed, when on the 

Furs, Hatter's, dressed or undressed, 
not on the skin. 


Ginger, green, ripe, pressed, or pre- 

Gold beaters' Skins. 

Gold ami Silver Leaf. 

Green Turtle. 

Gum, Arabic. 

Gum, Barbary. 

Gum, East India. 

Gum, Jedda. 

Gum, Senegal. 

Gum, substitute, or Burnt Starcn. 

Gum Tragacanth. 

Gutta Percha. unmanufactured. 

Hair of all kinds, unclean and unmanu- 
Horns, Horn Tips, Bones. Bone Tips, 

and Teeth, unmanufactured. 
India Rubber, in bottles, slags or sheets, 

India Rubber, milk of. 

Iris, or Orris Root. 
Ivory, unmanufactured. 
Ivory Nuts, or Vegetable Ivory. 
Lac Dye. 
Lac Spirits. 
bastings, suitable for shoes, slippers, 

boots, bootees, or buttons, exclusive- 

T iy- 



Lemon Juce. 


Lime Juce. 

Linens, bleached or unbleached. 


Liquorice Root. 


Madder, ground, and Madder Root. 



Manufactures of Mohair Cloth, Silk 
Twist, or other manufactures of cloth 
suitable for manufacture of shoes, 
slippers, boots, bootees, or buttons, 

Maps and Charts. 

Marble, in the rough, slab, or block, 

Marble, manufactures of. 

Marine Coal, manufactured. 

Medical Roots, Leaves, Gums and Res- 
ins, in a crude state. 

Mineral Blue. 

Moss, and other vegetable substances 
used for mattresses. 

Music and Music Paper, with lines, 
bound or unbound. 




Nux Vomica. 

Ochres and Ochrey, earths used in the 
composition of painters' colors, 
whether dry or ground in oil. 

Oils — Palm, Cocoanut and Olive/ 

Olive, when pure, and not otherwise. 



Orange and Lemon Peel. 


Osier, or Willow, for basket-makers' 
use, prepared or unprepared. 

Palm Leaf, unmanufactured. 


Commercial Record, 

Table i. Free List. — Continued. 

Paving Stones, Paving and Roofing 
Tiles and Bricks. 

Patent Mordant. 

Pearls, set or not set, and Mother of 

Pewter, when old, and fit only to be 



Polishing Stones. 

Pumice and Pumice Stones. 


Rags, of whatever material. 

Rattans or Reeds unmanufactured. 


Rotten Stone. 

Red and white Lead. 

Saffron and Saffron Cake. 


Sal. Ammoniac. 

Salt of all kinds. 

Salts, Epsom, Glauber and Rochelle. 

Saltpetre or Nitrate of Soda or Potash, 
refined or crude. 




Sheathing Paper. 


Silk, raw, not more advanced in manu- 
facture than singles, train or organ- 

Seeds, namely Hernpseed, Grass, Rape- 
seed, Mustard, Clover, Canary, Car- 
dannum, Catnmin, Caraway, Corian- 
der, and seeds of all kinds used for 
Agricultural, Medicinal, Horticultur- 
al and Manufacturing purposes. 

Slates and Slate Pencils. 


Skins and Hides, raw of all kinds, 

whether dried, salted or pickled. 

Spices of all kinds. 




Sleel in bars. Cast, Shear or German. 

Sugar of Lead. 


Tallow, Marrow, and all other Grease 
and Soap Stock and Soap Stuffs. 


Tea, from whatever country imported. 

Terne Tin Plates. 

Tena Japonica or Catecha. 

Tin Foil. 

Tin, in Plates or Sheets. 

Tin Plates, Galvanized. 

Tin, in pigs, bars or blocks. 

Tortoise and other Shells, unmanufac- 


Type Metals and Old Type fit only to 
be remanufactured. 

Vanilla Beans. 

Watches and parts of Watches. 

Waste or Shoddy. 


Whiting or Paris White. 

Wines of all kinds, except Champagne, 
imitations of Wines, and adulterated 

Woad and Pastel. 

Woods, namely : Cedar, Lignum Vitae, 
Ebony, Box, Granadilla, Mahogany, 
Rosewood, Satin Wood, and all Cab- 
inet Woods, unmanufactured, and 
Fire Wood. 

Wool, costing less than 10 c. per lb. 


Zinc, Spelter, or Tenteneque, in sheets, 
or pigs. 


December 15, 1853. 

Though the rivers have remained low since our last report, re- 
ceipts of produce, especially of cereals, have been large for the 
season ; and prices varying but slightly from quotations on 15th 

Flour. — On the 15th ult. we quoted sales superfine and extra 
brands at #5.75 to $6.18 per bbl. Within a day or two after, a 
slight decline occurred, and superfine sold on the 17th at $5.50 
to $5.60 per bbl. Since then prices have remained tolerably un- 
iform, and we now quote country superfine at $5.37| to $5.40 p. 
bbl.; extra $5.62| to $5.75 per barrel. 

Commercial Record. 205 

At New York — prices quoted to-day by telegraph: Ohio $3.87 
to $7.00, Southern $7.00 to $7.12 per bbl; and at Liverpool, on 
the 3d inst. : Western Canal at 34s Qd, Ohio 35s 6d per bbls, a 
slight decline since the 30th ultimo. 

Wheat. — There was also a slight decline in the price of wheat 
in this market, about the 17th of November, but prices advanced 
again before the close of the month, and continued with but little 
variation until the present date. Sales of good red and white are 
reported to-day at $1.10 to $1.16 per bushel. 

At JVew York, sales are reported to-day of red Pennsylvania 
wheat at $1.61 per bushel buoyant. 

At Liverpool, on the 29th ult., sales of white wheat at 10s to 
10s 6d; red and mixed 9s 4a? to 9s lOd. 

At Chicago, on the 13th inst., sales of spring wheat at 90 cts., 
and of prime winter at $1.05. 

We have observed that the prices of wheat at St. Louis, during 
the season, have ruled from 5 to 10 per cent, above the prices at 
Chicago. This is not a new feature in the trade of these two 
cities. By comparing the prices of wheat at Chicago and St. 
Louis for each month, in 1852, we find that the average price for 
the year, at St. Louis, was 79. 83 cents, and at Chicago 72. 75 
cents per bus., and that the price at Chicago did not exceed that of 
St. Louis in any one month during the year except July, making 
the difference throughout the year within a very small fraction of 
10 per cent, in favor of prices at St. Louis. Indeed, there has 
been but very little of the time since communication was opened be- 
tween these two cities, by the canal, when the prices for wheat have not 
been better at St. Louis than at Chicago. In 1850, considerable quan- 
tities of flour came to this market even from Milwaukie. We have 
frequently taken notice of these facts, and recur to them again, 
for the purpose of correcting a false notion, which very generally 
prevails in almost every part of the United States, that not only 
the wheat produced in the valley of the Illinois, but a large part 
of that grown in the region of the Upper Mississippi is shipped to 

The South is the natural market for the breadstuffs produced 
on the Upper Mississippi and its tributaries, and, except in extra- 
ordinary cases, no improvement that can be made in the mode of 
transportation, will divert them to a northern or eastern market. 

Corn. — Prices have varied but slightly during the month: sales 
to-day at 40 to 43 cents per bushel, sacks included. At JVew- 
Orleans, last advices quote old at 64 to 65 cents per bushel. At 
JVeiv York, sales to-day, yellow at 82 cents, buoyant. At Liv- 
erpool, November 29th, Indian corn, white, quoted at' 46s to 46s 
6d per quarter, dates of 3d inst. report sales at previous rates. 

Though the price is comparatively high, there has been but 
little movement in corn curing the present season. The high rate 


206 Commercial Record. 

of freights leaves little or no margin to dealers, and from a view 
of the home and foreign demand, we conclude that prices at this 
market must recede before any considerable movement can take 
place in this article. 

Tobacco and Hemp. — But little can be said of these articles at 
this season of the year ; there is but very little of either on the 
market, and the high rate of freights coastwise and to Europe, is 
operating adversely to the interest of holders. We quote hemp at 
§122 to §128 per ton as in quality. 

Lead. — Receipts have been large for the season, and prices 
have declined slightly since our last report. Sales to-day, small 
lots, soft, at $6.35. 

Hay. — The price of this article has ranged at about 
75 cents per 100 lbs. during the month; the last advices from N. 
Orleans quote Timothy at $20 per tun. 

Hogs&Pork. — The number slaughteredin this market has been 
very limited. Thefirst slaughtered this seasoi.wasalotof 300 head, 
on the opposite side of the river, on the 14th November. The 
weather being unfavorable, the work did not commence in the city 
until about the 24th. The number of hogs killed, up to the pres- 
ent time, is supposed not to exceed 10,000 head. The ruling 
price has been §4.00 per hundred pounds. Higher prices have, 
however, been paid for the better qualities, and we believe §4.50 
has been given for hogs of extra size. But §4.25 may, at this 
time, be regarded as the limit for the best quality. 

A correct opinion cannot be formed at present as to the extent 
of the crop, nor in respect to the price of meats, during the en- 
suing year. Mess pork has declined about §1.50 per barrel in 
New York within the last month; sales of mess, on the 13th inst., 
at §13.50 per barrel. A slight decline had also taken place in 
England at last dates. The high price of meats for several years 
past has induced the planters of the South to pay more attention 
to their stock, and hence the demand in that quarter will be greatly 
reduced, and should the crop of the Ohio valley be as large as it 
is now believed to be, we conclude that the price of meats must 
rule low during the ensuing year. In this market, mess pork is 
quoted nominally at §10.50 to §11.00 per barrel, no sales. 

Cattle. — Prices for beef cattle have been high with little vari- 
ation, during the month. Sales at §4.75 to .^'5.75 per 100 lbs., 
as in quality. The demand for California has greatly reduced the 
stock of the West, and comparatively high prices for beef may be 
expected to continue for several years. 

Salt. — The stock of Ground Allum salt is said to be exhausted 
in market. It is quoted, however, at $2.10 per sack. Turks Island 
and Kenhawa in fair supply, the former at §1.45 per sack, and 
the latter at 68 cents per bushel. 

Commercial Record. 


Sugar. — The result of the crop is not sufficiently known to 
authorize an opinion in respect to prices for next season. The 
probabilities are however in favor of moderate prices. Consider- 
able quantities have been purchased here for the Chicago market, 
during the last month. Sales to-day at 8§ to 4 J cents. Best 
New Orleans offering at 4J to 4J cents per pound. 

Coffee. — There has been an advance of from one to one and 
a half cents per pound in this article within the last month ; it is 
now quoted at 12 to 12J cents, and for strictly prime in store at 
12J to 13 cents per pound. The following table will show that, 
notwithstanding the low stage of water, the receipts of produce 
have been liberal for the season. 

Imports of leading articles at St. Louis from 16th November to 
loth December, 1853, inclusive : 

Flour, bbls 32,181 

Wheat, sacks 147,275 

« bbls 2,101 

Corn, sacks 30,101 

Oats, sacks 72,635 

Lead, pigs 37,086 

Tobacco, hhds 20 

" boxes 553 

Salt, sacks 18,296 

" bbls.. 4,095 

Sugar, hogsheads 4,386 

" bbls 2,045 

" boxes 595 

Molasses, bbls 6,325 

Coffee, sacks 7,459 

Freights. — At the date of our last report we quoted freight to 
New Orleans on flour 50 cents, pork 87 h cents; whisky ,$1.00 per 
barrel ; corn 40 cents per sack, and other descriptions of produce 
at 35 to 40 cents per 100 lbs. On the 16th of November an ad- 
vance was obtained by the boats, and the following rates were es- 
tablished : flour 75 cents ; pork $1.00; whisky $1.25 per barrel ; 
corn 50 cents per sack. On the 28th November, a decline took 
place, and flour was taken at 60 cents ; pork at 88 cents, and 
whisky at $1.00 per barrel. On the 5th instant a further decline 
took place; flour went to 50 cents; pork to 70 cents, whisky to 85 
cents per barrel, and corn to 35 cents per sack. The latter may 
now be quoted as the ruling rates. 

Coastwise freights. — The New Orleans "Price Current" of the 
3d instant quotes freights to New York as follows: tobacco $8.00 
to $9.50 per hogshead; pork $1.25 per barrel; wheat and corn 20 
cents per bushel; lead $1.50 per ton ; hemp $22.00 to $25.00 
per ton. 

The Money Market remains in about the same condition as at 
the date of our last report, and no important improvement can be 
expected before the opening of the spring business, though the 
improvement at the East will doubtless be felt by the merchants 
here during the winter. Sight exchange on the eastern cities con- 
tinues at J per cent, premium, and at par on New Orleans. 

208 Commercial Record. 

The New York banks, after contracting their loans at the rate 
of more than $1,000,000 a week, from the 6th of August to the 
12th of November suddenly changed their stringent policy, and 
since that date their loans have been increasing at the rate of 
about $1,000,000 per week. The great influence which these 
banks exert over the commerce and finance of the country, makes 
it necessary that all merchants, and others extensively engaged in 
business, should observe their movements. The following weekly 
statement will help to explain the financial history of the current 

Weekly Reports of the JVeio York City Banks. 

Loans. Specie. Circulation. Deposits 

Feb. 26. ..$95,274,376 $8,991,630 $9,274,025 $57,556,507' 

June 11... 95.520,656 12,174,500 9,684,106 59,073,171 

Aug. 6... 97,899,617 9,746,450 9,510,465 00,994,568 

Aug. 13... 95,562.277 10,654,818 9,451,945 53,166,718 

Aug. 20... 93,148,396 11,092,552 9,414,636 56,817,818 

Aug. 27... 92,386,053 11,319,047 9,427,191 57,431,703 

Sept. 3... 91,741,338 11,268,049 9.554.294 57,502,960 

Sept. 10... 91,108,347 11,380,694 9,596,316 57,545,164 

Sept. 17... 90,190,589 11,860,235 9,566,723 57,612,301 

Sept. 24... 90,092,765 11,340,925 9^477,541 58,312,334 

Oct. 1... 90,149,540 11,231,912 9.521,665 57,968,631 

Oct. 8... 89,123,998 10,286,602 9,673,458 57,985,760 

Oct. 15... 87,837,273 11,330,172 9,464,714 56,068,674 

Oct. 22... 85,371.981 10,303,254 9,388.543 55,748,729 

Oct. 29... 83,400,321 10,866,672 9,300,350 53,335,462 

Nov. 5... 83,692,630 11,771,880 9,492,158 55,560,977 

Nov. 12... 82,802,409 12,823,575 9,287,629 56,201,007 

Nov. 19... 83,717,622 13,691,324 9,151,443 57,446,424 

Nov. 25... 84,805,530 13,349,196 9,932,769 58,672,076 

Dec. 3... 85,824,750 12,830,772 9,133,586 58,435,207 

The receipts of gold from California have been large since Sep- 
tember, but the exports of the precious metals have been a,bout 
equal to the receipts. In October, the exports amounted to $4,- 
757,972, against $4,327,000 received from California. The ex- 
ports in November amounted to $3,855,775, against $809,813 
exported in the same month of 1852. And from the 1st to the 
10th instant, the shipments of specie amounted to -12,336,580. 
The increase in the export of specie at this particular season is 
owing chiefly to the backwardness of the cotton crop in coming to 

Commercial Record. 209 

market. The accounts made up at New York, on the 15th inst., 
exhibiting the receipts of cotton at all the ports, from 1st of Sep- 
tember to the latest dates, show a total of 588,733 bales, being a 
decrease of 526,872 bales as compared with the same time in '52, 
and the shipment of 228,358 bales against 466,287 bales up to 
same date last year. The delay of the cotton crop in going to 
market is attributed chiefly to the low stage of water in the south- 
ern rivers. Had the shipment of cotton been as lar.-e this season 
as last, it is probable that the exports of specie would by this time 
have ceased entirely. The crop is variously estimated from 2,- 
800,000 to 3,000,000 bales. Belmont & Co., in their circular of 
15th instant, adopt the following table of prices, according to the 
New York classification. 

Upland. Florida. Mobile. N. O. & Texas. 

Ordinary Tf 7| 7f 7f 

Middling 10£ 10± 10£ lOf 

Middling fair.. 11 11 ll| llf 

Fair llf Hi HI 12J 

Should these prices continue until the close of the cotton sea- 
son, the proceeds of the crop may be estimated at about $130,- 
000,000, which in connection with a fair export demand for bread- 
stuffs, and the California gold crop, show a broad basis for the 
business of the ensuing year. The stock market at New York is 
firm, with some improvement in the demand for railroad bonds &c. 
on foreign account, and should the war in Europe be confined to 
Turky and Russia, there is a fair prospect that money will be more 
easily obtained for the purposes of internal improvement during 
1854, than it has been since the early part of the current year. 

210 Weston and St. Louis Railroad, 


Weston and St. Louis Eailroad, and North Missouri Railroad. 

We learn from our exchanges that a lively interest is manifested 
in the western counties, north of the Missouri river, in respect to 
the construction of a railroad from Weston, through the river 
counties, to some point on the North Missouri Railroad, in Calla- 
way county. 

A spirited meeting was held at Liberty, on the 5th instant, by 
which the following resolutions were adopted : 

"1. That we deem it practicable to build said road. 

2. That Clay county will cordially co-operate with Platte, Ray, 
Carroll, Chariton, Howard, Boone and Callaway counties in buil- 
ding said road. 

3. That all the counties interested in said road are hereby re- 
spectfully requested to hold county meetings, and express their 
views in relation to the scheme. 

4. That said proposed road be designated the "Weston and St. 
Louis Railroad." 

5. That a committee of three persons be now appointed by the 
chair to correspond with similar committees, if such be raised by 
the other counties, in reference to all the particulars connected 
with said improvement, and especially in reference to the design- 
ating a time and place for a general meeting of all the counties in 
general convention. 

6. That we recommend Brunswick as a suitable as well as cen- 
tral point of holding said convention. 

7. That the Chair appoint ten delegates to attend said conven- 
tion, whenever and wherever held. 

8. That a committee of five persons be now appointed to pre- 
pare an accurate account of the value of landed and other property 
in Clay county, as well as to ascertain as near as possible, how 
much individual stock will be taken in said road by citizens of 
Clay county." 

We have long regarded the Weston and St. Louis Railroad as a 
legitimate branch of the Missouri system of public improvements 
— the only question left open being one of time. This question 
must be settled by the people along the route, and we shall re- 
joice if upon further consultation they should conclude that the 
time for commencing the work has arrived. 

The counties through which it is proposed to build the road are 
rich in all the resources required for the consummation of the en- 
terprise: productive soil, wealth, talent and moral respectability. 

and JVorth Missouri Railroad. 211 

The project is a good one; and can certainly be accomplished in a 
reasonable time by a community possessing so many elements of 
social power. 

In connexion with this subject, we beg to make a few sugges- 
tions touching the location of the North Missouri railroad. When 
we first proposed that project, we imagined that a railroad located 
on the ridge dividing the waters of the Mississippi from those flow- 
ing into the Missouri connected with plank roads as feeders, would 
constitute a system which would afford all the commercial and trav- 
eling facilities that would be required in the north-eastern part of 
the State. But we are now convinced that, instead of plankroad 
feeders, the line commencing at St. Charles must have from three 
to four branches before reaching the northern boundary of the 
State. First, the branch to Weston; second, one in the direction 
of Council Bluffs ; and third, a bifurcation at a point where the 
eastern prong will make the shortest route to St. Paul, and the 
western the shortest line to Fort Desmoines. 

Hence, we regard it as the true policy of the North Missouri 
Railroad Company to locate their road as nearly on an air line to 
Fort Desmoines as a reasonable regard to the character of the 
ground will allow. For if it should follow the dividing ridge to 
the State line, a shorter route will, in time, be opened to Fort 
Desmoines, and the ridge route will cease to subserve the purposes 
of a great trunk line, and become a local road with more import- 
ant roads on each side of it. It is obvious that St. Louis must 
have a connection, by railroad, with the eastern counties of Iowa; 
and the nearer the North Missouri Railroad can be made to ap- 
proach an air line from St. Charles to Fort Desmoines, the more 
certainly will it secure the business of the eastern and central 
portions of Iowa and Minnesota. Whether the charter authorizes 
the company to depart from the dividing ridge so far as to enable 
them to adopt an air line from St. Charles to Fort Desmoines, is 
a question which we have not examined. But if the charter should 
not give the authority, it would be better to wait until the meeting 
of the legislature than to commence on a system that will require 
to be changed before it is completed. 

212 Railroad Convention at Benton, Mo. 


BER, 1853. 

Monday, Nov. 14, 1853. 

Pursuant to a call for a Convention, by the Committee appoint- 
ed at the mass meeting in Madison county, on the 5th day of Sep- 
tember last, addressed to the South Eastern counties of this State, 
and to Kentucky, Tennessee, and other Southern States, and ap- 
pointing Benton, in Scott county, and the Second Monday in No- 
vember, as the time and place for said Convention, the delegates 
from the States of Kentucky and Tennessee, and the counties of 
Scott, Mississippi, New Madrid and Stoddard met at the Court- 
House in Benton, on the 14th day of November, and Madison 
county, upon whose call they had assembled, being unrepresented, 
proceeded to organize by appointing Col. Abraham Hdnter, of 
Scott county, President ; Geo. Whitcomb, of Mississippi county, 
and M. A. Wilson, of Stoddard county, Secretaries. 

The call for the convention having been read the following del- 
egates were reported present : 

From Scott county: — Abraham Hunter. Felix G. Allen, A. S. 
Henderson, Asa Foster, Isaac Hunter, Elijah Denton, John Bar- 
nes, Chas. H. Kem, A. Waugh, Jr., Benj. Benefiold, James A. 
Powell, P. E. Ancell, H. Winchester, Daniel Houk, Francis 

From Stoddard county : — Henry Miller, Wm. H. Whitehead, 
James Nations, Solomon G. Kitchen, Daniel B. Miller, Isaac 
Bran, M. A. Wilson. 

From Mississippi county: — Noah Handy, Shelby Sheeks, B. J. 
Moore, J. W. Glasscock, James L. Moor, Levi H. Molder, E. D. 
Bigger, Geo. Whitcomb. 

From New Madrid county: — Robert A. Hatcher. 

From Hickman county, Ky.: — E. J. Bullcck, James M. Moore, 
C* Brite, Robert R. Walker, John G. Ramsey, R. N. Lester. 

From Fulton county, Ky. : — E. B. Fuqua, W. B. Wilson, J. 
D. Winter, Frank Roulhac. 

From Obion county, Tenn. : — Geo. W. Gibbs, S. A. Warner. 

Gen. Gibbs, of Tennessee, introduced resolutions for the con- 
sideration of the convention. After some discussion Col. Bullock, 
of Ky., offered a substitute for the same, pending the discussion 
Gen. Gibbs made a motion to adjourn to the 4th Monday in Jan- 
uary next, which was lost — Ayes 8; Noes 31. 

The substitute of Col. Bullock, and the resolutions of Gen. 
Gibbs were both withdrawn, and the convention adjourned to nine 
o'clock to-morrow morning. 

Railroad Convention at Benton, Mo. 213 

Tuesday, Nov. 15th, 1853. 

The Convention was called to order by the President. 

Geo. Whitcomb, of Mississippi county, introduced the following 
resolutions, which were unanimously adopted : 

Resolved, That we regard the Cairo and Fulton Road, and its 
extension through Texas, and to the Pacific, as being of vital im- 
portance to South Eastern Missouri, to Kentucky, Tennessee and 
South Eastern States, and that we believe the route from the Ar- 
kansas line, via Bloomfield, in Stoddard county, thence in nearly 
a direct line to Cairo, to be the best route for the same, and per- 
fectly practicable. 

Resolved, That we regard the extension of the Iron Mountain 
Road to the Mississippi river so as to form a connection with the 
Mobile and Charleston Roads, to be equally as important to the 
Southern States, east of the Mississippi river, by connecting them 
with the great mineral region of Southeast Missouri, and the hemp, 
tobocco, wheat and stock country of upper Missouri and Iowa, 
and by affording facilities to Missouri to transport her products to 
market without being dependent upon the high or low waters of 
the rivers, or impeded by the ice. 

Resolved, That we believe it will be a saving of time and money, 
and afford additional facilities for business, to connect the Iron 
Mountain Road with the Cairo and Fulton Road, at the nearest 
practicable point, and running the same road to some point near 
Charleston, in Mississippi county, and from thence make a branch 
to connect with the Mobile road, at Columbus, and also with the 
Nashville road at Hickman. 

Resolved, That we heartily approve of the energy displayed by 
the citizens of Stoddard county, in their efforts to cause surveys 
to be made and to secure the lands donated bv Congress for mak- 
ing the road through their county, and would say to the other 
counties interested in the matter, "go and do likewise." 

Resolved, That we, the delegates from Stoddard, Scott and 
Mississippi, do pledge our respective counties, that we will make 
the local work through the same, and we, the delegates from Ken- 
tucky, pledge ourselves and those we represent, that we will assist 
the said counties in making the local work of the roads running to 
our respective points. 

Resolved, That as Congress has donated the swamp lands in 
Southeast Missouri to the State, and the State having transferred 
the same to the counties, we do hereby recommend that the said 
counties grant alternate sections to the said roads upon the same 
terms and conditions prescribed by Congress in the grant to the 
Cairo and Fulton Road, believing that such gr.nt would materi- 
ally hasten the reclamation of said lands, as contemplated by the 
act of donation. 

Resolvedj That we deeply regret that the counties between here 

214 Railroad Convention at Benton, Mo. 

and the Iron Mountain, and particularly the county of Madison, 
(upon whose call we have assembled here) have failed to meet us 
in convention, and we trust that hereafter they will be found with 
us, ready and willing to put their shoulders to the wheel and help 
on the great works so important both to them and to us. 

Resolved, That we believe it of great importance to have a 
survey made from the Arkansas line, via Bloomfield, to the Mis- 
sissippi river on the Cairo and Fulton route; and also to the term- 
inus of the Mobile road at Columbus and to Hickman in Kentucky. 

After an agreement among the delegates in regard to the sev- 
eral surveys, the following resolution, by W. B. Wilson, of Ken- 
tucky, was adopted. 

Resolved, That the newspapers in the cities of St. Louis, Cape 
Girardeau and Little Rock, and the towns of New Madrid, Ste. 
Genevieve and Hickman be requested to publish our proceedings, 
and that copies thereof be forwarded to the Senators from Mis- 
souri, Kentucky and Tennessee, and also to the Hon. Sam. Car- 
uthers, Lynn Boyd, B. E. Grey, and E. Ethridge, members of 
Congress from Missouri, Kentucky and Tennessee. 

S. A. Warner, of Tennessee, addressed the convention, stating 
that so far as local points were concerned he took no part, but 
that Tennessee was, and would be found doing her part in making 
the great thoroughfares of the South and West. 

On motion of Col. Bullock, of Kentucky, the thanks of the 
convention were unanimously tendered to the President for the 
able and prompt discharge of his duties. 

On motion of Dr. Ramsey the convention adjourned. 

A. HUNTER, President. 

Geo. Whitcomb, ) a 

M. A. Wilson, \ 

After the Convention adjourned a company was organized un- 
der the General liailroad Law of this State, called the "Columbia 
and Iron Mountain Branch of the Cairo and Futlon Railroad," to 
use the same track from Charleston to some suitable point of di- 
vergence to the Iron Mountain. The company was organized by 

Col. A. Hunter, of Scott county, President. 

E. J. Bullock, of Kentucky, ") 

S. G. Kitchen, of Stoddard co. 

Jas. Nations, of Stoddard co. 

Geo. Whitcomb, of Miss. co. ^Directors. 

A. S. Henderson, of Scott co. 

John Barnes, of Scott co. 

A. Hunter, of Scott co. 

Cha's. D. Cook, of Scott county, Treasurer 

A. Waugh, jr., of Scott county, Secretary. 

Fort Wayne, Lacon 8? Platte Valley Airline R. R. 215 

[From the Lacon Illinois Gazette.] 

Fort Wayne, lacon and Platte Valley Airline Railroad. 

It is with feelings of no ordinary pleasure, that we are permit- 
ted to announce that at the meeting of the Directors of the several 
divisions of this great railway project, held in Lacon, on Thurs- 
day last, contracts ivere entered into for the construction of 
the whole line, by one of the most responsible companies in 
the United States ! 

The last week will long be remembered by the citizens of our 
town — remembered as a landmark in the history of our growth 
and prosperity. Prominent railroad gentlemen from five different 
States were in attendance, drawn together by the deep interest 
felt, east and west, in the construction of this great central high- 
way, which is, at no distant day, to be an important link in the 
magnificent railroad which will stretch from the Atlantic to the Pa- 
cific ocean. Three companies were represented, each by a dis- 
tinguished gentleman, to wit : Messrs. Buckingham, Love & Co., 
of Ohio, Bailey, Broad & Co., of Pennsylvania, and Burt & Co., 
of Ohio and New York — all companies of great strength and re- 
sponsibility; the latter company was the successful applicants, who 
are to commence the work within ninety, days from contract ; and 
to be completed within the following periods, namely : From Fort 
Wayne to Rochester in twenty months ; from Chicago and Missis- 
sippi R. R. to Illinois Central R. R. in eighteen months; and from 
Ills. Central R. R. to Lacon in nine months. From New Boston 
to the intersection of the Military Tract R. R. in twenty- four 
months ; from the Mississippi forty miles west, and from Council 
Bluffs east forty miles, in twenty-four months — the Indiana and 
Illinois divisions to be completed in four and a half years, and the 
whole line in five years — the contractors to have the use of the 
road until completed. 

The terms of the contract are regarded by men of large rail- 
road experience, as favorable; and no doubt is entertained but that 
the work will be entered upon at an early day, and progress with 
all practicable despatch to completion. The company agree to 
pay to the contractors, one-third cash, one-third bonds, and one- 
third stock. 


At a convention of a large number of delegates from the States 
of Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois and Iowa, held pursuant 
to previous notice, at the Court House in Lacon, Illinois, on the 
11th and 12th of November, the Hon. Lott S. Bayliss, of Indi- 
ana, was chosen President ; G. W. Bailey, of Pennsylvania; G. 

216 Pacific Railroad Convention. 

Buckingham, of Ohio; W. C. Barnet, of Indiana; Silas Ramsey, 
of Illinois; and Judge Jemison, of Iowa; were chosen Vice Presi- 
dents; and Thos. Tigar, of Indiana; and Wm. L. Toole, of Iowa; 

The President, on taking the chair, announced to the conven- 
tion the object for which it had convened, viz: to promote and ad- 
vance the grand enterprise of constructing a Railway to the Paci- 
fic ; and in some brief and eloquent remarks, urged the necessity 
of immediate action on the subject. 

Col. Sam. R. Curtis was then called upon, and addressed the 
convention at much length. He advocated the Platte Valley and 
South Pass route ; spoke of the superior advantages of this route 
over that of all other proposed routes, both north and south — of 
its centraiity, nationality, and easy adaptation to a rapid and per- 
manent construction of a railroad. The facts and reasons pres- 
ented in favor of the South Pass route were conclusive and incon- 
vertible. The address altogether was a masterly effort, combining 
important information, sound logic, and patriotic and eloquent 

At the conclusion of his remarks, and at the request of the con- 
vention, he read an address in favor of the South Pass route, hav- 
ing been previously prepared from materials and investigations 
made with care, and derived from auihentic sources; which report 
appears below. 

We should take pleasure in publishing the able address of Col. 
Curtis, but for reasons heretofore assigned we have declined all 
discussions on the subject of routes until the reports of the engin- 
eers appointed to make explorations shall be made known. We 
copy the following resolutions to show the views of the convention 
in regard to the mode of raising the means, and carrying on the 

Resolved, That the peculiar geographical position and topo- 
graphical features of the Platte River Valley, South Pass and great 
Salt Lake region, indicating it as the route for the great National 
Highway — the Pacific Railroad — the Federal Government should 
at once appropriate such pecuniary aid as would insure its im- 
mediate commencement and completion at the earliest day ; and 
more especially so, as individuals are ready to embark in its con- 
struction if sanctioned by that spirit of liberality and national pat- 
ronage that has heretofore characterized that nation which alone 
stands pre-eminent as the proud champion of the rights and amel- 
ioration of the condition of the human race. 

Resolved, T hat there should be selected from all classes and all 
parties of men, in this Union, a devoted, distinguished and com- 
petent directory who should be incorporated with ample powers to 

Ft. Wayne, TV. Point, Keosauqua <$* Bloomfiield R. R. 217 

secure the early construction of a great National trunk Railway, 
which will connect the great oceans by the most central and prac- 
tical route. 

Resolved., [That a committee of three persons from each State 
represented in this Convention, be appointed to correspond on this 
subject with such gentlemen as they believe most likely to engage 
in such an enterprise, and solicit their co-operation ; also to in- 
duce by correspondence or otherwise, the holding of: public meet- 
ings in the various cities, villages and counties interested in the 
Platte Valley route. — Lacon III. Gazette. 

Fort Madison, West Point, Keosauqua and Bloomfield Railroad. 

We learn from the Democratic Union that at a meeting held 
at Keosauqua, on the 6th instant, the following resolutions were 

Resolved, That we have full confidence in the projected rail- 
road from Fort Madison, via West Point, Keosauqua and Bloom- 
field, to a junction with the North Missouri Railroad ; that this 
Road will furnish all the Railroad facilities demanded at present 
by the County, and we pledge ourselves to use our best exertions 
to secure its construction. 

Resolved, That to this end we will use our influence to secure a 
vote of this county in favor of a county subscription of $150,000 
to aid in its construction. 

The County Judge of Van Buren County has issued his pro- 
clamation ordering an election to be held on the 11th day of Feb- 
ruary, 1854, for the purpose of voting on the question of subscribing 
$150,000 to the capital stock of said road. Such subscription to 
be payable in bonds having 20 years to run, and bearing interest 
not exceeding the rate of 7 per cent, per annum. 

[From the Democrtic Union.] 


for the Whole Work. 

For some time past, negotiations have been pending between 
the Board of the Des Moines River Improvement and Mr. Henry 
O'Reily in connection with capitalists of New York City. 

218 Western Border Railroad. 

We have said nothing of this before for fear it would prove a 
failure; but can state that the negotiations have resulted favorably, 
and that the Contract is made to complete the whole work from 
the mouth of the river to Fort Des Moines. 

The improvement is to be completed on the 1st of July, 1858 — 
four years from the 1st of July next. 

The substance of the contract is as follows ; He takes the lands 
at thirteen hundred thousand dollars. Pay the indebtedness, es- 
timated at fifty-five thousand dollars, andis to deposit that amount 
with the Register, at Ottumwa, within ninety days, or forfeit the 
contract, has the tolls and water rents for twenty-five years, and 
the State can assume the control after that time by paying him 
the excess of the expenditure over $1,300,000. 

The work is to be done according to the plans and specification 
heretofore adopted. 

The Register is constituted trustee, and when $30,000 worth of 
work is done, is to give Mr. O'Reily $30,000 worth of lands less 
15 per cent, retained to secure the completion of the work. 


This is the style of a road proposed to be built through the west- 
ern counties of Arkansas, and designed to connect the Missouri 
system of railroads with that of Texas. A convention was held at 
Fort Smith, on the 5th instant, by which it was resolved to me- 
morialize Congress for a grant of land in aid of this great enter- 

It requires no argument to prove the importance of connecting 
the Missouri and Texas systems of public improvement, and we 
feel persuaded that the proposition i'cr a grant of land in aid of 
this work will receive the cordial and zealous support of the entire 
delegation in Congress from all the States west of the Mississippi. 

The resolutions adopted by the Fort Smith Convention afford 
abundant evidence that, though Arkansas is behind her neighbors 
in building railroads, she is not deficient in either spirit or intel- 
ligence. The geographical relations of Western Arkansas and 
Northeastern Texas will, in time, secure to that region a system 
of railroads which will give them all the commercial and traveling 
facilities that can be reasonably desired. And we are pleased to 
see that this fact is beginning to be understood and appreciated. 
Let the friends of the Western Border Railroad persevere, our sym- 
pathies are with them. 

Self Intellectual Culture. 219 


Some Thoughts on Self Intellectual Culture. 

Continued from page 140. 

I have thus glanced at some of the more prominent means with- 
in the reach of nearly all for improving the mind and meliorating 
our condition in life; and I will now proceed to present some very 
general views on self culture, and the proper studies to be select- 
ed. I shall endeaver to be brief. 

Grandeur of character, says some one, lies wholly in force of 
soul — that is to say, in force of thought and moral principle ; — 
force of thought measures intellectual, and force of principles 
moral greatness. True greatness does not consist in, nor is it 
to be determined by the accidents of birth, or pecuniary, of phys- 
ical or political condition, but by the development of our moral 
and mental nature, by the energy and clearness and compression 
of our thoughts, and by the entire freedom of our faculties from 
slavish fear, fanaticism, bigotry and superstition. We must be 
morally and intellectually independent before we can completely 
assert the dignity of our nature, and present that sublime spec- 
tacle, a truly great and good man. The individual who rises above 
adversity, preserves his integrity in the bosom of temptation, firm- 
ly discharges his moral obligations, and is governed by the coun- 
sels of a sound judgment and an enlightened conscience, is an 
honor to his country and his race. The idea of what constitutes 
real greatness and exaltation of character, and of its practical ne- 
cessity, ought to be deeply impressed upon the heart and soul, 
and it trill sustain and animate us through many an anxious hour 
of study, and shed a rich and brilliant light along our pathway, 
directing our journeyings, and facilitating our researches. 

By self culture I mean that information which we acquire by 
ourselves — that education which is not obtained in schools or col- 
leges, or through the instrumentality of regular preceptors, — but 
which is the result of our own earnest and unaided efforts and 
study. And this is unquestionably the most solid and valuable 
education, whether we consider it abstractly as a portion of the 
mind, or contemplate it in connexion with the business and hap- 
piness of life. It being wrought out by our own labor, we more 
thoroughly appreciate its importance. 

And knowledge is not difficult of acquirement. It is within the 
reach of all. But it is only by a systematic apportionment of our 
time, that we can make any steady and solid advancement in the 
acquisition of knowledge. Our endeavors must be well directed, 
and pursued with an unconquerable perseverance. Sudden and 
transient and violent effort will produce no good result. The mind 

220 Self Intellectual Culture. 

must be fixed in its determinations, energetic in its labors, and 
patient in its investigations, if we wish success to crown our exer- 
tions. Learning cannot be had without toiling after it. We must 
give our days and our nights to severe and exhausting study ; we 
must surrender the repose of indolence, and the gratification of 
passion, to the self devoted and ennobling efforts of educating and 
disciplining the intellect and heart. We must overlook the pleas- 
ures of the present, and fix the rapt eye upon the honors of the 
future, if we truly desire to build up the noble fabric of the mind, 
until it rises "before us in its native and awful majesty, in its 
harmonious proportions, in its mild and celestial splendor." Let 
this solemn truth be engraven on every heart, that labor, severe 
continued, exhausting labor, can alone lead to scholarship and pro- 
fessional distinction. There is no royal road to learning, no im- 
perial title by which it is held. Wealth can not purchase, power 
cannot command it. It is the fruit of the mind's toil. It belongs 
to all who will seek after it. It is Heaven's high charter of man's 
dignity, and it will live with him throughout eternity. And one 
eminently beneficial result of perseverance is, that it disciplines 
the mind, and it accustoms it to close and accurate reasoning. It 
becomes strengthened by exercise, and is enabled to prosecute its 
labors more earnestly and successfully. Study becomes a pleas- 
ure, and the accumulation of knowledge a passion. We witness 
our advancement. We feel our growing power lifting us up. We 
are transported with the rich and varied prospects that burst upon 
our view, and arc tnus stimulated to further and profounder re- 
search. Every new scene that opens itself upon us, every new 
idea that flows in upon the mind, every new image that pleases the 
fancy, and every high achievement that summons genius into ac- 
tion, but bind us closer to our studies, kindle intenser the fires of 
our zeal, and ani nate us in the enlightenment and adornment of 
our minds. And we may rest assured that earnest study and dil- 
igence will conquer every difficulty, and prostrate every barrier. 
However dark and threatening may be the clouds that surround us 
— however thick and discouraging the adversities that encompass 
us — however humble and adverse our situation in life ; yet if our 
course is marked by a resolute purpose and an untiring energy, a 
ray of light will soon break in upon our path, and the obstacles 
that threatened to overwhelm will retire at our approach, and we 
will go abroad into the world, respected, beloved and honored — 
able to the protection ol our own rights, sustained by influences, 
and cheered on by hopes which will never fail us. We will like- 
wise experience in the conscious dignity of our situation, and in the 
moral power of our character, ample compensation for the years 
consumed, and the sufferings undergone in the acquirement of 
knowledge. Though gloom and darkness may have cast their 
shadows over us; though friends may have deserted us in the hour 
of trial; though the sickness of despair may have, at times, seized 

Self Intellectual Culture. 221 

our hearts, and chilled our hopes, yet now a broad sunshine is 
ours, honors strew our pathway, and power follow in our train and 
solicit our acceptance of their gifts. 

And here, it may not, perhaps, be inappropriate or useless, to 
present a few observations on the necessity and importance of ed- 
ucated mind to every portion of our country, and the successful 
development of its varied resources, as also upon the general na- 
ture of knowledge, its elements and acquirements. The respect- 
ability of our towns and cities, and their claims to intelligence and 
to the regard and respect of our country, are all more or less in- 
terested. The proportion and harmony of our architecture, as 
displayed in our dwellings; the taste and elegance and adaptation 
of our public buildings and improvements, the value and security 
of property as they are influenced by a lofty tone of moral senti- 
ment and an impartial and enlightened administration of public 
justice, the extent and prevalence of crime, and the consequent 
expense arising therefrom, and the charms and endowments that 
cling around the social hearth; and become a portion of every re- 
fined and cultured mind, must and will, all be affected by the 
amount of knowledge and the purity of morals which pervade our 
community. The character, scholarship and usefulness of our 
sons, and the virtue, public regard and happiness of our daughters 
have all a direct and unmeasured interest at hazard. All these 
commingling considerations and tender attachments which con- 
stitute domestic bliss; all these thousand and grateful associations 
which entwine themselves around the heart, and bind us to our 
firesides, all those high and holy emotions and affectionate sym- 
pathies which inspire love to God and to country ; all will be en- 
nobled or degraded, elevated or depressed, sanctified or violated, 
as we shall embrace and cherish and bind around us the means of 
instruction, in morals and government and literature and religion. 
Let our flourishing cities neglect these essential interests, let them 
repulse these efforts to redeem and elevate their character in pub- 
lic estimation, let them frown down with contempt, or contemplate 
with stupid indifference the advancement and harmonization of all 
useful and ornamental instruction in their midst, and they may 
bid farewell to all permanent growth and prosperity. Wealth will 
seek other channels for its accumulations, genius and refinement 
other seats for the revelation of their immortal glories, and the 
arts and sciences in their application to the business and purposes 
of life, and manufactories and intelligent efficient labor, will no 
longer consent to separate themselves from the abodes of elegant 
learning, sound practical philosophy and enlightened enterprise. 
Associations to promote education, libraries to impart and diffuse 
knowledg e, lectures to apply and illustrate the great searching 
truths of philosophy and government, enterprise to bring out these 
social elements and public opinion to develop and sustain them, 
are as indispenable to the true advancement of every community, 


222 Self Intellectual Culture. 

and as inseparable from their highest interests, as are population, 
laws, wealth and industry themselves. These are truths, great 
suggestive truths, demonstrated in the history, and illustrated in 
the experience of every growing city and town in our republic. We 
ou^ht to take home these truths, and apply them to the important 
position we occupy in the centre of a vast commerce and agricul- 
ture, where opulence and refinement, an immense population and 
commerce, and machinery in all its multiplied power, and the use- 
ful arts in all their varied application, must ultimately erect and 
consolidate their most extensive and magnificent empire. 

Let us now very briefly examine the general nature of all human 
knowledge, and endeavor truly to appreciate its character and its 
true relations to ourselves, our interests and our duties. 

The diligent pursuit of knowledge, and the impartial investiga- 
tion of truth, aie valuable' studies, interesting to all, and consis- 
ent with, and promotive of, our true and substantial happiness. 
They form an essential clement in the perfection of our moral con- 
stitution ; and their acquirement imposes a high and solemn obli- 
gation. We cannot release ourselves from it. The mind's or- 
ganization is adapted to the reception of knowledge ; the mind's 
faculties are designed to advance us in intelligence ; and truth is 
nothing but the ascertainment of the argument, relations and fit- 
ness of things. 

One of the most striking and peculiar differences existing be- 
ween man and the lower orders of creation is, that thecondicion of the 
former is either retrogressive or progressive, while that of the other 
is stationary. Man enters this world, helpless, ignorant, and for 
many years incapable of self support. He advances in general in- 
telligence, and in the arts of life, and from thence, reaching to 
science, literature and language, century after century rolleth past, 
and we find him educated, civilized and refined; the achievements 
of genius around him, the institutions of religion and society 
springing up in simple grandeur and beautiful proportion, and so- 
cial influences in all their energy and sweetness weaving their soft 
enchantments, and pouring abroad their thousand rays of sunshine 
and woe and happiness. 

But the brute is a mere creature of instinct. It possesses no 
progressive intelligence, no reasoning powers. It soon forgets its 
parent, pursues its instincts, goes through its routine of existence, 
and dies. The succeeding generation have no more of knowledge, 
no more of education, no more of improvement, than the preced- 
ing one. On the morning of their first creation, the sparrow con- 
structed its nest with the same skill, and the beaver erected his 
dam on the same model, that the sparrow and beaver now do. The 
nightingale gives forth no sweeter or more melodious notes now, 
than when our first parents listened to its song in the garden of 
Paradise. And the feathered tribe wing their flight through the 
air ; the beasts traverse the majestic solitudes of the forest ; and 

Self Intellectual Culture. 223 

the Sshes sport amid the cavernous depths of ocean, in the same 
primitive independence, and invested with the same wild and sav- 
age attributes of character they possessed thousands of years ago. 
Excepting man himself, so is it through the entire range of crea- 
tion : Wherever we turn our eyes, or whither we direct our steps, 
stationary intelligence, moral irresponsibility, creation, existence, 
and with them the scene is closed. 

Our minds ought to be thoroughly penetrated with this fact, as 
so strikingly illustrative of our distinguished position in the scale 
of created intelligence. It turns with instruction, and admonishes 
us that we have obligations to answer for, and important duties to 
discharge ; it points out our relations as social beings, our mutual 
dependencies and our accountability to the great Creator. It, in 
truth, teaches us the sublime lesson of responsibility and grati- 

We are conscious of the possession of immortal powers; we ap- 
preciate the necessity of education and its acquirement by every 
means within our reach and to the highest extent within our power. 
We would uphold and preserve sacred the venerable institutions of 
religion and of learning ; we love the rich creations of sculpture, 
painting and poetry, and revel amid their exquisite tracery, deli- 
cious coloring and magnificent description. Our imaginations 
hallow the gorgeous pictures of romance; and the empire of gen- 
ius and taste is consecrated ground; and if we desire to enjoy the 
blessings of a high civilization, perpetuate the treasures and glo- 
ries of a useful and elegant literature, and secure solid and per- 
manent happiness to ourselves, our children and our country, we 
must be diligent in the cultivation of knowledge, and establish and 
encourage and preserve those labors and associations so admirably 
designed to elevate and improve our moral and intellectual con- 

Man's progress springs from intellect and language; these con- 
stitute the great means of his advancement. Intellect enables us 
to judge — trace cause and effect — compare antecedent and conse- 
quent — discover and determine upon the adaptation of means to 
an end and accumulate knowledge and wisdom from observation 
and experience. Oral language clothes us with power to com- 
municate our thoughts and feelings to others, and written language 
to transmit to' posterity all our knowledge and history, and gov- 
ernment and philosophy and religion and civilization. 

An eminent English writer very forcibly and eloquently observ- 
es : "Language, at the present moment of the world's existence, 
may be said to bind the whole human race of uncounted millions 
into one gigantic rational being, whose memory reaches to the be- 
ginning of written records, and retains imperishably the events that 
have occurred ; where judgment, analyzing the treasures of mem- 
ory, has discovered many of the sublime and unchanging laws of 
nature, and has built on them all the arts of life, and through 

224 Valley of the Ohio. 

them piercing far into futurity, sees clearly events that are to 
come ; and whose eyes and ears and observant minds are, at this 
moment in every corner of the earth, watching and recording new 
phenomena, for the purpose of still better comprehending the mag- 
nificence and beautiful order of creation, and of more worthily ad- 
orning its beneficent author. - " How true and sensible, and yet 
how beutiful and sublime the figure here presented. 

Valley of the Ohio. 


Author of tho "History of the Coinniomvealth of Kentucky." 

Continued from page 147, vol. XI. No. 68. 

The detachment under General Lewis was not as keen for peace, 
as either Cornstalk, or Dunmore. Nor would they stop their 
march, although met by a messenger from the governor, to do so. 
This was the last thought of the brave men , who had so gallantly 
penetrated into the Indian forests ; they burned to avenge the de- 
predations on the frontiers, and the blood of their fellow-soldiers 
in the battle of the Point. 

The Indian scouts reported to the governor that Lewis' detach- 
ment, in spite of his orders, still continued their march ; and the 
enemy began to fear that the Long Knives, as they called the 
Virginians, could not be restrained by their commander-in-chief. 
Upon the receipt of this intelligence, Lord Dunmore, accompanied 
by the Delaware chief, White Eyes, visited the Camp of Lewis, on 
Congo creek, near where the present town of Westfall is built, in 
the State of Ohio, and repeated his orders in person. They were 
very reluctantly obeyed, supported as they were by all the weight 
of the royal governor, which, at that day, was by no means small. 

Never had our people enjoyed so full an opportunity of dealing 
an effective blow against their barbarous foes as upon the junction 
of the troops of Dunmore and Lewis. The latter just fresh and 
reinforced, after a decisive victory over the enemy; Dunmore with- 
in eighteen miles of the Indian towns on the Scioto, commanding 
a force when united of about two thousand men — now indeed was 
the time for a home stroke against a foe that had wasted the ad- 
jacent provinces with tomahawk and fire, in the most merciless 
manner. Yet with these outrages against the colonists unatoned 

Valley of the Ohio. 225 

for, and the fair prospect of punishing their barbarous authors, 
what should have been the conduct of a governor zealous in the 
discharge of his official duty, can admit of little doubt. Certainly 
not to embrace the first offers of peace from a treacherous and un- 
subdued enemy; nor to postpone, on frivolous excuses, the consid- 
eration of these offers in detail, until another council, which was 
to be held the next year at Fort Pitt. 

However, this peace gave some breathing time to our country- 
men, and time has always been an element of influence in their 
favor. It has given us the undisputed navigation of the Missis- 
sippi, at one time denied us by Spain; the removal of the remnants 
of the Indian tribes, to the West of that river ; the possession of 
Florida, Louisiana and Texas, and finally has stretched the repub- 
lic from ocean to ocean. 

This time of hollow and temporary peace was actively employed 
by the pioneers in exploring still further the vast regions of West- 
ern America. These explorations were some of them made, as we 
have seen before Dunmore's war, as those of Doctor Walker, 
Smith, Boone, Bullitt &Harrod. Another incident of singular though 
transitory character was the purchase made by Henderson & Co. 
This was a land company composed of several gentlemen of North 
Carolina, among whom was Col. Richard Henderson, a gentleman 
of high reputation in that State, and who gave his name to the 

This company employed Daniel Boone, to explore the western 
country for them, as is suggested by the latest and only authentic 
biographer of the unequalled woodsman." This is asserted to 
have been the fact, though they would naturally have availed them- 
selves of his familiar knowledge of the wilderness, like our own 
Carson, Leroux and Aubry. In the fall of L774, Henderson, ac- 
companied by Col. Nathaniel Hart,f visited the Cherokees. 

On this visit, Col. Henderson ascertained the disposition of the 
Indians to part with the lands which now principally compose the 
south-western portions of Tennessee and Kentucky. This mission 
proved so far successful, as to procure a meeting of the Chero- 
kees, at the Sycamore shoals, in theWataga, or Wattaugah branch 
of the Holston river. This meeting took place, in the spring of 
1775, when a number of Indians attended, and with a fairness and 
liberality on the part of this private land company, worthy of the 
most regular government, a treaty of purchase was concluded on 
the 17th of March, 1775. By this treaty the Cherokee title to 
the country between the Cumberland, the mountains of the same 

* Spark's Amer. Biography, new series, vol. XIII, 44. Life of Boone, by 
the Rev. J. M. Peck. Also: Haywood's Tennessee, 2, p. 35. 

t The father of the late Nathaniel Hart, of "Woodford county, Kentucky, 
and an uncle to Mrs. Henry Clay. 

226 Valley of the Ohio. 

name, and the Kentucky river,* ani lying south of the Ohio river, 
for the liberal consideration of £10,000 sterling. The title of the 
Cherokees had been recognized by the British officers in the treaty 
negotiated at Hard Labor, inl768; and also atLochaber,inl770, 
both in South Carolina.f Thus, whatever territory west 
of the Kenhawa might have been acquired to the British crown, 
under the treaty of Fort Stanwix, in 1768, was surrendered to the 
Cherokees, by these treaties above alluded to. There was another 
treaty concluded at Watauga, which is called the Path Deed by 
Judge Haywood. J 

On the conclusion of the former treaty, by which this grand 
land company was established, Daniel Boone was employed by 
them to mark a road through the southern wilderness, by way of 
the Cumberland Gap to Cantuckey . This very item stands cred- 
ited to Daniel Boone, upon the books of Henderson & Co., which 
have been in the author's possession. || 

These accounts seem to have been unclosed, showing a condition 
of no little indebtedness to the great proprietors of Transylvania 
by its colonists. Still this extinction of Indian title had never 
regularly been permitted to inure to the benefit of private persons. 
It had from a remote period, under the colonial government, been 
considered as its exclusive prerogative ; and in later times, had 
been used by the crown only, or its representatives. 

As early as 1655, Virginia enacted "that for the future no such 
alienations, or bargains and sales, (meaning bargains for Indian 
lands,) be valid without the assent of the Assembly." The same 
policy is manifested by an act, in 1661, declaring "that for the 
future noe Indian king, or other, shall upon any pretence alien 
and sell, nor noe English for any cause or consideration whatso- 
ever purchase, or buy any tract or parcel of land now claymed or 
possest by an Indian or Indians whatsoever; all such bargains and 
sales hereafter made or pretended to be made, being hereby de- 
clared to be invalid, voyd and null." Again in 1705, the same 
policy is confirmed. Nor did republican Virginia abate one atom 
of the royal dignity and power to which she succeeded, on the 
vital policy of the public lands. She declared, by the twenty-first 
article of her first constitution of 1776, "that no purchase of lands 
shall be made of the Indian natives, but on behalf of the public, 
by authority of the General Assembly. "IT 

* Cantuckey, Chenoca, or Louisa river, in the treaty here mentioned. 

f In what part of that State, the author has been unable to ascertain. 

% Civil and Political History of Tennessee, Knoxville, 1823, p. 16. 

|| It may be amusing to note the prices of several articles in these old ac- 
count books. Gunpowder Was charged at $2,66 per pound, and lead at \§\ ; 
while labor was credited at thirty-three to fifty cents per day, for ranging, hunt- 
ing or working on roads. 

« Henning, I, 396, 11,139. 

Valley of the Ohio. 227 

Notwithstanding this clear course of colonial legislature, on the 
part of Virginia, and it is believed, of North Carolina, the com- 
pany in question placing some reliance upon ro)'al support for their 
colony, of which they had intimations from high sources of confid- 
ence,* employed Daniel Boone, their former agent with the Cher- 
okees, "to mark a road to Cantuckey," and erect a fort. Hith- 
erto the access to the country had been by hunters' paths and buf- 
falo traces. In discharging this duty, "we proceeded," says the 
pioneer, "with all possible expedition, until we came within fifteen 
miles of where Boonesborough was established, on the south side 
of the Kentucky river, and in the present county of Madison, in 
the State of Kentucky. When the party of choppers and markers 
had reached this distance, they were fired upon by Indians, who 
killed two men and wounded two others. Yet, though surprised 
and taken at a disadvantage, we stood our ground." On the 23d 
of March, 1775, the party was again attacked, and lost two more 
men, and had three wounded; still by the 1st of April, 1775, they 
began to erect the fort, which was afterwards, by a just compli- 
ment, called Boonesborough. It was situated near a salt lick, 
about sixty yards from the Kentucky river, on its south side. Yet 
it is said to have beeii commanded from the cliffs, on the opposite 
side of the river, whence a ball could reach the fort. It was not,- 
until the 14th of June, 1775, that this first fort of the white man 
was completed in Kentucky. It was about 250 feet long, by 150 
broad, and consisted of block houses and the cabins of the settlers 
forming part of the defences.! Slight as this advance was, in the 
art of war, it was more than sufficient, against attacks of email 
arms, in the hands of such desultory warriors, as their irregular 
supplies necessarily rendered the Indians. They were ever more 
formidable in the cane brake and the woods, than before even 
those imperfect fortifications.! "The Indians in besieging a place 
are seldom seen in force upon any quarter ; but dispersed, and 
acting individually, or in small parties. They conceal themselves 
in the bushes or woods, or behind trees, or stumps of trees ; or 
waylay the path, or fields, or other places, to which their enemies 
resort ; and when one or more can be taken down, in their opin- 
ion, they fire the gun, or let fly the arrow, aimed at the mark. If 
necessary, they retreat, if they dare, they advance upon their 
killed or crippled adversary, and take his scalp, or make him 
prisoner, if possible. They aim to cut off the garrison supplies, 
by killing the cattle; and they watch the watering places for those 
who go for that article of primary necessity, that they may, by 
these means, reduce the place to their possession ; or destroy its 

* Lord Mansfield is said to have given the sanction of his high authority in 
favor of the purchase. Granville Papers, in the possession of John Seawell Jones, 
of Shoe co., North Carolina. 

t See Hall's Sketches, 1, for a plan of the fort. 

X Mrashall's Kentucky, 1, 42. 

228 Valley of the Ohio. 

inhabitants in detail. In the night, they will place themselves 
near the fort gate, ready to sacrifice the fir3t person who shall ap- 
pear in the morning ; in the day, if there be any cover, such as 
grass, a bush, a large clod of earth, or a stone as big as a bushel, 
they will avail themselves of it, to approach the first, by slipping 
forward on their bellies, within gun shot; and then, whosoever ap- 
pears first, gets the fire, while the assailant makes his retreat be- 
hind the smoke from the gun. At other times, they approach the 
walls, or pallisades, with the utmost audacity, and attempt to fire 
them, or to beat down the gate. They often make feints to draw 
out the garrison on one side of the fort, and if practicable, enter 
it by surprise on the other." Such was the enemy who infested 
western country. and with whom the early adventurers had to contend. 
In the combat, they were brave; in defeat, they were dexterous; in 
victory, they were cruel. Neither sex, nor age, nor the prisoner, 
was exempted from their tomahawks or scalping knife. They saw 
their perpetual enemy taking possession of their Hunting Ground; 
to them the source of amusement, of supply, and of traffic, and 
they were determined to dispute it, to the utmost extent of their 
means. Had they possessed the skill which combines individual 
effort with a concerted attack ; and had they directed their whole 
force against each of the for!s, then few and feeble, in succession, 
instead of dissipating their strength by attacking all, at the same 
time; they could easily have rid Kentucky of its new inhabitants, 
and again have restored it to the buffalo and the Indian, the wild 
game and its red hunters. But it was ordered otherwise; and after 
inflicting great distress upon the settlers, without being able to 
take any of the forts, the approach of winter dispersed them; they 
having in the mean time killed sundry persons, and destroyed most 
of the cattle round the stations. Of the settlers, however, it is to 
be said, that they acquired fortitude and dexterity in proportion 
to the occasional pressure. In the most difficult times, the In- 
dians were obliged to retire into the woods, sometimes in pursuit 
of game, sometimes as to a place of safety; and generally by night 
they withdrew, to encamp at a distance. In these intervals, the 
white men would plough their corn, or gather their crop, or get 
up their cattle, or hunt the deer, the bear or buffalo for their own 

When traveling, they left the paths ; and they frequently em- 
ployed the night, to get out from, or return to, the garrison. In 
these excursions they often exchanged shots with the Indians; and 
at times, when they came to the station, found it invested." 

[To be continued.] 


Thirty-third Congress. 



Whigs in Italic; Democrats in Roman, Those marked F. S. are Free Sailers, 
or Abolitionists; U,, those elected as Union men, S. R,, those elected as South- 
ern or State Rights men. 

President David R. Atchison. 

Secretary Asbury Dickins. 





Benj. Fitzpatrick 
Clement C. Clay, Jr. 


Robert W- Johnson- 1855 

W. K. Sebastian 1859 


Truman Smith 1855 

Isaac Toucey 1857 


Wm. M. Gwin 1855 

John B. Weller 1857 


James A. Bayard 1857 

John M. Clayton 1859 


Jackson Morton 1855 

Stephen R. Mallory 1857 


Wm. C. Daivson 1855 

Robert Thombs [U.] 1859 


John Pettit 1855 

Jesse D. Bright 1857 


James Shields 1855 

Stephen A. Douglas 1859 


Augustus C. Dodge 1855 

Geo. W. Jones 1859 


Archibald Dixon 1855 

John B. Thompson 1859 


John Slidell 1855 

J. P. Benjamin 1859 


Hannibal Hamlin 1857 

Vacancy 1859 

* By Governors appointment* 


Lewis Cass 1857 

Charles E. Stuart 1859 


Stephen Adams [U.] 1857 

Vacancy 1859 


David R. Atchison 1855 

Henry S. Geyer 1857 


Moses Norris, Jr. 1855 

Jared W. Williams* 1859 


W. G. Seward[¥.S.] 1855 

Hamilton Fish 1857 


John R. Thompson 1857 

Wm. Wright 1859 


Geo. E Badger 1855 

Vacancy 1859 


S. P. Chase [F. S.] 1855 

Benj. F. Wade 1857 


James Cooper 1855 

Richard Brodhead 1857 


Charles T. James 1857 

Phillipp Allen 1859 


A. P. Butler [S. R.] 1855 

Josiah J. Evan 1859 


James C. Jones 1857 

John Bell 1859 


Thomas J. Rusk 1857 

Sam. Houston 1859 


Thirty-third Congress. 


Chas. Sumner [F. S-] 1857 Vacancy 1855 

Edward Everett 1859 Solomon Foote 1857 


James E Pearce 1855 J. M. Mason [S. R.] 1857 

Thomas G. Pratt 1857 R.M.T. Hunter [S.R.] 1859 


Isaac P. Walker 1855 Henry Dodge 1857 


Democrats 37 

Whigs 21 

Vacancies 4 

The House will consist of two hundred and thirty-four members and five ter- 
ritorial delegates, one new territory having been formed at the last session, viz : 
Washington. The Delegates, however, have no vote. 


1. Philip Phillips. 1. Bernhardt Henn. 

2. James Jlbercrombie. 2. John P. Cook. 

3. Sampson W. Harris. Indiana. 

4. Wm. R. Smith. 1. Smith Miller. 

5. George S. Houston. 2. William H. English. 

6. W. R. W. Cobb. 3. Cyrus L. Dunham. 

7. James F. Dowdell. 4. James A. Lane. 

ARKANSAS. 5. Samuel W. Parker. 

1. A. B. Greenwood. 6. Thomas A. Hendricks. 

2. E. A. Warren. 7. John G. Davis. 

Connecticut. 8. Daniel Mace. 

1. James T. Pratt. 9. Norman Eddy. 

2. Colin M. Ingersoll. 10. E. M. Chamberlain. 

3. Nathan Belcher. ' 11. Andrew J. Harlan. 

4. Origen S. Seymour. Illinois. 

California. 1. E. B. Washbume. 

1. James A. McDougal. 2. John Wentworth. 

2. Milton C. Latham.. 3. J. C. Norton. 

Delaware. 4. James Knox. 

George B. Riddle. 5. W. A. Richardson. 

PLdRlDA. 6. Richard Yates. 

Augustus E. Maxwell. 7. James Allen. 

GEORGIA. 8. William H. Bissell. 

1. James L. Seward. 9. Willis Allen. 

2. Alfred H. Colquitt. Kentucky. 

3. David J. Bailey. 1. Linn Boyd. 

4. William B. W. Dent. 2. Benjamin E. Gray. 

5. Elijah W. Chastain. 3. Pressley Ewing. 

6. Junius Hillyer. 4. James S. Chrisman. 

7. David A. Reese. 5. Clement S. Hill. 

8. Alexander H. Stephens. 6. J. M. Elliott. 

Thirty-third Congress. 


7. William Preston 

8. J. C. Breckenridge 

9. Leander M. Cox 
10. R. H. Stanton 


William Dunbar 
Theo. Hunt 
John E. Perkins, jr. 
Roland Jones 


Zeno Scudder 
Samuel L. Crocker 
J. Wiley Edmonds 
Samuel H. Waley 
William Jlppleton 
Charles W. Up ham 
Nathaniel P. Banks, Jr. 
Tappan Wentworth 
Alex. De Witt [F. S.] 
Edward Dickinson 
John G. Goodrich 












1. David Stuart 

2. David A. Noble 

3. Samuel Clark 

4. Hector L. Stephens 


1. Moses McDonald 

2. Samuel Mayall 

3. E. Wilder Farly 

4. Samuel P. Benson 

5. Israel Washburn, Jr 

6. T. J. D. Fuller 


1. Daniel B. Wright 

2. William S. Barry 

3. 0. R. Singleton 

4. Wiley H. Harris 

5. William Barksdale 


1. John R. Franklin 

2. Jacob Shower 

3. Joshua Vansant 

4. Henry May 

5. Wm. T. Hamilton 

6. Jl. R. Sollers 


1. Thomas H. Benton 













Alfred W. Lamb 
John G. Lindley 
John G. Miller 
Mordecai Oliver 
John S. Phelps 
Sam. Caruthers 


Henry M. Rice 


James Maurice 
Thos. W. Cummings 
Hiram Walbridge 
Mike Walsh 
William M. Tweed 
John Wheeler 
William A. Walker 
Francis B. Cutting 
Jared V. Peck 
William Murray 
T. R. Westbrook 
Gilbert Dean 
Russel t- age 
Rui'us W. Peckham 
Charles Hughes 
George A. Simmons 
Bishop Perkins 
Peter Rowe 
Ceo. W. Chase 
O. B. Matteson 
Henry Bennett 
G'emtt Smith [F. S,] 
Caleb Lyon [Ind.] 
Daniel T. Jones 
Edwin B. Morgan 
Andrew Oliver 
John J. Taylor 
George Hastings 
Davis Carpenter 
Benjamin Pringle [Ind.] 
Thomas F. Flagler 
Solomon G. Haven 
Reuben E. Fenton 


1. Nathan T. Stratton 

2. Charles Skelton 

3. Samuel Lilly 

4. George Vail 

5. A. C. M. Pennington 


Thirty -third Congress. 


1. George W. Kittridge 

2. George W Morrison 

3. Harry Hubbard 


1. H M Shaw 

2. Thomas Ruffin 

3. Wm S Ashe 

4. Sion H Rogers 

5. John Kerr 

6. Richard C Puryear 

7. Burton S Craige 

8. Thomas L Clingman 


Jose Manuel Gallegos 


1. David T. Disney 

2. John Scott Harrison 

3. Lewis D Campbell [F.S.] 

4. Matthias H. Nichols 

5. Alfred P. Edgerton 

6. Andrew Ellison 

7. Jiaron Harlan 

8. Moses B Corwin 

9. Frederick W Green 

10. John L Taylor 

11. Thomas Ritchie 

12. Edson B Olds 
lo. Wm D Lindsay 

14. Harvey H Johnson 

15. W R Sapp 

16. Edward Ball 

17. "Wilson Shannon 

18. George Bliss 

19. Edward Wade [F. S.] 

20. Jos R Giddings [F. S.] 

21. Andrew Stuart 


Joseph Lane 


1. Thomas B Florence 

2. Joseph R Chandler 

3. John Robbins, Jr 

4. Wm H Witte 

5. John McNair 

6. William Ever hart 

7. Samuel A Bridges 

8. Henry A Muhlenberg 

9. Isaac E Heister 

10. Ner Middleswarth 

11. Christian M Straub 

12. H B Wright 

13. Asa Packer 

14. Galusha A Grow 

15. James Gamble 

16. William H Kurtz 

17. Samuel L Russell 

18. John McCulloch 

19. Augustus Drum 

20. John L Dawson 

21. David Ritchie 

22. Thomas M Howe 

23. Michael C Trout 

24. Canton B Curtis 

25. John Dick 


1. Thomas Davis 

2. Benjamin B Thurston 


1. John McQuinn [S R] 

2. Wm Akin [S R] 

3. L M Keitt [8 R] 

4. Prest S Brooks [S R] 

5. James L Orr [S R] 
«. W W Boyce [S R] 


1. Brookins Campbell 

2. W T m M Church well 

3. Samuel A Smith 

4. William Cullum j 

5. Chas Ready 

6. Geo W Jones 

7. R M Bugg 

8. Felix K Zollicoffer 

9. Emerson Etheridge 
10. Frederick P Stanton 


1. George W Smyth 

2. Peter H Bell 


John M Bernhissel 


1. Thomas H Bayly 

2. J S Milson 

3. John S Kaskie 

4. Wm O Goode 

5. Thomas S Bocock 

6. Paulus Powell 

7. William Smith 

8. Charles J Faulkner 

9. H A Edmonson 

10. John Letcher 

11. Z Kidwell 

12. John F Snodgrass 

13. Fayette Mc Mullen 


1. lames Meacham 
2- Jlndrcw Tracy 
3. Alvah Sabin 


1. Daniel Wells, Jr 

2. B C Eastman 

3. John B Macy 



VOL. XI. January, 1854. ITo. IV. 

Article I. 
Excessive Trading. 

There is no season so favorable to reflections calculated to en- 
lighten the understanding and to improve the heart as the commence- 
ment of the year. At this period it is natural, for even light and 
trivial minds, to turn their thoughts upon the past, and review the 
events which have made the deepest impressions upon their mem- 
ory. It is natural for all men to pause on the thresbhold of the 
new year, and experience a momentary sense of trepidation at en- 
tering upon the unknown and inscrutable future which lies before 

It is the season of accounting with ourselves, and with our neigh- 
bor, and with Him to whom we are indebted for all our enjoyments. 
It is the time of retrospection : and while facts are fresh in the 
memory, and the hearts of men are open to instruction, it should 
not be allowed to pass without improvement. 

Eminent gifts require the observance of corresponding duties, 
and hence, in feeble and uncultivated minds the growth of virtue is 
overshadowed and checked by unwonted or sudden prosperity. Here 
we may observe one of the most difficult impediments to the pro- 
gress of civilization: the want of a mental and moral basis of suf- 
ficient and strength to support an indefinite accumulation 
of individual wealth and national power. This is the weak point 
in all social fabrics. It was the vital defect that occasioned the 
downfall of the great nations of antiquity ; and it is our duty to 
guard our own social structure from decay at this point by all the 
means in our power. 

In many respects, our country is the most favored portion of 
the earth, "a land of beauty and of grandeur," where all the ele- 


234 Excessive Trading. 

ments combine to develop the human faculties in their highest de- 
gree of perfection. It is indeed a munificent heritage, and most 
worthily did our fathers observe the duties which it required at 
their hands. They established political and civil institutions cal- 
culated, in an eminent degree, to promote the fullest development 
of the mental and moral faculties; to incite men to investigate all 
subjects relating to their individual and social well-being ; and to 
encourage industry in all its varied departments, by securing the 
enjoyment of its rewards to every individual. Such is the patri- 
mony of the present generation — richer than was ever inherited by 
any other people. But in our inconsiderate haste to improve it, 
we lose the chief enjoyments which it is capable of affording. 

A restless desire to accumulate wealth, prevails throughout the 
land, subjecting every human faculty to its imperious sway. It 
admits of no repose, gives no place to the finer emotions of the 
heart, makes every relation subservient to the attainment of one 
object, and abolishes the distinction between money and morals. 
It is not our province to draw aside the veil which conceals the 
mysteries of the domestic relations, and expose the inquietude and 
discord which spring from this source : enough is known to the 
public to admonish all men of the folly of making wealth the basis 
of their social relations. 

The branch of this subject, which more properly belongs to the 
public economist, is excessive trading, originating in a desire to 
grow rich suddenly by buying and sellir.g the products of other 
men's labors. 

Without recurring to the several great revulsions which have 
prevailed throughout the land at different times, reducing very 
many to a state of destitution, blighting their hopes, destroying 
their usefulness, and demoralizing their character, the year which 
has just closed furnishes facts sufficient to admonish the American 
people of the evil consequences of overtrading and speculation. 

At no time in the history of this country have the elements of 
wealth been so abundant as during the year 1853. The seasons 
for several years preceding had been propitious, and the labors of 
the agriculturists crowned with a munificent reward, the mines of 
California were highly productive, yielding more than $50,000,- 
000 per annum, the shipping interest was prosperous, and every 
branoh of industry, save manufacturing and mining for the more 
useful metals, had been rapidly increasing, and yet, owing to ex- 

Excessive Trading. 235 

cessive trading, great embarrassment has been experienced in ev- 
ery department of business. 

After giving due weight to the fact that a large amount of mon- 
ey has been drawn from the ordinary channels of commerce for the 
purpose of building railroads, we still find a more potent cause of 
financial embarrassment in the excessive importations of foreign 

According to the report of the Secretary of the Treasury of the 
United States, the imports of foreign merchandize, including spe- 
cie, during the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1853, amounted to 
$207,978,647, being an increase of $55,033,205 on the amount 
imported for the preceding year. Now if we suppose $50,000,000 
of this increased amount of imports to be goods paying duty at 
the rate of twenty-five per cent., we must add $12,500,000 to 
the $55,033,205, making the value of imports for the last fiscal 
year, when received from the custom-house, about $68,000,000 
more than for the year ending June 30th, 1852. 

It is quite obvious from this view of the subject that it was not the 
building of railroads, but overtrading in commerce, and specula- 
tions in unproductive property, that occasioned the financial diffi- 
culties under which the country has been laboring for the last nine 

The imports of the years 1851 and 1852 were regarded as ex- 
cessive, but if there had been no increase on the amount received 
in 1852, every department of business might have remained in a 
prosperous condition, and the public improvements of the Western 
and Southern States would have been about one year in advance 
of their present stage. 

It is true, the exports of 1853 exceed the amount of the pre- 
ceding year, but it is shown by the Secretary of the Treasury that 
the amount including specie was $37,526,397 less than that of the 
imports. And here we find occasion to notice the remarks of the 
Secretary touching this deficiency. He says : "A fair estimate 
for profits on our exports and the freight of our vessels would cast 
the balance of this account in our favor, without estimating the 
money brought in by immigrants, of which no account is taken.'' 

Similar views were entertained, more especially we believe, by 
Whigs, in the years 1835 and 1836, but the revulsion of 1837 exposed 
the f alacy of such estimates . The commercial and financial history of 
this country proves beyond doubt that, whatever may be the profits 

236 Excessive Trading. 

to dealers and carriers, the balances against this country must, as 
a general rule, be paid by the shipment of specie. 

The Secretary of the Treasury makes no allowance for under- 
valuations of merchandize in foreign markets, and seems to forget 
that the freight which we pay to foreign vessels is a fair offset to 
that earned by our own. In the fiscal year ending 30th June, 
1852, more than half of our domestic exports, and more than a 
third part of our imports, were made on foreign vessels. 

From the notice taken of the money brought in by emigrants, it 
would seem that the Secretary entertains the opinion that it is to 
be regarded as an offset to the balance of trade against the coun- 
try- It is true, it adds to the wealth of the nation, and were one 
takin^ an inventory to ascertain whether the country possessed a 
sufficient amount of money to pay its foreign debt, it would be 
proper to take this into the account ; but it should be remembered 
that it is private property, and bears the same relation to the for- 
eign debt as the money of other citizens; and as the immigrants 
are not supposed to possess a larger amount in proportion to their 
numbers than the old citizens, it is difficult to perceive the prin- 
ciple upon which the money they bring is to affect, in any material 
degree, the financial condition of the country. Indeed, it is not 
certain that the immigrants do not send home to their friends 
quite as much money as they bring with them. It appears from 
the report of the Colonial Land and Emigration Commissioners, 
for the year 1851, that £990,000, about $5,000,000, was remit- 
ted from the United States to the United Kingdom during that 
year by emigrants. 

It is remarkable that, while the Secretary of the Treasury was 
looking outside of the custom-house reports for facts to show that 
the balance of $37,000,000 was merely nominal, it did not occur 
to him that some deduction ought to be made from these imagin- 
ary items for the interest accruing upon the public securities of 
this country held by foreign capitalists. 

We regret that the spirit and tone of the Secretary's report is cal- 
culated, as we conceive, to encourage rather than check the mania 
for trading in foreign merchandize. We did not expect him to sug- 
gest a remedy for the evil; indeed, it may be doubted whether it is 
practicable to protect the country against the consequences of ex- 
cessive traffic by legislation. There is a class of men whose tem- 
perament disqualifies them for that calm and steady employment 

Excessive Trading. 237 


of their time and faculties which is necessary to make them suc- 
cessful producers or safe merchants. They are in a hurry to grow 
rich suddenly, and delight in excitement. They are speculators 
by nature, and can only be restrained from indulging their pro- 
pensities by the most severe reverses of fortune. They profit 
nothing by experience: disappointment and failure make them on- 
ly the more reckless, and when their means and credit are finally 
exhausted, they sink into a hopeless state of indolence and vice, 
rather than submit to the sober discipline required to ensure suc- 
sess in legitimate pursuits. 

The following extract from the "Placer Times 8? Transcript" 
published at San Francisco, places the trading mania in such a 
clear light, that we are induced to copy the entire article, with a 
hope that the admonitions of the author may be of service to the 
country. The paper is dated November 15th, 1853. 


The following severe but truthful remarks in regard to the recklessness of 
Eastern shippers in forcing upon us merchandise for which there is no immedi- 
ate requirement, and which in most instances cannot be sold for cost and charg- 
es, are from a mercantile friend whose experience and standing entitle his views 
to the serious attention of those to whom they are addressed. We cheerfully 
give the article a place, and commend it to the perusal of our readers, particul- 
arly those on the Atlantic side.— Editor of the P. T. § T. 


The mail of to-day will take to you the same discouraging ac- 
counts which have been sent you semi-monthly six times in succes- 
sion — and as we write, your past recklessness forces upon us this 
question — what will be their effect? We must except a few articles 
which are enjoying a momentary galvanized life, under a feeble 
fall trade, like that of Panama under a slight infusion of Anglo- 
Saxon energy. Here we stop. And now to make one last appeal 
to you to cease shipments, not partially , but altogether for four 
months. The sight of a clipper and cargo has changed from the 
pleasing to the revolting. You have loaded us, crushed us with 
goods, against fearfully ruinous prices, against a slowly increasing 
population, against good judgment, and a constantly falling mar- 
ket — against all these facts, reiterated every two weeks since last 

For thirteen successive months, from May, 1852, to June, 
1853, you placed at our wharves one ship per day, and for the last 
eight months you have continued to pour in upon us the goods, 
regardless of the advices of every house of standing amongst us ; 
regardless, too, of all that we were daily receiving from every 
quarter of the globe — from Arracan, Batavia, Manilla, Hongkong 

238 Excessive Trading. 

— from the Archipelagos of both Oceans — from England, France, 
Germany and Spain — from fertile Chili, and all the Spanish, 
Mexican, American and Russian ports which mark a line of coast 
six thousend miles in extent — from Talcahuanna to Oregon and 
Sitka— regardless of all this, we say, you have continued to roll 
in the merchandise upon us, two thousand tons per day, and not 
satisfied with quantity. 

To designate a few articles. You have sent us against a thou- 
sand repeated advices, all the brands of flour that can be found in 
a New York Shipping List, and boldly asserted that they must 
keep sweet, whilst you have received monthly the beggarly sales of 
said flour — "Sour — musty — caked — perished. Sold at $7, $8, 
$9 per barrel." The next mail, however, brings us further in- 
voices of the some sort, all of which must turn out good — so say 
your letters ; and all of which always' turn out bad — so say the 
facts. We tell you that even if it prove superfine, it would not 
realize so much by $3 per barrel as Gallego andHaxall, except in 
a time of actual scarcity; and your reply is, one more — another — 
yet another invoice. And thus you go on, till, we suppose, bank- 
ruptcy only will stop you. 

Of Butter you have sent us 8, 11, 20, 15,000 packages per 
month, (our consumption say 9,000,) and the stock in this city 
alone now, clean and clear, 00,000, (five and a half millions of 
pounds,) and yet you now clear it by thousands of packages, as 
deliberately to a population of 300,000, as if you were sending 
corn to some famished Ireland, with her millions. Moreover, 
though often told you should ship none but the best, you purchase 
a cheap article for 12| cents — invoice it 22 cents, and think we 
can sell it blind, quality, color, weight and taste. But the San 
Francisco of '53 is not that of '49. Having bought the article 
which you know cannot reach here in good condition, you place 
the cap stone upon your folly, by putting a costly cask around it, 
and filling it with salt and brine, and then to heighten an already 
too aggravated foolery, you pay 5c. ^ lb freight alone to get it 
here, and nothing remains to exceed the consummate stupidity of 
the last act, but six months of self-deception, waiting golden re- 
turns as the result. 

We tell you that Bacon must be thoroughly smoked and cured, 
and that a full quantity of salt must be placed between each peace, 
so that no piece shall touch another or the sides of the box. You 
reply, by stinting the salt and sending it half cured; and when the 
account sales reach you, "soft, tainted, skippery, bad, stinking 
— sold @ 4c. ^ Bb," you think that your consignee has cheated 
you, and tell him that it was put up by the first packers in Net?- 

Is this sufficient? We might go an. California con promise you 
this year, seven millions of dollars losses, sure. We regret it 
deeply, but whom shall you thank but yourselves? You have de- 

Excessive Trading. 239 

Bigned, built and cleared clippers in ninety days, and we have done 
the same in warehouses, all but the clearing, in thirty days ; and 
this brings us to your only deed of omission. You have allowed 
the English insurance offices quietly to place away the trifling pre- 
miums of three, five, and eight per cent, per annum, on fire-proof 
buildings, which you yourselves shall say, (four hundred of them) 
cannot be surpassed or equalled for their fire-proof qualities, in 
any city on the Atlantic side. But we digress. 

We don't know token to stop writing, or how to stop you. We 
ask you once more, as you regard your own credit and standing, 
to leave us alone. We assure you that we have stocks of some 
articles sufficient for many months, and of not a few, that cannot 
be consumed in a year. Nails, drugs, pilot bread, ground coffee, 
butter, boots and shoes, codfish, hardware of all kinds, spices, 
ploughs, tin ware, stationery are all like some of England's out- 
standings consolidated funds. Hams, bacon, and lard are in sup- 
ply for six months, and there are still from the Atlantic domestic 
ports more than eighty ships yet to come in. 

We beg of you to leave us — not for a day — not partially — 
but to cease shipments altogether for four months. In this way 
you may save something. Give us rest. The tender mercies of 
the parent have become indeed too great. 

And with equal propriety and emphasis the whole country may 
say to the importers of foreign merchandise, "cease your ship- 
ments," until we have paid for and consumed the surplus com- 
modities amounting, as we believe, to $75,000,000 which you have 
brought to our markets within the last twelve months. 

We regarded the stringency in the money market last summer, 
as a fortunate occurrence, and felt strong confidence in the opin- 
ion that it would operate to reduce the importations of foreign 
merchandise to an amount corresponding to the exports of our 
agricultural and manufacturing productions ; but in this we have 
been, thus far, disappointed. The most remarkable, and indeed 
the most alarming fact relating to the commercial affairs of the 
country, was the continual increase in the importations of foreign 
merchandise throughout a season of great financial embarrass- 
ment. In view of these facts, and the imports still continuing to 
increase up to our last advices, we must confess that the opinion 
which we expressed two months ago touching an improved state of 
the money market during the current year, has been much weak- 
ened. We had supposed until the report of the Secretary of the 
Treasury was published, that notwithstanding the increase of im- 
portations, the balance against this country had been kept down 

240 Excessive Trading. 

by the export of specie, and consequently as soon as the importa- 
tions were checked, money would commence accumulating ; but it 
will take some time to adjust the balance, which may now be es- 
timated at $50,000,000 — even if the importations should immedi- 
ately decline. 

We still entertain a hope that this extraordinary influx of for- 
eign merchandise will subside in time to save the country from a 
severe revulsion, but it is high time that the public mind was awak- 
ened to a serious investigation of the subject, especially in the 
Western States. 

Shall our great projects of public improvement designed to open 
commercial avenues to the most isolated and remote districts, 
build up our cities, bring into social contact the inhabitants of ev- 
ery part of our common country, binding them together as one 
family, be suspended and abandoned for an indefinite period, that 
we may enjoy the use of foreign commodities, which contribute 
more to the vanity than to the comfort of the consumer? Common 
sense and patriotism forbid that such should be the case. If it be 
ordained that we must have a revulsion, let us have something to 
show for it : better have unfinished railroads than rich wardrobes 
and ornaments that convict the bankrupt of extrayagance and folly, 
which deprive him of the confidence and sympathies of the com- 

But it is yet in the power of the western people to protect them- 
selves against the evils of overtrading, and also carry out their plans 
of public improvement, if they will change their policy. Let them 
withdraw their bonds and mortgages from market, and go to work 
upon their own means like men resolved to accomplish whatever 
they undertake. If they will pursue this course with judgment — 
not undertaking too much at a time — instead of breaking down, 
they will gain strength as they progress ; and instead of paying 
merchants' bills for superfluous commodities consumed, they will 
add to their wealth by accumulating certificates of good dividend- 
paying stocks. 

Indeed we can imagine no better way of checking the excessive 
importations of foreign merchandize than to create a local demand 
for money for public improvements. Hitherto the people, in gen- 
eral, have not felt the burdens of constructing railroads in the 
West. The money used in carrying them on has been drawn chief- 
ly from the eastern cities, and hence the volume of circulation has 

Flax Culture. 241 

been increased, and the consumption of foreign commodities en- 
couraged. This was a natural consequence ; and it may be well 
questioned, whether it is practicable to carry this system much 
further without producing a state of general embarrassment. 

We submit these suggestions more especially to the people of 
Missouri. We have labored in common with others to establish a 
system of public improvement, which commends itself to the ap- 
probation of the people in every part of the State ; but we have 
hitherto left it with those mere immediately interested to devise 
the ways and means of accomplishing the work. Nor should we 
have alluded to this subject now but that it is involved in another 
which concerns e# ery part of our common country. 

It is generally safe, and sometimes it may be a wise policy, to 
complete a system of public improvement by the use of credit ; 
but we can imagine no case where it would be prudent to rely en- 
tirely on borrowed means in the beginning. 

In conclusion, we are compelled to admit that since a more thor- 
ough investigation of the report of the Secretary of the Treasury, 
we regard the financial prospects of the current year as being much 
less favorable than we did at the beginning of last month; and we 
are persuaded that if the mania for excessive traffic and specula- 
tion continues unabated until the end of the year, a severe revul- 
sion will be inevitable. 

Article II. 
Plax Culture.* 

Preparation of the Land.— All authorities agree in the ne- 
cessity of clearing flax land of weeds as perfectly as possible. It 
should be well drained of surface water, for the roots of flax often 
penetrate as deep as the length of the plant above ground, if the 
collar of the plant is not too wet. A light plowing should be given 
immediately after harvest, no matter what may be the soil. A 

* In behalf of the agriculturists of the West, we thank the enterprising 
Editors of the "Louisville Journal" for the pains they have taken in collecting 
and arranging the useful information contained in the following article. And we 
beg to add that, though a political paper, we have found more well digested and 
useful information relating to agriculture in the 'Louisville Journal', for the last 
rive years, than in all our other newspaper exchanges put together. We sincerely 
hope that others observing the success of this paper will follow its example in 
this department of literature.— Sr. Ed. 

242 Flax Culture. 

heavy stiff soil should be plowed up in ridges in the fall, in order 
to be exposed to the frosts of winter. About two weeks before the 
time for sowing the seed the land should have a deep plowing fol- 
lowed by harrowing and rolling. No matter how much labor may 
be bestowed on the land in making its tilth perfect, and in the de- 
struction of weeds, the improvement and increase of the crop will 
abundantly pay. There is in fact no crop that will yield such re- 
turns to proper labor and management as the flax crop. No other 
product of land pays such a profit to well-directed labor, and it 
must always be remunerative, because the market has never been 
overstocked with the textile material of a flax crop. Even if an 
American crop were to glut the mills of America, England would 
readily purchase all that might not be needed for the American 
home market. But it cannot be too deeply impressed upon the 
minds of cultivators that flax land must be put in the best possible 
condition for inducing the long fibrous roots to penetrate the earth 
as deeply as possible. Lands which hold water at the distance of 
two or three inches from the surface make superior flax crops, but 
there must be no surface water. 

Soils. — Sandy loams and alluvial soils, either natural or artifi- 
cial, are the best for flax. But good crops are sometimes made 
in light and heavy clays, reclaimed marsh land, gravels, chalk, 
&c. An open soil through which water percolates readily is best 
adapted to the flax crop. He that would get a richly remunerative 
crop must command the favorable circumstances we have named. 
As no practical result has yet followed the attempt to extract sun- 
beans from cucumbers, no one need expect any rich returns from 
a flax crop on land that is not adapted to the plant, nor on land 
that is suitable, unless it shall be properly prepared, and suitably 

Seed. — If the object is to make a very fine flax, the Holland 
seed is the best. Riga seed is the best for a seed crop, since it 
may be made to yield abundantly of that article. The Riga seed 
is also best adapted for a variety of localities. It should be sown 
one year for seed, and this should be used the following year for a 
crop of fibre and seed. But seed foreign to the locality should be 
frequently resorted to because the seed soon degenerates. The 
farmers of Wisconsin and of Kentucky, for example, should ex- 
change seed at least every alternate year. Great management 
is required in this department of flax cultivation. Whatever seed 
may be used should be carefully silted in order to get clear of the 
germs of weeds. And when the land has been well prepared, and 
the seed is suitably selected and cleaned, at least two bushels of 
the latter should be sown broadcast by the hand, or by the broad- 
cast barrow. It is better to sow too thick than too thin, as with 
thick sowing the plant grows long and fine, while thin sowing pro- 
duces a plant full of branches, which yields seed freely, but makes 
a very poor fibre. The seed should be soAvn as evenly as possible, 

Flax Culture. 243 

so as to avoid the trouble of separating the various qualities of 
straw that would grow in a field irregularly sown. After theseecf 
is properly sown, cover it across with a seed-barrow, as by this 
means the seed is spread more equally. Immediately after the 
harrowing use a light roller upon the land. The seed should be 
covered about an inch deep. The seed may be sown early in 

As soon as the plants grow to the height of one or two inches, 
the field should be carefully weeded. This is done in Belgium by 
sending boys with coarse cloths wrapped around their knees into 
the field. They crawl along on all fours and pull the weeds. This 
method is found to be less injurious to the young flax, than when 
the weeders walk at the work. All the weeds should be removed 
before the flax reaches three inches in height. After that, it will 
weed itself, and no crop is as effective in cleaning land from weeds 
as flax. 

Harvesting the Crop. — A diversity of opinions is entertained 
on this point. Many authorities think that the straw should be 
gathered while in a green state, before either fibre or seed is ma- 
tured. We have carefully investigated the subject, and we are 
satisfied that the plant should be well advanced towards maturity, 
before it is cut or pulled. Mr. Wilson, in whose judgment we 
place a great deal of confidence, and who is the highest authority 
on the subject, is of opinion that the proper time for gathering the 
crop is when the straw has assumed a yellow color immediately 
under the branches, and when, on opening the capsule, the seed 
is found to be of a pale brown color. After the flax is pulled or 
cut, the handfulls are laid across each other, and afterwards bound 
up loosely in small sheaves, which are then stacked up in the best 
manner possible for the admission of a free circulation of air among 
the straw. After they are well dried, they are permanently stacked 
either in the field, or at the homested. Sometimes the seed is 
gathered before the permanent stacking. This is effectively and 
cheaply done by passing the straw between the ends of plain rol- 
lers which crush the capsule, but the straw does not enter the rol- 
lers. The seed is then winnowed, and the 'boll' is saved on ac- 
count of its valuable qualities in connection with one of the recent 
discoveries in preparing the flax fibre, of which we shall hereafter 
speak. "Under favorable circumstances," says Professor Wilson, 
"we may expect an average crop to produce from 30 to 40 cwts. 
of straw, and 16 bushels of seed to the acre." 

The processes which we have described have now placed in the 
hands of the farmer two valuable articles which will at any time 
command cash. The seed may either be fed to cattle or sold to 
the oil mills. The crop of seed per acre is worth twenty dollars, 
just double the present average quantity of flax seed per acre, now 
raised in this country. In America the fiber is foolishly and waste- 
fully thrown away ; in Ireland the seed crop is just as foolishly 

244 Flax Culture. 

thrown away. The most extended observations of facts show that 
both practices are foolish, for it is perfectly practical to gather 
both items of the flax crop from the same field. While we are 
pleading here that the American farmer shall double his crop of 
seed, and prepare his fiber for a cash market that stands ready 
and eager to take all he can make, the Royal Flax Society of Bel- 
fast is earnestly pleading against the foolish waste in Ireland, by 
which large sums of money are thrown away in neglecting the seed 
crop, when the waste does not in the slightest degree improve 
either the quality or quantity of the fibre. Lord Erne stated at 
the recent meeting of the Royal Flax Society, that the flax seed 
thus wasted in Ireland is worth £5 or twenty-five dollars p. acre. 
In the report of the proceedings, the following facts were devel- 
oped: It cost the Earl of Erne 

"No small trouble among his own tenantry to induce flax-grow- 
ers to save even a portion of the flaxseed. The matter seems 
singular, but it is very true. In fact, we have the best reason for 
knowing that, of all the flax grown in Ireland, on scarcely a pro- 
portion of 5 per cent, is the seed saved. There have been reasons 
alleged to produce this seemingly criminal inertness, such as the 
ignorance of method and the want of markets; but it is hardly to 
be considered that in Ireland seed, if saved, could fail to meet 
with a sale, either for crushing or sowing. The people of the south 
and west of Ireland, incredible as it may appear, under the in- 
structions of the society's teachers, are really making better pro- 
gress towards the continental system of saving seed and straw than 
the farmers of Ulster; the people here are so wedded to old habits, 
and so tenacious of impressions once made. Let us now briefly 
glance at the loss that is caused by this criminal waste of valuable 
produce. The whole extent of land under flax this year was, as 
we learn by the report, 175,469 acres, which, taking off 5 per 
cent., using round numbers, and estimating the value of flaxseed 
at £4 an acre, shows a dead loss of something approaching .£400,- 
000, which next year may be probably calculated at above half a 
million. With such a loss before their eyes, and knowing that a 
market is never likely to be wanted for oilcake, it will be a proof 
of singular inaptness indeed if the flaxgrowers of the country do 
not turn their attention to the waste they are yearly committing, 
follow the advice of the Earl of Erne and the Royal Society, and 
put £4 or £5 an acre into their own pockets rather than allow it 
to be liquified in a bogholc." 

Now if these remarks are true of Irish flax culture, do they not 
strike severely at that absurd system of American farming which 
mismanages the flax crop so as to get only ten dollars' w 7 orth of 
seed per acre, when it is quite as easy to get twenty dollars' worth 
per acre and which, in addition to this deficiency, then throws 
away flax fibre which may be converted into fifty five dollars per 
acre? American farmers should awaken from this deplorable mis- 

Flax Culture. 245 

management. Every bushel of seed and every pound of fibre that 
can be raised will at once command a certain cash market at prices 
that will remunerate better than any other kind of farming. 

Improvements in separating the Flax fibre. — We have often 
referred in these remarks to the great improvements that have 
been made in separating the flax fibre from the shive of the plant, 
by which an immense impetus has been given to flax culture, and 
the manufacture of linen fabrics. The old processes of water or 
dew-rotting were attended with a great deal of trouble, loss of 
valuable time, and uncertainty as to the proper time for removing 
the straw from the water. If it remained in the water too long, 
the fibre was weakened; if removed too soon the fibre could not bo 
perfectly separated, and a great deal of it ran to tow in the heck- 
ling process. These difficulties undoubtedly were the main cause 
of the inattention to the crop which has characterised the farmers 
of this country. But every difficulty in this important depart- 
ment has ]jassed away through the agency of science and me- 
chanical ingenuity. In the first stages of these improvements 
the ancient, uncertain, and anxious labors of weeks dwindled 
down to days, and the latter have been reduced to hours in which 
there is neither anxiety nor uncertainty. These discoveries have 
given an immense impetus to flax culture as we have already 
shown, and this immense increase of flax culture is sufficient proof 
of the reality and value of the discoveries. It has already been 
noticed by the readers of our second article on this subject how 
rapidly the number of acres devoted to flax culture increased in 
Ireland after 1848. In that year, there were 53,866 acres of flax 
under cultivation in that country. In 1850, there were 91,040 ; 
in 1851, 138,619; and in 1853, 175,469. Let us now look at 
the cause of this immense increase of flax cultivation in Ireland. 
In 1848, Mr. Schenck, an American gentleman, introduced a vast 
improvement upon all former processes for steeping flax. His plan 
was to expedite the fermentative or putrej active stage, which 
ivas considered essential to the separation of the flax fibres 
from the woody structure. It was known, that, at a tempera- 
ture of from 85 to 90 degrees, the glutinous matter that held the 
flax fibre to the shive would commence fermentation, and Mr. 
Schenk proposed to expedite the flax straw into this fermentation 
by the use of hot water. His plan was highly successful. The 
Royal Flax Society, ever alive to improvements in all things per- 
taining to flax, at once commended the Schenck patent, and, un- 
der the auspices of that Society, twenty retteries, upon Schenk's 
principle, were soon under way. They prepared from 30,000 to 
40,000 tons of flax annually. A great saving of labor and of 
time was effected, and the whole business was under the control of 
the operator. Instead of the labor and loss of time of from two 
to three weeks required under the old method, Schenck's plan ac- 
complished the work for the fine varieties of flax in seventy-tw© 

246 Flax Culture. 

hours, and for the coarse qualities in ninety- six hours. It was 
found too that the yield of the fibre was increased in quantity. 
Experiments proved that the gain of fibre by Schenck's process, 
when compared with the old plan, was from 20 to 23^ per cent., 
and that the quality of Schenck's fibre was superior to that made 
by the old method. Abundant facts prove these points. 

But there was a serious drawback in the improvement, great as 
the advantages were. It set up a putrefactive process, which loaded 
the air with disagreeable and noisome oders, and destroyed a ma- 
terial element of the flax crop. Mr. Schenck richly deserved all 
the prosperity he won by his scientific discovery. But a more re- 
cent discovery has thrown Mr. Schenck's system into the shade 
quite as much as his had thrown the old one. The more recent 
discovery makes a much greater saving of time and labor than 
Schenck's, and it raises revenue upon nearly the entire flax crop. 
In the horrible gasses which issued from Schenck's plan were wasted 
two tons out of every seven tons of straw, and this was a waste of 
a most valuable article of nutriment for cattle. The recent im- 
provement to which we refer is known as Buchanan's patent. Pro- 
fessor Wilson describes the improvement: 

"No sooner, however, had the spinners given their testimony in 
favor of Watts's fibre than another process was patented by Buch- 
anan, also of Glasgow, which appears to be an improved applica- 
tion of the same principle as Watts', for the solvent power is 
clearly not due to the steam as made use of by him, but to the hot 
water occasioned by its condensation. 

In this the steeping is effected by repeated immersions in a tank 
of heated water, arrangements being made by which the tempera- 
ture is never allowed to exceed a certain degree — a point of great 
importance, both as regards the abstraction of the azotized ex- 
tractive matter; and also the quality of fibre produced. It is well 
known that albuminous solutions, containing even a very small 
proportion of albumen (1 in 1,000), coagulate at a temperature 
of 180 degrees, and then become insoluble; and it is always con- 
sidered that fibre is more or less injured if exposed beyond a certain 
high temperature. These two important points have been taken 
advantage of in Buchanan's process; the temperature of the steep 
liquor is kept within a certain range of temperature, and the op- 
erations both as regards time and produce, more satisfactorily 
performed. The process is quite automatic, thus saving labor 
and the risks consequent upon carelessness ; and the mechanical 
arrangements by which it is effected are very simple and inexpen- 
sive. The flax straw is placed in an open vessel termed the steep- 
ing vat, having a false bottom; a boiler generates the steam re- 
quired ; and between these two is placed a suitable vessel, the 
condenser, of about the same capacity as the steeping vat, and 
communicating with that by a hot-water pipe, and with the boiler 
by a steam pipe. This center vessel or condensing chamber is 

Flax Culture. 247 

filled with water from the cistern, and steam is then blown in from 
the boiler. When the latent heat of the steam is absorbed, and 
condensation no longer takes place, the hot water is driven over 
into the steeping vat, and completely immerses its contents. The 
overflow pipe then conveys a portion into a bucket, which, over- 
powering the balance weights, descends, drawing a chain, which, 
being attached to the pullies fixed on to the cocks of the steam- 
pipe, and of the condensing pipe, reverses their action by cutting 
off the steam and turning on a charge of cold water into the con- 
denser. The steam in the condenser is then rapidly condensed, 
and the liquor drawn back from the steep vat into which it had 
previously been forced. This completes the operation of immer- 
sion, which reeommences immediately — for as soon as the over- 
flow bucket has reached a certain point in its descent, it strikes 
against a pin, having a screw adjustment, which causes the valve 
atthe bottom to open and discharge its contents into the discharge 
pipe. The bucket then relieved of its load, resumes its original 
position, the balance weights act on the pullies, which again re- 
verse the cocks, cutting off the cold water sparge, and turning on 
the steam to the condenser. This is repeated as often as may be 

So far as the experiments have gone, it has been found that by 
ten such immersions the whole of the coloring matter of the flax 
has been removed. These in practice would not occupy more than 
three or four hours. This, however, is subject to the test of the 
operations on a commercial scale which are now in progress in 
Scottland for carrying out the patent.* 

By this process we have all the advantages obtained by Watts — 
economy of products — increased economy of time, only four hours 
being required instead of twelve — and, in addition, great economy 
of labor. Another great improvement is claimed by Buchanan; 
his method of drying the steeped straw preparatory to scutching. 
This is usually a tedious and costly process as regards labor and 
arrangements. The fibre, too, is to a certain extent liable to be 
injured by the necessary handling. The ordinary mode is to place 
the flax thinly spread between two wooden laths, which, when 
closed by means of hooks or rings over their ends, firmly bold the 
stems; about fifty-six of these are required for a cwt. of flax. 
They are then carried to the drying shed and suspended from 
frames, where they remain exposed to the action of the air until 
they are dry. The time required depends on the weather — from 
three or four days to as many weeks. In Watts's process, where 
steam is available, the process of manipulation is the same, but 
the drying is effected in a heated chamber in a much shorter time. 

" The patent for the United States will be carried out by the American Flax 
Company, of which Mr. Thomas Kimber, Jr., of Philadelphia, is the managing 
director, to whom all applications in reference to it should be made. 

248 Flax Culture. 

Buchanan's method is entirely different. He proposes to effect 
the desiccation in the same vat in which the flax was steeped, by 
means of dry warm air, which is driven through it in unlimited 
quantities, at a very little expense. The air is readily obtained 
in the desired state by causing it to pass through porous earthen- 
ware pipes set across the lower part of the chimney, which while 
heating the air, deprive it of its moisture. These communicate 
on the one side with a pipe which conveys the heated air to the 
lower part of the vat containing the flax to be dried. This is all 
the arrangement needed. The blower drives the air through the 
earthenware pipes ; its temperature is there raised, and moisture 
abstracted, and entering the bottom of the steeping vat, it comes 
in contact with the flax and passes through it, absorbing and car- 
rying off the moisture, and leaving the flax in a perfectly dry 
state. It is then ready to be rolled and scutched. The patentee's 
experiments induce him to believe that by this process the entire 
operation of converting the straw into dressed fibre may be effect- 
ed in the working day, or twelve hours; and, from the simple na- 
ture of the mechanical arrangements and of the materials required, 
a very moderate outlay would suffice for the formation of an es- 
tablishment equal to the probable produce of a given district. The 
steeping process being entirely automatic, the cost of labor is very 
small indeed, and the whole expenses of the operation materially 

The liquid which passes from Buchanan's steeping vat, instead 
of being a loathsome putrefaction, is as pleasant a beverage as a 
solution of gum arabic, and is highly nutritious. It is in fact li- 
quid albumen. When poured upon the chaff from the "bolls" of 
the flax seed it is an invaluable food for cattle and for hogs, and 
is a clear gain of two tons of albumen or gluten for every seven 
tons of flax straw. 

In the light of the facts we have presented on this great element 
of American agricultural wealth the American farmer may see his 
way clearly to prosperity. We feel humiliated in restricting the 
yield of the flax crop of the American farmer to 16 bushels of seed 
and 400 or 450 pounds of flax fibre per acre. These would be 
considered poor returns in Belgium, Ireland, and other flax coun- 
tries. In those countries, the yield varies from 20 to 25 bushels 
of seed, and from 600 to 1,100 pounds of fibre per acre. But 
even the inferior amounts we have named for American farming 
make it much the most profitable crop that is known in this coun- 
try. Flax occupies the land but a short time; and so far from ex- 
hausting the soil, it is the best crop to precede wheat. The seed 
is worth $20, and the fibre, even if the straw is sold to the owner 
of one of Buchanan's machines, is worth $14 per acre, and if 
separated by the cultivator is worth from $50 to $55 per acre, 
thus making an acre of flax equal to $84 or $75 per acre. And 
we have the authority of Messrs. Thomas lumber, and C. Harts- 

Atmospheric Railway. 249 

home, of Philadelphia, for saying that they have made arrange- 
ments for purchasing every pound of flax fibre that may be raised 
in Kentucky. Upon its delivery in Louisville, these gentlemen, 
in behalf of the Fall River Linen Company, will pay cash for the 
fibre at the rate of $250 to $350 per ton, according to the qual- 
ity of the article. We can assure Western farmers that they may 
fully rely on these facts. 

It is seldom that an agricultural interest is important enough to 
demand the extended consideration we have given this subject. 
But we feel that this is one that offers such inducements to farm- 
ers that they cannot understand it too well, and from the works of 
Prof. Wilson, Fairbarn, and Deman, we have culled the valuable 
facts presented in this series of articles on the culture of flax. If 
Western agriculture responds properly to these facts, we shall feel 
that our labor has not been in vain, and we shall rejoice in know- 
ing that we have contributed our share toward the development of 
a great Western interest. 

Article III. 

[From the Middleton News.] 

Atmospheric Railway.* 

I offer the following remarks on the application of a new method 
of using the Atmospheric TuUn^jm a large scale, in order that it 
may lead thinking men to turn their attention to a plan which 
seems to promise favorable results, and that they may suggest 
such difficulties, and their remedies, as always arise with any new 

Before such a project could be matured, the tube for packages 
between Boston and Worcester will probably be in operation, and 
will suggest new methods of overcoming such difficulties as may arise. 

The idea of being shot through a dark tube and coming out a 
mass of brains and batter, may perhaps take a less repulsive form 
when it is merely proposed quietly to glide through a lighted room 
with polished walls, as slowly and gently as may be desired, with 
such perfect command of the power as to stop, open the door and 
step out on the ground at any point of the journey. 

The plan proposed is as follows : To lay a wooden pipe on an 
ordinary railway road-bed, between any two termini of two or two 

* We copy the following article from the American Railway Times, We 
have formed no opinion as to the feasibility of the project. To say the least of 
it, however, it is ingenious ; and shows that the speed and comfort of railroad 
traveling is beginning to be regarded as insufficient for the wants of the age. — Eds. 


250 atmospheric Railway. 

hundred miles distance from each other. This pipe to be about 
eight feet in height and nearly the same in width, either rectan- 
gular or circular or eliptical ; to be built of staves of sufficient 
thickness, and banded with iron straps ; alternate staves on the 
sides to be replaced with glass set in, like the dead lights of a ves- 
sel, and of sufficient number to give as much light as the windows 
of a rail-car. At distances of perhaps one thousand feet apart 
throughout the length of the tube, doors are to be cut which must 
hang on centers so as easily to open at all pressures, by being 
pushed by a person inside the tube, and to be large enough for a 
person to pass through them. Outside of these doors a box or 
chest is to be fastened on the tube — into this chest the door swings. 
— A valve, opening by means of a handle in this chest, is to be 
put on its side. This too is large enough for a person to pass it 
when it is opened, and by this means a person inside the tube can 
always pass out at any point along the line, and at any state of 
the vacuum, whilst the door, when shut, forms a part of the unin- 
terrupted tube. This completes the tube and its adjuncts except 
at the ends and stations; and thus furnishes a simple line of trans- 
mission, accessible, not easily out of order and easily repaired, but 
having to counterbalance its simplicity, the disadvantage that any 
part out of order disarranges the working of the whole. 

In the tube a piston is to work of the same area as the cross- 
section of the tube, and moving in the same way as the piston of 

steam engine, or the dasher of a churn. In this piston a valve 

to be put to regulate the difference of pressure on the two sides, 
and also for ventilation; or a self-acting valve may be made for 
ventilation, and so set as always to cause a gentle breeze of fresh 
air through the cars. These cars would be light seats on wheels, 
and would be hooked on behind the piston. This completes the 
machine which maybe operated in the best way that the experience 
of the Atmospheric railway, and of Mr. Richardson's express tube 
can teach us. This mode of conveyance is proposed because it is 
believed to be safer, more comfortable, cheaper, and more speedy 
than by railway. 

Its safety. — It would be safer because the following sources of 
danger would be removed, collisions in front and rear, switches 
misplaced, running off the track, breakages of machinery; and from 
the nature of the case, road crossings, cattle, and draw-bridges. 
Of these, which are the chief and almost the only source of danger 
on railways, two only can occur in a tube. That of breakage is 
very slight, as there is but one piece of machinery, the piston, and 
this may have several rings to reduce the risk. The accident of 
having a train run into one ahead of it which may be stationary, 
may be avoided as now by a lantern at night or by not allowing 
two trains in the same tube, or part of the tube, at the same time, 
and by another method to be described when speaking of the com- 
fort of this mode of travelling. The annoyances of dust, noise, 

atmospheric Railway. 251 

and jar, would be removed; the light would be the same as on rail- 
cars, and a continual gentle breeze would float through the cars 
and the ventilator, in the piston. The control which the valve in 
the piston would give, would enable the train to glide as slowly as 
a barge floating in gentle waters, or speedy and noiseless to shoot 
along swiftly as a ball from a gun. 

Should any accident occur to the piston or cars, the doors and 
valves in the sides of the tube would furnish as ready an exit to 
the open air as the doors of a house, and when one of those valves 
would be opened, no train from the rear could possibly pass the 
station back of that on which the disabled train was standing. A 
very great difficulty with the Atmospheric railway was, that when 
a train was disabled, it was difficult to reach it : but in the pro- 
posed plan unless the tube should be injured, assistance cars 
could be conveniently sent to any point. 

The economy of the project. — The expense of the woodwork of 
the tube for a single track, would be about $6,000 per mile, and 
with the glass and valves, would perhaps exceed $10,000 p. mile. 
The cost of transportation has two elements less than by rail. The 
weight of engine, tender and cars, and also the greater expense of 
maintaining a locomotive than a stationary engine, are both avow- 
ed. The cost of sending a train of passengers between New York 
and Boston, may be estimated as follows: 1,000 passengers, bag- 
gage cars, and piston, at 500 lbs. per passenger, is 500,000 lbs, 
weight, requiring a pressure of 8 lbs. per ton to move them on a 
level, or a pressure of 2,000 lbs. against the piston, which is less 
than three tenths of a pound per square inch. On the highest 
grade on this line the load would be increased to not quite one 
pound per inch on the piston, (and with this pressure the friction 
of the packing to prevent leakage around the piston, would be 
slight.) This would be the greatest vacuum required at anytime, 
and the pumps would be arranged to act at any determined speed 
at this rarity of the air, and thus the velocity for the train in all 
parts of the tube, would be determined and might if required, be 
set at four miles just as well as at one hundred per hour. 

To move the ton which represents the friction of the load as- 
sumed through 237 miles, would require with condensing engines, 
three or four tons of coal, say at an expense of $20. The ascent 
and descent here being equal the amount of power to raise the 
weight on the rising grade, is balanced by that weight on the fal- 
ling grades. 

The expense of running a train by rail being about $112 for 
this distance, and the total expense being $237, if the expense of 
conveying the load through the tube be increased four-fold to cover 
all contingencies ; at this amount, or $80, it shows a much more 
economical method of attaining the object than by a railway. The 
items of repairs of tube, piston, &c. , and maintenance against de- 
cay, may or may not be in excess, but the simplicity of the con- 

252 ^Atmospheric Railway. 

trivance, the small number of moving partSj the lightness of the 
strain of tne load on any one bearing point, thus allowing lighter 
bridges and roadway, will probably lessen these expenses, and a 
tube once laid and roofed in, will be as permanent a fixture as a 
station house through which the trains run. 

Of the rates of speed attainable. — Any rate of speed below 
that at which air rushes into a vacuum, can be obtained, but for 
the present, limiting the speed to 100 miles per hour, it can be 
shown that to move at that rate between New York and Boston, 
two 100 horse-power engines would suffice at each end. The op- 
eration would be as follows : Suppose the train nearly ready to 
start; the regulator valve would be closed and in a few minutes 
vacuum enough formed to overcome the friction ; the train would 
then start slowly, and regularly increase its speed up to 100 miles 
per hour. On grades rising, this speed would be reduced from the 
same cause as with the locomotive, on reaching the grade, the 
speed would again increase so much as to require the regulator 
valve to be partly opened or breaks used. It would probably be 
best to distribute the power so as to operate the high grades sep- 
arately. The sleuing of the train either by brakes or by the valve 
would be easily managed, but the opening of the valve would cause 
a loss of vacuum and of the power to obtain it, and it is a point re- 
quiring some remedy. The stopping may be easily managed in 
several ways so as to reduce the speed as gradually as may be 
necessary. Although it might seem that since the moving power 
was not on board the train, danger might ensue should the engin- 
eer lose control, it will be perceived that no greater speed can be 
attained than that at which the pumps are regulated, be it one 
mile or one hundred per hour; that any accident to the train would 
cause retardation, that the only case in which control of the train 
could be lost, would be if the valve in the piston should get jammed 
fast, a case analogous to the regulator of a locomotive getting 
jammed open, and quite unlikely to happen, and impossible with 
two valves, and finally should the piston give way, the passengers 
would find themselves sitting in a lighted room with a violent gale 
blowing through it which they could avoid by going out the near- 
est door. 

Leakages and Repairs. ■ — With pressure of one lb. per inch, 
equal to a head of about two feet of water, the joints of the tube 
could be kept tight as well as a flume; if the outside were protect- 
ed from wet and the iron bands made to key up. The valves on 
the sides, of india rubber or of metal, would screw down air-tight 
into their seats. For the expansion of the tube lengthways, slip 
joints or india rubber at the end of the staves might be used. The 
leakage of the leather collars of the pistons running on a greased 
surface, would be run at high velocities without heating. If the 
tube were laid dry and roofed, it would not require outside repairs, 
and the wearing of its inner surface would be slight, either from 

Cost of Repairs of Locomotives. 253 

the sliding of the piston or the rolling of the wheels, which would 
have india rubber tires. The only parts of the machine exposed 
to much wear would be the packing of the pistons and the boxes 
of the wheels. 

The tube would require all roads to be passed over, or under it, 
and all streams to be passed beyond mast navigation or by high 
bridges. At important stations the train might be run out of the 
tube, especially if the power were distributed along the line, which 
jt probably would be for local lines, and in such cases some meth- 
od of backing the train would be desirable. This and other devices 
may safely be left to ingenious mechanics to supply, as the wants 
arise; as this communication is only intended to point out those 
features of the project which recommend it to attention, namely, 
its economy, safety and capabilities for speed. 

T. McDonough. 

Article IV. 
Cost of Repairs of Locomotives. 


The question is often asked by railroad men if an engine can- 
not be repaired and renewed so as not to become depreciated 
through constant and continued service. Undoubtedly it may, but 
which is cheapest; to renew all the parts of an engine when nearly 
all are worn out, or to purchase a new engine? A little considera- 
tion will give some force to this inquiry. 

In the first place, master mechanics will admit, that, in the 
manner in which repairs are generally conducted on roads where 
from 6 to 8 cents per mile is allowed, an engine after twelve years 
use is sensibly depreciated in value, say one-half. The average 
run of passenger engines being say 25,000 miles per year, the re- 
pairs, at 8 cents per mile, amount in 12 years to $24,000, while 
the engine is $4,500 less valuable then when new. Thus, an en- 
gine costing $9,000, requires $28,500 to keep it good for twelve 
years, a sum more than three times its original cost ; while its 
boiler shell, outer fire-box, cylinders and frames, have not been 
renewed nor materially repaired. It cannot be said that the en- 
gine has been renewed three times as its most essential parts are 
left remaining. It is, however, proper to say that the tires have 
been renewed four or five times, and the trucks twelve times. The 
cost of these is perhaps $5,000 for the given period. There are 
very few of the remaining heavy parts which are renewed over 

254 Cost of Repairs of Locomotives. 

three times in twelve years ; while several of the most important 
parts are not renewed at all. The plain inference is that repairs 
and renewals, by the manner in which they are conducted, cost 
much more than the orginal construction of the same portions of 
the work ; perhaps twice as much, a proportion which, upon con- 
sideration, will be generally admitted as correct. 

If the machine is so run that its entire construction decays at 
about the same time; — if it wears out twelve setts of trucks ; four 
setts of tires ; four setts of packing ; and two setts of tubes and 
tube sheets, in twelve years, and if, which is probable, the boiler, 
frame and cylinders be worn out also at that time, what is left of 
the engine? If it can be again made good is it not rebuilt, and 
essentially a new machine? If rebuilt at the repair shop, and some 
of the older parts are worked in, does the engine when completed, 
cost less than a new one from an established builder ; and consid- 
ering the entire reliability of the latter, in every part, is any thing 
saved even in rebuilding? The question of keeping an engine good, 
assumes there will be no essential improvements, affecting the gen- 
eral construction of the engine, and this matter is not therefore 
considered. It i3 well worth considering however. 

The necessary repairs are increased with the age of the engine, 
as successive parts are attacked, each year, which were not em- 
braced in the renewals of the previous year. This is evident in 
reason, although there are several circumstances which, although 
they do not affect the principle, serve to conceal it. In the first 
place the repairs of the light engines built from eight to twenty 
years ago could not consistantly require the same outlay, per mile 
run, as the heavy engines of more recent construction. Such en- 
gines are generally considered, where they are owned, as not so 
well worth repairing as newer and larger engines, and hence are 
not the objects of as much expenditure for preservation. Again, 
such engines are but little used, being for the most part kept in 
ordinary, or for shifting out trains, ballasting, &c. 

The example of the Baltimore and Ohio railroad, having the 
largest and the oldest equipments of engines of anyroad in Amer- 
ica, may be useful in considering the cost of repairs. This road 
has, by its report of September 30th, 1853, 167 locomotives; 157 
of which are running between Baltimore and Wheeling. Some of 
these locomotives are 19 years old, although the majority are of 
recent construction. 

The following table shows the cost of repairs per mile, for each 
class, of each year's construction of engines in use on the u Main 
stem" of the Baltimore and Ohio railroad, during the years ending 
Sept. 30th of 1852 and of 1853. The repairs for 1852 did not 
reach a high Sgure, but the figures serve to show the gradual in- 
crease of cost of preservation as we go back to the older engines. 
The repairs for 1853 show this in a stronger light. 

Cost of Repairs oj Locomotives. 255 




«** a> bC^ 1 

a co 





° n3 a ^ 
a ~ go 

na go 




O U S »> 

O Q> 



O 0> <*> ^3 
Ph -^> 

fi Jl-J 




bi)2 gco 

O ^CO 







» 3 S. . 

<D Ph Oh 

+3 +a 








> O £< o 









.2 03 













































































































This table I have prepared with much care from the company's 
reports, and considering the extent of motive power to which it 
applies, and the time over which it extends, it is believed to be of 
considerable value as an illustration of the influence of age on re- 
pairs. Some facts may serve to place its deductions in a better 
light. The first class engine of 1853 is very much larger than the 
first class engine of 1848, and sustains much greater wear. Again, 
in 1853, the formidable passage of the 116 feet grades had begun 
to exert a new and marked influence on repairs. And, still furth- 
er, the old repair shops had been destroyed by fire, aud not only 
had new ones been built to replace them, but others had been built 
at other points, by which the repair force was divided, the facilities 
not so well developed, and the expense of repairs increased. The 
high price of iron andthe "labor strikes" atBaltimore, last spring, 

• Up to September 30th, 1852. 

f Not including alterations of three new engines. 

256 Cost of Repairs of Locomotives. 

have both influenced the cost of repairs. The repairs of passenger 
engines have been influenced by the necessity of higher speeds, 
and by a general adaptation for burning coke, which has cost much 
money for arranging the engines, and in repairing for the increased 
destruction of the furnaces and tubes by reason of a more concen- 
trated heat. A great many of the causes stated have operated 
especially against the engine delivered in 1852 and 1853. 

It may then be stated, as a general principle, that the repairs 
of each year must not only embrace the renewals of previous years, 
but of parts not before renewed at all, so that the cost of repairs 
increases by an annual arithmetical progression up to the time of 
the decay of the most enduring parts ; when, with the usual mode 
of conducting repairs, a new engine becomes cheaper than re- 

It is therefore an object in making repairs to bear in mind the 
probable duration of the most enduring parts, so that a large 
quantity of new work may not embarrass the final disposition of 
a worn-out engine. "No man putteth a piece of new cloth unto 
an old garment," &c, 

The question which I have raised is not that of the propriety of 
rebuilding under any circumstances, but of rebuilding as a recov- 
ery from the effects of gradual and total decay. With some pat- 
terns of engines they well deserve rebuilding before they leave the 
maker's hands; while again, the adaptation of engines, or the re- 
sults of a collision or explosion, may properly warrant a general 

The cost of repairs of locomotives is influenced by many con- 
siderations. The physical features of the road, nature of traffic, 
character of wood, water and attendance, character of original 
materials of construction, mechanical arrangement of engine, &c, 
are all influential in the necessity for repairs. A track kept in 
good line and good grade ; a business not beyond the proper ca- 
pacity of the engines, either in weight or length of run ; seasoned 
wood, clean water, skilful and careful engineers ; the best quality 
of materials, especially in the boilers and furnaces, where renewal 
is attended with the greatest expense ; the outside connected ar- 
rangement of locomotive, properly constructed; and, above all, a 
safe system of despatching trains, and safe roadway structures, 
are the most favorable points for economical repairs. 

The cost of engine repairs on several roads are exhibited in the 
following list. 

Name of Road. Miles run. Costof Repairs. Repairs p. 

mile run. 
N. York &Erie, 1852, 2,389,271 $203,312 48 8|* 
N. York & Erie, 1853, 

Cost of Repairs of Locomotives. 257 

Union R. R. 


15,795 86 


Eastern Division 


73,657 04 




72,669 11 




74,055 21 




52,467 09 


Totals • 


$288,644 31 


Baltimore & Ohio, 1852, 

Main Stem 


$•73,078 45 


Wash. Br. 


8,259 21 


1853. Main Stem 


194,036 13 


Wash Br. 


15,376 18 


Reading R. R., 1852, 


99,027 40 


Penna. R. R., 1852, 


32,630 07 

4 11-12 

West. & Atlantic R. R. 1853 , 264,485 

12,387 79 


Little Miami R. R. (Ohio) 



46,917 94 




23,143 90 




26,181 06 




15,959 66 


The repairs of engines of the Boston and Maine and Fitchburg 
Railroads, for the year 1852, were about 5 cents per mile run, 
each. Those of the Boston and Worcester road were about 8,4 
cts per mile run. On the latter the engines had been previously 
suffered to "run down," and a greater expense than usual was in- 
curred to restore them to a good condition. 

In drawing any inference from the preceding table, some part- 
iculars of the age and extent of the respective equipments may be 
proper to be given. 

The engines of the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad were de- 
livered as follows. 

4 3d class 



2 2d " 



2 3d " 



2 1st " ) 
5 2d " \ 



10 2d " 



8 1st " 



7 1st " 



18 1st " I 
1 4th " 



8 1st class 
1 4th " 
1 1st " 

3 2d 


in 1847 

in 1848 

3 1st " " 1849 

10 1st "• " 1850 



4 1st " I 

1 4th " J 

13 1st " " 1852 

Total 103 engines. 

Pennsylvania Central Railroad. 
9 engines in 1849 3 engines in 1851. 

14 " « 1850 17 *< V 1852. 

Total 43 engines. 

2 58 Cost of Repairs of Locomotives. 

JVeio York and Erie Railroad. 

9 engines previous to 1848 31 engines in 1850 

9 " in 1848 53 '** " 1851 

29 " " 1849 11 " " 1852 

Total 142 engines on broad gauge, besides 8 engines on the 
Union Railroad. 

The date of the reception of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad 
engines has been previously given, the number of their engines 
bieng 167. 

The transportation effected by the equipments of the different 
roads being different, has a separate influence on repairs in each 
case. Of the roads named, the Erie has the largest passenger 
traffic, which involves the heaviest repairs of engines. The Balti- 
more and the Ohio road has the most severe physical features, and 
although from this fact and the preponderance of the freight busi- 
ness, the average run of each engine is less in miles per year, there 
is no doubt but that each engine is subjected to as great influence 
of wear as upon the Erie road; the passenger business of the latter 
being excepted. The time during which the engines are daily un- 
der steam is as great on the Baltimore and Ohio road as on the 
Erie. A fair comparison of the expense of engine repairs would 
then be as follows; the average expense of repairs for each engine 
for the year ending September 30th, 1853, was, for the Erie road, 
$1 924; for the Baltimore and Ohio $1,254; for the Reading road 
[for the year 1852] $96143. 

The Baltimore engines are subject to heavier repairs on furnaces 
and tubes, ov;in° p to the use of coal fuel, but to much less expense 
in consequence of using the outside connected arrangement of en- 
gine, the cast iron slip tire [which saves the company $30, 000 per 
year',] to the equal distribution of weight in the engines, and to a 
greater degree of plainness and simplicity of construction. 

The Reading road, although doing an enormous business and 
subject to the expenses attending the use of anthracite coal, has 
adopted very nearly the same system of motive power; has its re- 
pair for^e concentrated at one point ; and has the advantage of 
favorable grades, by all of which, its repairs, considering the age 
and service of its equipment, are very cheaply made. Both the 
Baltimore and Ohio and the Reading roads are of the narrow 
eau<*e, and the economy of its operation, taken with that of the 
outsTde connection, the cast iron wheel and tire, and the equal 
distribution of weight, are in accordance with the general conclu- 
sions which have before been made for this system of application 
of motive power.— \Jlnier. R. R. Journal. 


Pittsburg Coal Trade. 259 



By H. Haupt. 

The coal trade of the city of Pittsburgh, and its vicinity, is one 
of the most important sources of its wealth, whether we regard it 
for its intrinsic value, or for its influence in sustaining the great 
manufacturing interests of that vast workshop, of which Pennsyl- 
vania is justly proud. It is yet in its infancy. The extent can 
hardly be estimated with accuracy. We may approximate to a 
judgment of what it will be in a few years, when the present sys- 
tem of internal improvements shall have fully developed the re- 
sources of the country, by a calculation of its present extent. Its 
adaptation to the manufacture of iron in all its forms, is just be- 
ginning to be felt. Its value for generating steam is hardly yet 
realized — and in this age of progress, when days and weeks are 
compressed into minutes, the value of this source of power, of the 
almost infinite millions of tons of coal in our western coal fields 
can hardly be appreciated. 

It is difficult to get a precise measure of the coal trade of the 
city of Pittsburgh and its vicinity. Perhaps the most accurate 
way to make an estimate of the quantity and value of this trade 
will be to average it under its different heads of supply and use, 
and we will then have figures founded upon a statement of facts 
which will be easily understood by any person the least conversant 
with its use and the general result of which will commend itself to 
all. For this purpose the coal trade of Pittsburgh and its vicinity 
may be divided into four general classes: — 

First, that which is used for domestic purposes. 

Second, that which is used for manufacturing purposes. 

Third, that which is used for generating steam on the boats, 
and in and about the city for steam engines. 

Fourth, that which is. -exported. 

First, then, that which is used for domestic purposes. This is 
supplied mainly by retail dealers, and is distributed among the 
people in carts and wagons from the pits in the neighborhood, and 
horn flat boats on the Allegheny and Monongahela Rivers, in which 
it is brought to the city from a distance of five, ten and even twen- 
ty miles; and when I speak of Pittsburgh here, I mean it and the 
City of Alleghany and the villages adjacent for three or four miles 
round the junction of the Alleghany and Monongahela Rivers. 

The population of this portion of country may be safely estim- 
ated at one hundred and fifty thousand persons. This, at the rate 
of five persons to each family [which is, I believe, the usual allow- 
ance] would make for the district thirty thousand families. I then 
assume that each family will burn three fires through the year [in 
this is included stores, shops, offices and all places of businesses 

260 Pittsburg Coal Trade. 

well as dwelling houses, and at this rate it would be perfectly safe to 
allow for each family four hundred bushels of coal per year. This 
estimate would make the consumption of coal for domestic purposes 
amount to the sum of twelve millions of bushels per year. 

The next item, is the amount of coal consumed for manufacturing 
purposes. I give below the data upon which I found my estimate ; 
and as lhave taken considerable trouble with it, 1 think it may be re- 
lied upon as correct. 

There are in the City of Pittsburgh and its vicinity seventeen large 
Rolling Mill?, and these would consume while running, on an aver- 
age fifteen hundred bushels of coal per day; which would give an ag- 
gregate of 25,500 bushels per day. And supposing each Mill to run 
250 days in the year, the annual consumption would be [6.375,000 
bushels,] six millions three hundred and seventy-five thousand bush- 

There are in the same bounds, twelve principal or large Foundries, 
and these with the engines used in them would consume about [150 J 
one hundred and fifty bushels each per day, making a daily consump- 
tion of [1800] eighteen hundred bushels, and at 300 days per year 
would give a yearly consumption of [540,000] five hundred and forty 
thousand bushels. 

There are twenty Glass Houses, each of which would consume 
about [100] one hundred bushels per day ; making a daily consump- 
tion of [2000] two thousand bushels per day, and a yearly consump- 
tion of j 600,000] six hundred thousand bushels. 

These twen ; y engines and machine shops, which, with their en- 
gines, forge fires, &c, will consume each one hundred bushels per 
day, making a daily aggregate of [2000] two thousand bushels, and a 
yearly consumption of | 600,000] six hundred thousand bushels. 

There are five large colton factories which consume yearly, about 
[100,000] one hundred thousand bushels. 

The gas works of the two cities consume about [200,000] two 
hundred thousand bushels per year. 

The public buildings, including hospitals, jail, penitentiary, court- 
house, banks, churches, &c, consume about 200,000 bushels p. year. 

The water works and Alleghany arsenal, will consume about [150,- 
000] one hundred and fifty thousand bushels per year. 

There are then from one hundred to one hundred and fifty other 
steam engines used for various purposes, which it would be almost 
impossible to specify, for instance, for flouring mills, oil mills, saw 
mills, planing mills, tanneries, stone cutting eslablishments, &,c, &c, 
which would consume each 20 bushels per day, or an aggregate of 
3000 bushels per day, making a yearly consumption of [900,000] nine 
hundred thousand bushels. 

Next we have the steamboats which daily leave the wharves of the 
two cities and consume coal. For these we may safely estimate that 
there are eight boats leave the wharf daily during seven months of 
the year, during which there is constant navigation of the rivers — 
and in this is included the various boats of all classes. During a 
large portion of the year there are this number of boats on the Ohio 
alone daily, some of which take as much as [1,500] fifteen hundred 
bushels each, so that this estimate is fully within the limits ; and i 

Pittsburg Coal Trade. 261 


will be moderate to allow for each boat [500] five hundred bushels 
per day which makes a daily demand from this source of 4000 bush- 
els, and for two hundred and ten days consumption it would require 
[840,000] eight hundred and forty thousand bushels per year. 
By adding the foregoing amounts, we have as follows : 

For Domestic uses 12,000,000 

" Rolling mills 6,375,000 

« Foundries 540,000 

" Glass Houses 600,000 

" Engine and machine shops 600,000 

" Cotton Factories 100,000 

« Gas works 200,000 

« Public Buildings 150,000 

" Miscellaneous Engines, &c 900,000 

" Steamboats 840,000 

Total for home consumption ;...< ... 22, 305,000 

Twenty-two millions three hundred and five thousand bushels. 

The next item is the amount of coal exported; and that is made up 
of what is taken to Cincinnati, Louisville, New Orleans, and other 
places on the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers. — This is chiefly sent down 
in flat boats, which are floated down the Rivers in times of high wa- 
ter, each boat containing from eight to twelve thousand bushels, and 
drawing from seven to nine feet of water. During the last year a 
large amount of coal has been taken to Cincinnati in barges, towed by 
a steamboat. For a part of this we have an accurate account in the 
statement of the Monongahela Navigation Company [a copy of which 
I send you]. By it you will see, on page 9, that the amount of bush- 
els of coal that was taken through locks in boats was [9,903,921,] 
nine million nine hundred and three thousand nine hundred and twen- 
ty-one bushels in the year A. D. 1852. This was all for export. — 
[That in boats is for city or home consumption,] which you will see 
amounts to nearly five million bushels, and which, of course, is a part 
of the former estimate for domestic consumption. 

There is then a large amount of coal loaded below the locks, and of 
which we can have no official statement, and I suppose I will be be- 
low the amount when I say it will amount to four million bushels per 
year. — There is also some Pittsburg coal sent to Cleveland and Phil- 
adelphia, but that trade is yet in its infancy, and its importance will 
not be felt until, as I said before, the business of our railroads gets to 
be permanent and fixed, and then it may be almost beyond computa- 
tion. At present, I suppose one half of a million bushels would cover 
the amount. 

We have then the following amount : 
Amount of coal consumed in and about the City of 

Pittsburg 22,305,000 

Amount of coal exported from Pittsburg to other 

places ■. 14,403,921 

Total 26,708,921 

- [U. S. Mining Journal.] 

262 The Coal Trade of Great Britain. 


The London "Times" gives the annexed statement relative to the 
coal trade of the united kingdom of Great Britain. It will be inter- 
esting to those engaged in this trade on this side of the Atlantic : 

"To such an extent has our coal industry been developed that at 
the present time not less than 37,000,000 of tons are arnually raised, 
the value of which at the pit's mouth is little less than £10,000, 0C0j 
at the places of consumption, including expenses of transport and other 
charges, probably not less than £20,000,000. The capital employed 
in the trade exceeds £10,000,000. About 400 iron furnaces of Gr. 
Britain consume annually 10,000,000 tons of coals and 7,000,000 tons 
of ironstone, in order to produce 2,000.000 tons of pig iron, of the 
value of upwards of £8,000,000. For the supply of the metropolis 
alone 3,600,000 tons of coals are required for manufacturing and do- 
mestic purposes ; our coasting vessels conveyed in 1850 upwards of 
9,360,000 tons to various ports in the United Kingdom, and 3,350,- 
000 tons were exported to foreign countries and the British posses- 
sions. Add to this that about 120,000 persons i re constantly em- 
ployed in extracting (he coals from the mines, and that in some of the 
northern counties there are more persons at work under the ground 
than upon its surface, and some approximate idea will be formed of 
the importance and extent of this branch ol our industry. The extent 
of the coal areas in the British Islands is 12,000 sqaure miles, the an- 
nual produce 37,000,000 tons; of Belgium, 250 miles, annual produce 
5 000,000 tons : of France, 2 000 miles, annual produce 4,150,000 
tons ; of the United States, 113,000 miles, annual produce 4,000,000 
tons; of Prussia, 2,200 miles, annual produce 3,500,000 tons; of Spain, 
4,000 miles, annual produce 550,000 tons; of British North America, 
180,000 miles, annual produce not known. Taking the British Is- 
lands alone, and dividing them into districts, we find the supposed 
workable area as follows, in acres : — Northumberland and Durham, 
500,000; Cumberland, Westmoreland and West Riding, 99,600; Lan- 
cashire, Flintshire and North Staffordshire, 550,000; Shropshire and 
Worcestershire, 79,950 ; South Staffordshire, 65,000; Warwickshire 
and Lecestershire, 80,000; Somersetshire and Gloucestershire, 167, 
500; South Wales' 600,000; Scottish coal fields, 1,045,900; Irish coal 
fields; Ulster, 500,000; Connaught 200,000; Leinster, 150,000; Mini- 
ster, 1,000,000. Our exports, which in 1840 amounted to 1,605,000 
tons, valued at £576,000, Had increased in 1850 to 3,561,000 tons of 
the value of £1,284,000. In 1841 our exports to France were 451,- 
300 tons ; to Holland, 173,378 tons ; to Prussia, 116,296 Ions; and to 
Russia, 77,152 tons. In 1850, they were to France 612,545 tons; to 
Holland, 159.953 tons; to Prussia, 186,528 tons, and to Russia, 235,- 
188 tons.— [ U. S. Mining Journal.'] 

Gold Mining hi JVew Mexico. 263 


The Santa Fe Gazette has the following article on the subject of 
"gold mines and mining" in New Mexico : 

"We have on two or three occasions recently referred to the Pla- 
cer mines, and to some test experiments which were being made 
there. Since then we have heard enough to authorize us to state 
with certainty that the experiment so far has been completely suc- 
cessful, and that the prospects of an ample remuneration for an outlay 
of capital are most flattering. As the result of four days' operation 
and the labour of two mules, we have been shown gold to the value 
of about ninety dollars, which as all persons acquainted with the op- 
erations of the towncrs, as the clumsy mills in general use among the 
Mexicans are called, affirm, is not more than half to the actual amount 
of gold in the rock. It must be recollected, too, that twice the amount 
of ore [metal as it is technically termed] could be crushed, and every 
particle of gold separated in one hour by many of the crushers now 
in use in the United States, as has been operated upon to procure the 
gold we have mentioned above. 

One very beautiful specimen, in weight 2 oz. 18 dwt. 1 gr., has 
been left with us, and is at the inspection of the curious in our of- 

This experiment was commenced more to satisfy the proprietors of 
the mine whether they would be justified in an extensive outlay of 
capital and labor upon them, than to induce others to join them in the 
enterprize, and we have it on the best authority that such satisfaction 
is entertained with the experiment thus far, that a competent ma- 
chine has been ordered from the States. 

The body of mineral at the Placer is inexhaustible, and of a rich- 
ness rarely equalled. The opinion of one of the proprietors is, that 
with proper machinery the yield will be about sixty-six cents to the 
bushel, and we know that a mine in North Carolina is now being 
worked very profitably on a yield of sixteen cents to the bushel. 

Another great advantage possessed by the placer mine over the 
quartz mines of California and elsewhere, is the greater softness of 
the ore. In fact, if, as we know by Commodore Stockton's certifi- 
cates, one of "Cochran's crushing machines" is capable of pulverizing 
quartz and sandstone at the rate of three aud a half tons per hour, we 
should be of opinion that the same machine would be able to crush 
from four to five tons of this ore in the same length of time. 

We hope soon to see large operations at the Placer, and confidently 
predict a rich re urn for any judicious outlay." 

264 Professor Mapes on the Manufacture of 

Professor J. J. Mapcs on the Manufacture of Wrought Iron, Direct 

from the Ore. 

Iron, as it exists in ores, is combined with oxygen in the form of 
oxide of iron, and the whole process consisted in the Irealment of this 
ore, in various kinds of furnaces, by heat, so as to dispel the oxygen 
and form the molten mass composed of carbon and iron, and known 
as cast iron. Under this mode of treatment it is true that the oxygen 
may be got rid of, but so high a heat is required during the deoxyd- 
izing process that it can enly be maintained by the presence of a 
portion of atmospheric air, and hence the surface of the molten mass 
was continually undergoing reoxydization, and this newly formed ox- 
ide combining with the impurities of the ore, causes much of its quan- 
tity to be converted into a slag. It also entangles itself with a quan- 
tity of carbon, and occasionally with slag and other impurities. When 
in its finished form, and delivered in pigs as cast iron, it was a com- 
bination or mechanical admixture of iron and carbon, and known un- 
der the name of pig iron. To transform this into wrought iron it was 
necessary to get rid of the carbon. This required a separate furnace, 
the use of new quantities of fuel, the wasting of new portions of iron 
as oxide, a large amount of power, a great expense for labor, and this 
second process for rendering pig iron into wrought iron was called 
puddling, and in this state Mr. Renton found the art of iron manu- 

The idea of so treating the oxide of iron, or iron ores, as to deox- 
ydizing them or separate from them their oxygen in the absence of 
atmospheric air, thus preventing the formation of new oxides, is not 
new. The proposition has often occurred, but has never been rend- 
ered practically applicable to its manufacture, until accomplished by 
the invention of Mr. Renton. The mode of operation may be thus 

The ore is reduced by stamping to a powder, and after admixture 
with 20 per cent, of mineral coal, it is placed in the top of a chamber, 
from which descend tubes, and in which tubes this -mixture is suffer- 
ed to fall. The upper ends of the tubes are completely covered with 
the mixture. Their outsiders are surrounded with fire, or rather the 
excess heat of two furnaces after having performed other duties 
which I shall presently describe. The contents of the tubes are thus 
heated to such a degree as not to cause any melting of the particles 
of ore, or combination between them and the admixture of carbon. 
The oxygen, however, contained in the ore is found perfectly to com- 
bine with the carbon in the form of carbonic acid gas, which, when 
formed, expands five hundredths part of its bulk for each degree of 
heat added, and thus forces its way, by such expansion, through the 
interstices of the superincumbeut mass, and escapes into the atmos- 
phere above. When it has been subjected 1 o this treatment for a suf- 
ficient length of time to rid it of its oxygen, but not at so high a heat 
as to cause a coalescence between the particles of iron and the car- 
bon, it is permitted to descend into furnace approximating to this 
chamber. This it does in the powdered form, but at a red heat, and 
if received on the hearth at a white heat, this heat is insufficient to 

Wrought Iron, Direct from the Ore. 265 

cause a melting of the particles of iron now freed from oxide as in 
the furnace formerly in use, but entirely sufficient to cause a gradual 
welding of these particles with each other, without being imbued 
with carbon, the heat being insufficient to cause combination with 
silex or other impurities which may be present. All these, however, 
from their specific difference of gravity and moderate degree of heat, 
simply being that required to weld the particles, are separated on this 
first furnace hearth. At a proper time it is thrown over to hearth 
JVo. one, after having there been separated from the mass of useless 
matter with which it descended from the tube, it is further petrified 
with the ordinary puddling manipulations, and brought out to be 
placed under the trip hammer, to be formed into blooms of pure 
wrought iron. The fires which supply these two furnaces after per- 
forming their duty there, are found to be entirely sufficient, by the 
judicious application of their waste heat, to act upon the tubes for the 
deoxydization of the pulverized ore, and thus no separate fire is requir- 
ed for this action. 

You will recollect that cast iron is a mechanical admixture of car- 
bon and iron. Wrought iron is the product after the separation of 
the carbon. 

The process of Mr. Renton is such as to commence with the oxide 
of iron, to free it of its oxygen, not to combine it with the carbon, 
and deliver it as pure wrought iron. 

The processes before his improvement contained material faults. 
The amount of heat required to melt the mass for the purpose of get- 
ting rid of the oxygen, at the same time opened the ultimate pores of 
the iron, causing it to receive the carbon, and thus the product was 
cast iron. 

In Mr. Renton's process, the absence of atmosphere in the deoxyd- 
izing tubes renders high heat unnecessary, and only so much is re- 
quired as will weld the particles when placed upon the furnace 
hearths. Thus he avoids all difficulties of the older processes, saves 
the useless expenditure of fuel, and produces at one operation the 
final result, only attainable in the ordinary way by two distinct ex- 
penditures of fuel, labor, &c. ; and entirely obviates the formation of 
new quantities of oxide during the manipulation of the mass. 

Iron prepared by this process has peculiar advantages for being 
made into steel; it cannot but form steel of very superior quality, and 
from what I saw, I cannot doubt that the quality of this product is 
superior to that usually offered in the market as wrought iron. — [ U. 
S. Mining Journal.] 


266 Commercial Record. 


Molasses, barrels, 



Salt, sacks, 



Do. barrels, 



Coffee, bags, 



Pork, barrels, 



Meak Bulk, pieces, 



Do. casks, 



Do. tierces, 



Lard, tierces, 



Do. barrels, 



Do. kegs, 



Beef, barrels, 






It will be seen from the following table that the receipts of produce 
have been very light during the month, and as usual at this season of 
the year, there is but little doing in any department of business. 
Table of the Leading Articles of Produce received at Sf. Louis, from 

the 16/A day of December, 1853, to Ibth January, 1854 inclusive. 

Flour, barrels, 
Wheat, sacks, 

Do. barrels, 
Corn, sacks, 
Oats, sacks, 
Barley, sacks, 
Lead, pigs, 
Tobacco, boxes, 
Whiskey, barrels, 
Sugar, hogsheads, 

Do. barrels, 

Do. boxes, 

Do Sacks, 

Duties paid on foreign imports at the port of St. Louis, from 16th 
December, 1853, to 15th instant, inclusive, $44,610 75. 

No important changes have taken place in the prices of produce, 
either at home or abroad, during the month ; but we remark that the 
changes which have occurred are generally in favor of the producers 
and holders. 

Flour. — At the date of our last report we quoted country super- 
fine at $5,371 to $5,40; and extra $5.62! to $5,75 per barrel. Ow- 
ing to intelligence deemed unfavorable from the South and East, and 
to the difficulty of shipping, a decline of 25 to 30 cents took place 
about the 16th and 17th of December. This depression, however, 
lasted but a few days; and on the 28th sales of second brand city mills 
were made at $5,75 and $5,80 per barrel, and on the 29th a sale of 
extra was reported at $6,00 per barrel. 

There has been scarcely any demand for shipping since the Christ- 
mas holidays, but prices have nevertheless slightly advanced for home 
consumption. We now quote country superfine in lots of from 50 to 
100 barrels at $5,75 to $6,00, and city extra at $6,50 to $7,00 per 

At New Orleans, on. the 13th instant Ohio flour was quoted at $6,- 
80, scarce. 

At Mew York, on the 14th sales of State $7,93 to $8,00; Ohio and 
Southern $7,93 to $8,06. 

At Liverpool, on 28th December, western canal flour was quoted 
at 37s. Qd.\ Baltimore, Philadelphia and Ohio at 31s. 6d. to 38s. 

Wheat, — We quoted wheat oniric 15th ult. for good red and white 
at $1,10 to $1,16 per bushel. On the 16th there was a decline of 
about five cents per bushel ; but prices rallied again in a few days ; 
and have been tolerably uniform with a slight advance to the present 
dale. Good red may now be quoted at $1,15 to $1,18, and prime at 
$1,20 per bushel, sacks returned. Nearly all the city mills have 
suspended operations. 

Commercial, Record. 267 

At New York, on the 14th inst. sales of Genessee wheat at $1,92J 
to $2,05 per bushel. Export demand large. 

At Liverpool, on 28lh December, white wheat was quoted at 10*. 
4c?. to Us.; red at 10s. to 10s, <6d. 

Corn. — We quoted corn, on the 15th ultimo, at 40 to 43 cents per 
bushel, sacks returned. From that date it began to decline slightly, 
and we notice small sales, on the 3d instant, at 37J cents, sacks in- 
cluded. The article at this date is very dull, and we quote good yel- 
low and prime white at 35 to 38 cents per bushel. 

At New Orleans, on 13;h instant, we notice a contract for 150,000 
at 53 to 55 cents deliverable in March and April. 

At New York, on the 14th instant, we notice sales of mixed at 
89 cents, and yellow at 90 cents per bushel. 

At Liverpool, on 28th December, white Indian corn is quoted at 
46s.; yellow 45s., and mixed 44s. 6d. for quarter. 

Tobacco and Hemp. — There is not sufficient doing in tobacco to 
authorize quotations. The stock of hemp is estimated at about 1,300 
bales : market quiet. The last sales quoted at $120 to $125 per ton. 
The following extract from Morris & Co.'s circular for December 
will show the state of the hemp trade at New York, at the close of 
this year. 

"With a fair demand for American Hemp during the past month 
the year has closed with better prices for this important Western 
Staple, than we have had occasion to report since 1849; while every 
thing promises well for the coming season, as far as it is, at present 
possible to forese . 

The stock, as reported in our circular for December, consisted of : 

Undressed - - 1134 bales 
Arrived since - 2570 " 

Dressed - - 454 bales 
Arrived since - 632 " 
The month's sales embrace 1869 bales undressed, at $170 a $185 
(a very choice lot commanding $190); and 614 bales dressed, at $200 
a $210 for medium; $215 a $220 fur fine, and $230 a $250 for extra 
fine hand dressed, leaving our present stock — 

Undressed - - 1835 bales | Dressed - - 472 bales, 
held for outside, and advanced quotations. The receipts of American 
hemp at this market for the past three years have been as follows • 
1851. 1852. 1853. 

15,305 bales. 7,772 bales. 15,078 bales. 

Russian Hemp. — In the absence of any receipts of importance to 
increase our stocks, prices have again advanced, the last sales having 
been made at $290, and the small quantity still upon the market is 
now held for $300. Yarns are scarce and in demand, and have sold 
as high as 14 c. 

Imports of Russian hemp and yarns from January 1st to December 

1853 - - - 635 tons hemp - - 1228 tons yarns. 
1852 - - 2718 " " - - 1576 " <« 

The stock of foreign Hemp in London, December 1st, 1853, was 
9,538 tons, against 12,774 tons, at the same date in 1852, and the 
price of clean Russia there, at our latest dates, was .£36 against £38 
a £39 at the corresponding period last year." 

268 Commercial Record. 

Lead. — Prices have been quoted uniform since our last report. The 
quantity in first hands is estimated at about 25,000 pigs, last sales re- 
ported at $6,30 to $6,35. 

Hogs and Pork. — There has been but very little change in the 
price of hogs since the beginning of the season. Prices have at no 
time exceeded $,4,25, except perhaps in a few instances, for small 
lots of extraordinary quality. The last sale we find reported was of 
a lot of 300 or 400 head on the 13th instant at $4,25 to $4,30 per 100 
lbs. dividing on 200 lbs. Pork, mess quoted nominally at $11,50 to 
$12,00 per barrel. At New Orleans, on the lsth inst., buyers were 
offering $13,00 per barrel for mess deliverable in February, holders 
were asking $13,50 to $14,00. At New York, on the 14th, sales of 
mess reported at $14,00 per barrel. 

Freights and Navigation. — Owing to low water and obstruc- 
tions in river navigation by ice, freights have been irregular since 
our last report, and quotations could only be regarded as nominal. 
Indeed navigation has been suspended, except a few chance arrivals, 
since about the 20th December. The last arrival from the Missouri 
river was reported on the 18th December ; the last from the Illinois 
and from Keokuk on the Upper Mississippi on the 20th; and the last 
boat from Louisville on the 22d of December. On the same day one 
boat arrived from Cap-au-gris. There has been no arrival from New 
Orleans since the 30th, and none from Cairo since the 6th instant. 
Since 11th inst. there has been no arrival from Alton, and the ferry 
boat which had continued to struggle with the floating ice until yes- 
terday evening, is unable to cross to-day, the ice being closed across 
the river. 

Coastwise and Foreign Freight. — We have no change to note in 
the rates of coastwise freight since our last report. We have quota- 
tions of freights from New York to foreign ports on the 13th instant. 
To Liverpool: Grain at lie?, to 12c?. in bulks and ships bags. Cotton 
at 5-16 to 3-8. From New York to London : Wheat 15d.; Flour 4s. 
9<L; Tobacco 35*. measurement. To Havre: Flour 95 cents per brl.; 
Wheat 24 cents per bushel. To California : Pork $3.50 per barrel. 

Money and Exchange. — There is no peculiar feature to notice in 
the money market, and though not abundant, money may be regarded 
as in fair supply for the season. Sight exchange on New York con- 
tinues unchanged at -J premium, and at par on New Orleans and Cin- 
cinnati. On the 13th instant, at New York, Foreign exchange was 
heavy, the supply of bills being larger than the demand. Sterling 
quoted at 109 to 109£, and francs at 5.17M to 5.20. 

The gradual increase of about $1,000,000 a week, in the amount 
of loans by the New York city banks, commencing on the 12th of No- 
vember continued to the 31st of December, when the amount for the 
week reached $90,115,549. There was but a slight increase in the 
loans for the week ending on the 7th instant; but an increase of $1,- 
977,235 in the amount of deposits; of $154,068 in the amount of cir- 
culation; and of $517,953 in the amount of specie. The following is 
a weekly statement of the condition of the New York city banks since 
the 3d of December, 1553. 

Commercial Record. 269 






















Deposites. Circulation. Specie. 
57,739,076 9,075,704 12,493.760 
58,312,478 8,930,830 12,166,020 
58,154.302 8,872,764 12,074,499 
59,858,127 8,921,858 10,988,171 
69,835,362 9,075,926 11,506,124 
National Finances. — There was redeemed of the United States 
loan from the 3d of December to the end of the month, $1,937,399,- 
70. Leaving the outstanding debt of the United States $54,398,757,- 
52 at the beginning of the current year. On the 30th of September, 
1853, the balance in the treasury was $28,217,887 78, which had 
been reduced to $23,118,000 on the 26th December. The amount 
redeemed at the treasury in the last week of the month, was $491,- 

The amount of coinage at the several mints during 1853, has not 
yet come to hand, but from what is known it may be set down at 
about $56,000,000. In matters relating to commercial finance, the 
New York city banks, the United States treasury, and the Mint, are 
to be regarded as important points of observation. But we should not 
confide too much in the favorable aspects which they now present. 
For if the excessive importations of foreign merchandize should con- 
tinue, we are persuaded that it will not be many months before the 
banks will be compelled to return to the restrictive policy of last summer. 

With the hope of adding to the usefulness of this department of 
our Journal, we have concluded to publish a semi-monihly table of 
prices of the leading articles of produce and imports at this market. 
And here we beg to remark that the " Commercial Record'' 1 is an ex- 
periment involving a considerable amount of labor, and as we have 
had no experience in collecting and arranging matter for such a de- 
partment, we should be obliged to any of our commercial patrons if 
they would favor us with their views upon the subject. It may be 
that such a record though skillfully made up may not be regarded as 
useful ; if so, our patrons will confer a favor by making known their 
opinion. We have no time to bestow upon unprofitable objects. 

Prices Current of Leading Articles at St. Louis on the l&t and 15th 

January, 1853. 


Barley, p. bushel, sacks returned, 60 to 62^ Nominal 60 to 62£ 

Cattle, per 100 lbs., 5.25 to 5.75 5.00 to 5/50 

Do. extra 6.00 5.75 to 6.00 

Coffee, 12 to 13J 111 to 12| 

Corn, 35 to 37 Last sales 35 to 38 

Flax seed, bushel, packages returned, 1.35 1.35 

Flour, bbl., country &,city superf. 5.75 to 6.00 Country superfine 5.75 to 6.00 

do. city superf. & extra, small lots 6.00 to 7.00 

Gunnies, 2^ bushels, new, 13 to 14 c. 14 to 141 

Hay, prime Timothy, 100 lbs., 75 Nominal 75 to 80 

Hemp, ton, $120 to 128 Last sales 1.20 to 1.25 

Hides, dry, lb., 12J to 12^ Nominal 12 to 12| 

Hogs, for packing 100 lbs., 4.00 to 4.10 4.00 to 4.2o 

Hogs, small lots 1o butchers, 4.25 No sales. 

Lard, No. 1 in barrels, lb., 8 to 8|- Nominal. No sales. 

Do. kegs, 9 to 9£ " " 

Lead, lb., last sales, 6.35 Last sales 6.30 to 6.35 

Molasses, gal,, 23 to 24 From store 24 to 25 

Oats, bushel, nominal, 36 36£ to 37 

270 Commercial Record. 

Pork, Mess, barrel. 
Rye, bushel, 
Salt, G. A., sack, 

do. T. I., do. 

do. Kenhawa, bushel, 
Sheep, head, as in quality, 
Sugar, lb., 

Wheat, bushel, sacks returned, 
Whiskey, gal., 

12 to 12.25 

Nominal 11.50 to 12.00 

50 to 53 

Sacks included 50 to 53 

2.50 to 2.65 

None in market. 

1.45 to 1.50 


50 c. 

No sales reported. 

2.50 to 3.2E! 

2.50 to 3.00 

H to 4J 

3§ to 4£ 

do sales 

No sales. 

1.10 to 1.20 

Sacks returned, 1.15 to 1.20 

20 to 20* 

Dull, 19 to 19$ 

STATEMENT of the Foreign Value of Goods, Wares and 
Mercliandize Imported at St. Louis, and the Duties Col- 
lected, in the year ending Dec. 31, 1853, viz 

Duties Value. Dut. CPted. 
Amounts during the first quarter, ending 

March 31, 1853 156,183 17 46,862 79 

Amounts during the 2d quarter, ending June 

30,1853 332,869 24 101,783 10 

Amounts during the 3d quarter, ending Sept. 

30, 1853 170,330 50 57,493 45 

Amounts during the 4th auarter, ending Dec. 

31,1853 257,892 50 83,12110 

$917,275 71 $289,260 44 
Also, foreign value and the dulies thereon re- 
maining in public store on Dec. 31, 1853 14,107 70 14,107 70 
Also, entered for consumption, constructively 

warehoused, as follows, viz : 
Various goods, wares and merchandize 42,611 00 13,676 70 

Sugars and molasses (part to arrive) 269,144 00 80,740 20 

Railroad iron do. 193,843 00 59,861 50 

$519,705 70 $168,286 10 
Of the foregoing statement of duties collected, the goods, wares 
and merchandise were imported from the following places, as fol- 
lows : 

England 487,750 88 134,965 67 

France 47,855 40 38,616 48 

Germany and Holland 79,500 48 23,670 14 

Spain and certain of her Dependencies 96,248 00 29.053 90 

Manilla and Matanzas 78,985 00 23,695 50 

Pernambuco and Bahia 124,606 00 37,381 80 

Various other places and ports 2,329 95 1,876 95 

$917,275 71 $289,260 44 
The general description of said goods, wares and merchandise, in 
reference to the various foreign ports and countries, were as follows, 
riz : 

Commercial Record. 271 



769 37 





From England — Hardware, cutlery, railroad iron, earthen, glass and 
china waie, tin, iron and copper, including dry and fancy goods in a 

small ratio. 
From France — Brandy, wines, cigars, cordials, sardines, &c, but 

chiefly brandies. 
From Germany and Holland — Fancy goods, patent leather, toys, and 

other articles in great variety. 
From Manilla, Matanzas, Pernambuco and Bahia — Principally sugars 

and molasses. 
From Spain and Dependencies — The same. 
From various other placcsand ports — Comprise almost every article of 


Hospital moneys collected were as follows, viz : 
1st quarter of the year 1853 
2d " " " 

3d " " " 

4th " " " 

Total amount $2,787 53 

Amount collected from passenger steamers, and for licences to Pi- 
lots and Engineers, under the act of Congress, approved August 30, 
1852 $2,176 50 

Amount expended for the relief of sick and disabled boatmen 4,000 00 

Tonnage of steam vessels belonging to this District and remaining 
December 31, 1853, 36,714 23-95 tons. 

N. B. — It is worthy of remark, to state in reference to the seem, 
ingly small increase during the year just closed, that there had been 
an accumulated tonnage reported heretofore, which was not abated 
for the lack of official information as to their loss and the manner 
thereof, which wss deducted at the close of this year, and amounted 
to upwards of 10,000 tons. 

The duties collected in the years 1849 to 1853, inclusive, were as 
follows, viz : 

1849 $73,970 87-100 1852 $290 168 85-800 

1850 175,001 17-100 1753 289,260 41-100 

1851 239,318 68-100 

N. B. — The falling off of duties collected during the year 1853, 
compared with 1852, is consequent upon the detention of sugar, mol- 
asses and railroad iron destined to this port, under warehouse and 
transportation entries, attributable to the recent sickness, &c, at the 
original port of entry, and the continued low stage of water. Other- 
wise the aggregate of duties would have been nearly $400,000. 

272 Bank Report. 


TONS. 95ths. tons. 95ths. 

Aggregate of tonn. in 1846 10,238 07 remaining Dec. 31, '53, 199 70 

1847 16,999 41 » 2,867 06 

« » 1848 8,031 33 2,446 26 

» « 1849 6,396 76 1,773 63 

1850 6,587 79 4,809 06 

« 1851 5,737 61 2,092 26 

1852 9,375 01 7,996 03 

" « 1853 9,285 07 8,257 86 

72,651 20 30,442 01 

Balance shows those no longer enrolled 42,209 10 

as reported 11th January, 1854. 72,651 g 


Aggregate Condition of the Bank of the State of Missouri and its Branches on the 

31st December, 1853. 


Bills Discounted $1,917,519 57 

Exchanges Matured 294,181 66 

Exchanges Maturing 1,700.761 32 

Real Estate 116,151 35 

Bills Receivable 45,598 81 

James L. D. Morrison, Agent 27,694 50 

Louis B. Parsons, Agent. ■ •« 14,837 06 

Suspended Debt.. 77,941 35 

Due from Banks 152,781 21 

Bank Notes on hand. 282,570 00 

Specie on hand • • • • • 937,835 80 

$5,567,872 63 


Capital Stock owned by the State. • $954,205 22 

Capital Stock owned by individuals. 261 ,200 00 1,21 5,405 22 

Due Depositors. • 1,312,510 75 

Dividends unpaid • 1,234 S6 

Interest and Exchange 242,539 08 

Less Expenses.. $20,140 71 

Less Protest account.. 2140 20,162 11 222,376 97 

Contingent Fund. 99,879 50 

Due to Banks 228,835 33 

Circulation • 2,487,530 00 

$5,567,872 63 
St. Louis, December 31, 1853. — A. S. ROBINSON, Cashier. 

Condition of the Bank of the State of Missouri, at St. Louis, on the 3lsi{ Dec, 1853. 


Branch at Fayette for capital $120,958 84 

" Palmyra H 120.058 84 

" Cape Girardeau « 120,058 84 

« Springfield » 120,058 84 

" Lexington " 120,058 84 $600,294 20 

Bills Discounted - 1,093,439 80 

Exchanges Matured • 246,019 84 

Exchanges Maturing. 1,246.219 33 

Real Estate • 53,186 00 

Bills Receivable 45,598 81 

James L. D. Morrison, agent .. 27,694 50 

• We learn that dividends amounting to 17 per cent, have been declared for the year — 7 per 
cent, for the six months ending Juno 30, and 10 per cent, for the 6 mouths ending 1st Dec, 1833% 

Bank Report. 273 

Lewis B. Parsons 14,837 06 

Suspended Debt 9; 557 24 

Due from Banks. 90,*47 57 

Bank Notes on hand of Branches.. 265,000 GO 

Specie on hand 595,412 44 

$4,288,132 70 


Capital Stock owned by the State $954,205 22 

Capital Stock owned by individuals 261,200 00 $1,215,405 22 

Due Depositors 1,090,448 46 

Dividends unpaid 1,234 86 

Interest and Exchange, surplus 30 June, 1853 74,845 03 

Profits past six months $122,999 72 

Less Expenses. 11,816 65 111,183 07 186,028 10 

Contingent Fund. 99,879 50 

Due to Banks. ' 133,426 05 

Circulation 1,561,710 00 

$4 288 132 79 
St. Louis, December 31, 1853. A. S. ROBINSON, Cashier. 

Condition of the Branch of the Bank of the State of Missouri at Fayette, on the 

3 1st December, 1853. 


Bills Discounted - $163,566 11 

Exchanges maturing 11 5.243 62 

Real estate 18,496 08 

Suspended debt.. 1,845 00 

Expense account 1,731 55 

Protest account 12 25 

Due from Banks 33,286 95 

Specie on hand.. 88,639 11 

$422,820 67 
Fayette, December 31, 1853. WILLIAM C. BOON, Cashier. 

Condition of the Branch of the Bank of the State of Missouri, at Palmyra, on 

the 31st December, 1853. 


Bills discounted $68,202 33 

Exchanges maturing 195,455 28 

Exchanges matured 1,224 25 

Real estate • 15,093 28 

Suspended debt 22,378 11 

Expense account. 1,512 24 

Protest account 17 30 

Bank notes on hand 76,510 00 

Specie on hand 52,359 06 

$432,752 35 


Bank of the State of Missouri for capital. $120,058 84 

Due depositors 42,473 13 

Due to banks 52,505 06 

Interest and exchange. • • 10,595 32 

Circulation. 207,130 00 

$432 752 35 
Palmyra, December 31, 1853. S. D. SOUTH, Cashier. 

Condition of the Branch of the Bank of the State of Missouri, at Cape Girar- 
deau, on Hie 3\sl December, 1853. 


Bills Discounted » $211,255 00 

274 Bank Report. 

Exchanges Matured. 44,937 57 

Exchanges Maturing 37,397 15 

Real Estate 5,165 14 

Suspended debt 12,030 83 

Expense account 1,331 00 

Protest account • 18 00 

Bank notes on hand 11,570 00 

Specie on hand 66,108 22 

$389,806 91 


Bank of the State of Missouri for Capital $120,058 84 

Due Depositors 51,021 44 

Due to Banks 27,906 41 

Interest and Exchange. 9,280 22 

Circulation 181,540 00 

$389,806 91 
Cape Girardeau, December 31, 1853. ALFRED T. LACY, Cashier. 

Condition of the Branch of the Sank of the State of Missouri, at Springfield, 

on the 3lst December, 1853. 

Bills Discounted $195,803 92 

Exchanges Maturing 6,938 67 

Real Estate. 9,704 00 

Suspended Debt. 19,370 17 

Expense account 1 -'220 10 

Due from Banks 26,335 21 

Bank Notes on hand. ■ 6.000 00 

Specie on hand. • 55,586 64 

$321,358 71 


Bank of the State of Missouri for Capital $120,658 34 

Due Depositors. 36,989 00 

Interest and Exchange. >" 0,320 87 

Circulation 1 1 58,590 09 

$321,958 71 
Springfield, December 31, 1853. JAMES R. DANFORTH, Cashier. 

Condition of the Branch of the Bank of the State of Missouri, at Lexington, 

on the 3\st December, 1853. 


Bills Discounted. $185,251 91 

Exchanges Matured 2,000 00 

Excttangus Maturing 99,481 27 

Real Estate •' 14,508 85 

Suspended Debt. 12,760 00 

Expense Account • 2,529 17 

Due from Banks 2,311 48 

Bank Notes on hand. 19,270 00 

Specie on hand.. 78.730 33 

$416,841 01 


Bank of the State of Missouri for Capital $120,058 84 

Due Depositors. 83,4 1 1 65 

Due to Banks. 15.097 21 

Interest and Exchange ■.'■• 11,323 16 

Protest account 20 15 

Circulation • 23 6.930 00 

$416,841 01 
Lexington, December 31, 1853. C. K. MOREHEAD, Cashier. 

Miles of Railroads in the U. S. 



We are indebted to the American Railroad Journal for the follow- 
ing tabular statement of the Railroads in Ihe United Slates embracing 
the number of miles open, capital stock paid, funded debt, total cost, 
gross and nett earnings, dividends, price of stock, &c. It is possible 
that the figures may not, in every instance, be stric'Jy correct; but as 
there is no higher authority on the subject of railroads in this coun- 
try we feel authorized to adopt these tables as approximating suf- 
ficiently near the truth for all practical purposes. We regret that 
our sp.ce does not admit of the judicious and well-limed remarks 
which accompany these valuable statistics, in the 'Railroad Journal.' 

Statement showing the number of miles of railroad in operation in the 

United Stales, January 1st, 1854. 

maine. Western Vermont. 53 

Name of Roads. Miles open 

Androscoggin 20 

Androscoggin and Kennebec. • • • • 55 

Atlantic and St. Lawrence 82 

Bangor and Piscataquis 12 

Ruck field Branch 13 

Calais and Baring 6 

Franklin •« 9 

Kennebec and Portland 69 

Portland, Saco and Portsmouth •• 51 

York and Cumberland 18 

Total 335 


Atlantic and St. Lawrence 52 

Ashuelot 23 

Boston and Maine 3~| 

Boslon, Concord and Montreal •• 92a 

Cheshire 54 

Cocheco 2$£ 

Concord. 34* 

Concord and Claremont 28| 

Contoocook Valley 14* 

Eastern 16£ 

Great Falls and Conway 12* 

Manchester and Lawrence 26 

New Hampshire Central 254 

Northern 8l| 

Peterboro' and Shirley > 10* 

Portsmouth and Concord. 47 

Sullivan 24* 

White Mountains 20 

Wilton 151 

Total 64 Gi 


Atlantic and St. Lawrence 31 

Connecticut and Passumpsic Riv. 61 

Rutland and Burlington. 119 

Rutland and Washington 18* 

Rutland and Whitehall. 17" 

St. Lawrence and Atlantic 16 

Vermont and Canada 47 

Vermont Central 117 

Vermont Valley 24 




Amherst and Belchertbwn. 20 

Berkshire 21 

Boston and Lowell.. 27| 

Boston and Maine 83 

Boston and Providence. 53j 

Boston and Worcester 68 

Cape Cod Branch 28^ 

Charles River Branch. 12 

Connecticut River 50 

Dorchester and Milton Branch •• 3 

Eastern.. 58 

Essex 21| 

Fall River. 42* 

Fitch burg 67 

Fitchburg and Worcester.. 18 






Grand Junction •••• 
Harvard Branch ••• 
Lexington and West 
Lowell and Lawrence 

Med ford Branch 

Nashua and Lowell. 14 

New Bedford and Taunton ■• 2\k 

Newburyport 14^ 

Norfolk County 20 

Old Colony A5\ 

Peterboro' and Shirley 23^ 

Pittsfield and North Adams. 20 

Providence and Worcester 44 

Salem and Lowell • 17^ 

Saugus Branch. 8 

South Reading Branch. 8$ 

South Shore.. • 11 

Stockbridge and Pittsfield 22 

Stony Brook 

Stoughton Branch • • • - 4 

Tauntcn Branch. 11$ 

Vermont and Massachusetts 77 

Western. •••• • 

West Stockbridge 

Worcester and Nashua. • < « 45| 






Miles of Railroads in the U. S. 


Providence and Stonin°ton • 

I Union 

50 Woodbury Branch ■ 






Oollinsville Branch 

Danbury and Norwalk ► 

Hartford, Providence & Fishkill ■ 

Housatonic 74 

Middletown Branch 10 

Naugatuck 62 

New Haven, Hartford & Springfield 62 
New Haven and Northampton- •• 45 
New Haven and New London-. • 50 
New London, Willimantic & Palmer 66 
New York and New Haven.. • - - - 63 
Norwich and Worcester 66 



Albany and West Stockbridge- • • 

Albany Northern. 

Buffalo, Corning and New York- 

Buffalo and New York City 

Buffalo and Niagika Falls. 

Buffalo and State Line 

Canandaigua and Elniira. ••■•>♦ • 
Canaudaigua and Niagara Falls.. 

Cayuga and Susquehanna 


Eighth Avenue [New York city] 

First and Second Avenue. 

Hudson River. 

Hudson and Berkshire 

Long Island.. 

New York and Erie 

New York and Harlem 

New York Central 

Corning and Blossburgh 

Northern [Ogdensburg]. 

Oswego and Syracuse'. 

Plattsburg and Montreal 

Rensselaer and Saratoga 

Rochester and Lake Ontario. 

Saratoga and Schenectady. 

Saratoga and Washington 

Sacket't's Harbor and Ellisburg- 
Sixth Avenue [New York city] •• 

Skaneatelcs and Jordan. 

Third Avenue [New York city]- 

Troy and Greenbush 

Troy and Bennington 

Troy and Boston' 

Troy and Rutland 

Watertown and Rome 










23 T 


Total 2,355i 


Belvidere Delaware 41 

Burlington and Mount Holly 6 

Camden and Amboy 65 

Morris and Essex 45 

New Brunswick and Trenton • • • • 28 

New Jersey 31 

New Jersey Central. 64 

Trenton Branch 6 


Alleghany Portage 36 

Beaver Meadow 38 

Blairsville Branch ' 3 

Carbondale and Honesdale 24 

Catawissa, Williamsport and Erie 25 

Chestnut Hill and Doylestown .. 15 

Chester Valley 21 

Columbia Branch 18 

Cumberland Valley 52 

Dauphin and Susquehanna 16 

Delaware, Lakawanna and West. 50 

Erie and North East. 19 

Franklin Canal < 26 

Franklin 22 

Germantown Branch. 6 

Harrisburg and Lancaster. 38 

Hazleton and Lehigh 10 

Lehigh, and Susquehanna 20 

Little Schuylkill 20 

Liitle Schuylkill and Susquehanna 28 
Lykens Vailey- 


Mahonoy and Wisconisco 17 

Mauch Chunk and Summit Hill.- 8 

Mill Creek 9 

Mine Hill 12 

Mount Carbon ■ »-•• 7 

Nesquehoning. 5 

Pennsylvania 256 

Pennsylvania Coal Company's. •• 47 

Philadelphia and Columbia 80 

Philadelphia and Reading 93 

Phila., Germantown & Norristown 17 
Philadelphia and Trenton 29 





Philadelphia and Wpstchester- 
Phila., Wilmington & Baltimore. 

Pine Grove 

Room Run 


Schuylkill Valley, inch branches 


& i bury and Erie 20 

Tioga- - - 26 

Trevorton and Mahonoy 15 

Whitehaven and Wilkesbarre ••• 20 

Williamsport and Elmira 25 

York and Cumberland. 25 

York and Whrightsville. 13 

Total 1,375 


Appomattox 9 

Chesterfield 12 

Chesterfield and James River-- •• 4 

Clover Hill Ill 

Greenville and Roanoke. 21 

Deep Run 4 

Manassas Gap 38 

Orange and Alexandria 62 

Port Walthal Branch 3 

Petersburg. 63 

Richmond and Danville 84 

Miles of Railroads in the U. S. 


Richmond, Fred, and Potomac 76a 

Richmond and Petersburgh 22 

Sea-board and Roanoke, 80 

South Side, 62 
Tuckahoe and James River Branch 5| 

Virginia Central 107 

Virginia and Tennessee 73 

Warrenton Branch 9 

Winchester and Potomac 32 

Total ~YiSl 


Bellefontaine and Indiana 118 

Central Ohio 59 

Cincinnati, Hamilton and Dayton 60 

Cleveland, Columbusfc Cincinnati 135 
Cincinnati, Hillsboro & Parkersb. 37 
Cincinnati, Wilmington&Zanesville 41 

Cleveland, Painesville and Ashta 71 

Cleveland, Zanesville and Cincin. 14 

Cleveland and Pittsburg 100 

Cleveland and Toledo, S. Divis. 87 

" " N. « 60 

Columbus and Xenia 55 

Columbus, Piqua and Indiana 46 

Dayton and Michigan 20 

Dayton and Western 36 

Dayton and Springfield 24 

Findlay Branch 16 

Greenville and Miami 27 

Hamilton, Eaton and Richmond 45 

Carrolton Branch 20 

Iron 13 

Little Miami 84 

Mad Rivei and Lake Erie 134 

Mansfield and Sandusky 56 

Newark and Mansfield 61 

Ohio and Pennsylvania 187 

Ohio and Mississippi 20 

Ohio and Indiana 32 

Scioto and Hocking Valley 44 

Springfield and Xenia 19 


Gaston and Raleigh 
Greenville and Roanoke 
Wilmington and Raleigh 



Abbeville Branch 

Anderson Branch 

Camden Branch 

Charlotte and South Carolina 

Columbia Branch 

Greenville and Columbia 

King's Mountain 


South Carolina 

Wilmington and Manchester 



Athens Branch 
Waynesboro * 

* Part of this road is in ST. C. 














Central 191 

Eatonton 20 

Georgia 171 

La Grange 81 

Macon and Western 101 

Milledgeville and Eatonton 35 

Muscogee 50 

Rome 20 

South- Western 50 

Warrenton Branch 4 

Western and Atlantic 140 

Waynesboro' 51 

Total 944 


Aurora Branch 13 

Aurora Extension 86 

Chicago and Mississippi 131 

Chicago and Rock Island 140 

Galena and Chicago Union 120 

Great Western Illinois 81 

Illinois Central, sixth division 60 
" " Chicago branch 56 

St. Charles Branch 7 

O'Fallon's Coal Road 8 

Illinois and Wisconsin 25 

Terre Haute and Alton 30 

Peoria and Oquawka 20 

Total 777" 


Columbus and Shelbyville 21 

Evansville and Crawfordsville 34 

Indiana Central 72 

Indianapolis and Bellefontaine 84 

Indianapolis and Cincinnati 90 

JerTersonville 77 

Lafayette and Indianapolis 64 

Madison and Indianapolis 86 

Martinsville 27 

New Albany and Salem 253 

Newcastle and Richmond 27 

Northern Indiuna n3 

Peru and Indianapolis 50 

Shelbyville and Knightstown 27 

Shelbyville Lateral 16 

Shelbyville and Rushville 20 

Terre Haute and Richmond 73 

Total i7l34 


Annapolis and Elkridge 21 

Baltimore and Ohio 379 

Baltimore and Susquehanna 57 

Frederick Branch 3 

Hanover Branch 13 

Washington Branch 31 

Westminster Branch 17 






Covington and Lexington 


Miles of Railroads in the U. S. 

Lexington and Frankfort 



Louisville and Frankfort 


Clinton and Port Hudson 


Maysville and Lexington 


Mexican Gull' 






New Orleans and Carol. 



West Feliciana 


East Tennessee and Georgia 


Memphis and Charleston 




Nashville and Chattanooga 



Milwaukie aud Mississipj^ 

>i 110 



Rock River and Union Valley 20 


Alabama and Tennessee River 50 



Memphis and Charleston 



Mobile and Ohio 


Michigan Central 


Montgomery and Westpoint 


Michigan Southern 










Raymond Branch 



St. Francis and Woodvi'.le 


Newcastle and Frenchtown 16 

Vicksburg and Jackson 


Wilmington Branch 








States. Miles open. 

Area in Sqr. miles. Population in 1850. 





New Hampshire 












Rhode Island 








New York 




New Jersey 












Mary hind 








North Carolina 




South Carolina 






































































1,485,361 i 





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Manufactures vs. Land Speculations. 285 



The common sense of a community is the standard of its public 
justice. It is the court of last resort, as well as of original juris- 
diction in all matters pertaining to the general welfare. For in a 
republican country, public opinion exercises more power than even 
"the Law and the Prophets." 

To this tribunal we make our application in behalf of the claims 
of manufactures, for wrongs and injuries done them by Land Spec- 

If the public mind were fully enlightened, and aroused to a feel- 
ing of equity and good conscience on this subject, Land Specula- 
tions would be checked, and Manufactures promoted. 

How can the public mind become enlightened, and aroused to a 
just appreciation of the rights of manufactures, and the wrongs of 
land speculations ? 

By indisputable facts and irresistable arguments. Let them be 

The wealth of a nation is based on agriculture and manufac- 
ture. Corn, cotton and iron are the chief products. They com- 
mand money in their raw state ; but their value is enhanced a 
thousand-fold in the refined condition of bread, clothing and iron 
utensils. Corn, cotton and iron are superabundant in the Missis- 
sippi Valley ; but of the home manufactured productions of these 
elements of wealth, bread is the only one made to meet the home 
demand. Clothing and iron utensils are supplied mainly by for- 
eign hands. Cotton is sent from Arkansas to Europe, and then 
and there manufactured into clothing, is resent to Arkansas. Iron 
is sent from Missouri to England, and then and there manufac- 
tured into cutlery, is resent to Missouri. Cotton, manufactured 
into clothing, and iron, manufactured into cutlery, is raised in 
value from as many cents to as many dollars per pound. Arkan- 
sas produces the best cotton, and Missouri the best iron in the 
world. The manufacture of the raw material into useful articles, 
on the spot of production, would pay immense sums of money into 
the hands of our mechanics. The freight, commission and duty, 
charged on the imported articles, would be a surplus profit to the 
producers and consumers, on the spot of production, provided the 
cost of manufacturing was equal east and west. The duty on im- 
ported articles, although at first an advantage to the manufacturer, 
is finally a more important advantage to the owners of producing 
lands ; and a still more important and general advantage to the 
consumers of manufactured articles ; for, although the profits 
raised by duty incite capitalists to invest their funds in manufac- 
turing establishments, yet it at the same time incites competition, 
subdues monopolies, concentrates and irradiates trade at com- 

286 Manufactures vs. Laud Speculations. 

manding points in the country, produces avast superabundance of 
substantial and highly finished home made articles, turns the bal- 
ance of supply and demand in favor of home ; and instead of en- 
slaving the people of the country as borrowers, tax payers, and 
beggars of Europe and the Atlantic coast, it frees them from the 
bondage of their bonds, draws the money of foreign lands directly 
in their own hands, and makes other portions of the world tribut- 
ary to their own prosperity. 

The state here pictured, should now be realized. Why is it not? 

Why are our railroads languishing and almost becging for sup- 

Why are our people borrowers of, and tax-payers to, European 
sovereigns — aye, dependant on them for railroad iron, and even 
for personal clothing ? 

Why are our merchants paying tribute to the merchants of the 

Why, on the contrary, are not the merchants of the East paying 
tribute to the merchants of the West ? 

Why do the merchants of the West continue bond merchants ? 

Why do not the merchants of the West become merchant princes? 

Among many reasons, Land Speculation is the main. 

Infatuated with a passion to dissipate their means, by investing 
them in wild and unproductive lands, they bury their talent in the 
ground. Capitalists, mechanics, and even the farmers themselves, 
catch the contagion of the speculating fever. They stop discount- 
ing, building, farming; check produce, improvements and finances, 
waste their time and money, and even encumber productive prop- 
erty, to indulge in fancied and unrealized prices of real estate. 

This course is ruinous, and worthy only of prodigal sons, yield- 
ing but "husks which the swine do eat." 

If the millions of dollars which have been squandered in land 
warrants, land certificates and land speculations in Missouri with- 
in the last year, had been judiciously invested in manufacturing 
establishments; these millions of dollars would have circulated free- 
ly in the legitimate business of the community. The farmers, 
mechanics, merchants and railroad companies, would have en- 
joyed easier and more independent circumstances; and the fortunes 
of the people, instead of descending towards a crisis, like that of 
'41, would have transcended the prosperity of '52. 

These millions of dollars, would soon bring millions of dollars 
more to purchase the products of the manufacturing establishments, 
in which the original millions were invested, after the expenses were 
met by the supply of our home demand ; and this dividend of 100 
per cent, would be apportioned out through the community. The 
farmers would obtain their shares, by the extraordinary demand 
for food, the mechanics, 6y the extraordinary demand for labor, 
and the merchants and bankers, by the extraordinary demand for 

Manufactures vs. Land Speculations. 287 

Soon again millions of dollars more would come, and flow into 
the hands of our farmers, mechanics, merchants and bankers. 

Tide after tide of prosperity would set in, till Missouri might 
command the active and productive internal wealth of France or 
of Great Britain. 

In view of these facts, will the people of Missouri remain de- 
pendant on Europe, mere borrowers, tax-payers and beggars of 
the merchant princes of the East, when they might devise and es- 
tablish a public policy of manufactures, which would not only free 
them from the bondage of eastern financial tyranny, but also even 
make those princes tribute payers to the prosperity of Missouri? 

May not a strong moral force be raised to subdue and extirpate 
the fatal epidemic of land speculation — a pestilence worse than the 
cholera ? 

May not millions yet and soon be raised for the cause — the 
glorious cause of manufactures — the corner stone of civilization — 
the basis on which civil and religious liberty, may rear their tem- 
ples of justice and of devotion ? 

May not a strong — an irresistable feeling of patriotism be 
aroused to relieve the manufactures of Missouri from every — the 
least — burden of taxation ? 

Will not every son of this central State of the Union strive to 
make it outshine its sister stars, in the brilliancy of its internal 
wealth ? 

Cannot the Geological Survey be stimulated? Cannot a Sta- 
tistical Bureau be established? Cannot a School of Mines be 
founded? And cannot all these engines of prosperity be made to 
accelerate the movements of the trains of manufactures? And will 
they not invest the State of Missouri with the glory of scientific 
light, and of political fame as well as of financial prosperity? 

"'Tis a consummation'devoutly to be wished." 

'Tis a consummation that surely may be won. 

Extensive means must be accumulated, a wise and liberal policy 
pursued, and the end is at hand. 

The Railroad Companies of Missouri alone, with a portion of 
their $8,250,000 of State Bonds, and a few legislative privileges, 
could make all the iron they want, being 100 tons per mile, for 
their 1,200 miles of Railroads, amounting to 120,000 tons of iron, 
at $1,500,000, as estimated on the Renton Process; while at the 
present price of iron — say $75 per ton — the same amount of iron 
would cost $9,000,000. 

And after supplying themselves, they might sell their manufac- 
turing establishments at an additional profit. 

Cotton goods, iron wares and other kinds of merchandize could 
be manufactured by individual enterprise, private partnership and 
corporate bodies to supply the demand, for their respective goods, 
wares and merchandize, not only of Missouri, but also of the 
whole country from the Falls of St. Anthony to the Gulf of Mexico. 

288 Manufactures vs. Land Sjieculations. 

The means and spirit to command success in this sphere of in- 
dependence will be represented more fully in future articles. 

But as a movement has lately been made in Ohio, to advance 
the prosperity of iron manufactures, we here quote the notice of it 
published originally in the Cleveland (Ohio) Herald, and quoted 
by the Mining (New York) Magazine, from which we quote : 


Renton's new process for .making wrought iron direct from the 
ore, we are pleased to learn is continuing to work with increased 
success. A quantity of the Lake Superior ore was sent by the 
Cleveland Iron Company to Cincinnati, to be manufactured into 
iron by the new process in a furnace built by W. C. Davis & Co., 
under the superintendence of the Patentee. 

On Thursday the trial was made, and in six hours produced 1,- 
249 lbs. of blooms from 2,436 lbs. of ore; a portion of the iron 
was rolled into bars, producing an article remarkable for tough- 
ness. A piece of 1 1-4 inch round bar was bent over cold under 
a 6,500 lb. hammer, and so flattened down that the two inside 
edges came completely together all the way, without showing the 
least crack or break on the end. This is one of the severest tests, 
and none but very good iron can stand it. A portion also rolled 
very well into wire rods. 

We have the best authority for saying that on Saturday Mr. 
Renton's furnace made in nine hours and twenty minutes 2,470 
lbs. of blooms out of 5,860 lbs. of ore, chiefly of the Ohio and 
Virginia limestone ores, 1,566 lbs. of which, however, was the 
Lake Superior ore, mixed with a portion of the Ohio and Virgin- 
ia, which yielded well and worked very fast, turning out about 400 
lbs. per hour, and which made very tough iron. This process 
economizes fuel, as by measurement it only takes one and a half 
tons of mineral coal to make a ton of bloom. The Ohio ores by 
this mode will yield about 40 percent., and the Lake Superior ore 
from 50 to 60 per cent. These statistics show this new process to 
be a very important improvement in the manufacture of wrought 
iron, a vast saving being made in substituting mineral coal or 
wood for charcoal, which must bring into requisition vast quanti- 
ties of lands that lay useless with the wood swept off for charcoal, 
although abounding in bituminous coal, which could not be used 
for working the hematite ores. The main features of this improve- 
ment consist in reducing the cost of a ton of iron, improving its 
quality, saving the cost of the pig metal process, and consequently 
a large amount of capital requisite to work the blast furnace, this 
mode requiring comparatively but a small outlay. 

The cost of manufacturing one ton of iron from Lake Superior 
ore, at this point, we give as follows : — 

Labor of three men $6 00 

Two tons coal, $2 50 5 00 

Manufactures vs. Land Speculations. - 289 

Hammering into Blooms 1 00 

Burning and stamping ore 1 00 

Filling tubes 25 

Cost of power 1 50 

Making into muck bar 75 

Including all contingencies — merchantable bar 6 00 

When the Canal at Sault Ste. Marie is com- 
pleted, and Railroad from the Mines to the 
Lake, two tons of ore, which will make more 
than a ton of iron, will cost $6 per ton.. ..12 00 

Total -. $33 50 

Present value of Iron per ton 80 00 

Net profit $46 50 

Additional, for present cost in transportation 
of the ore 12 00 

Net profit $34 50 

Cost of the ore made into Blooms when canal 

is finished 26,75 

Present cost added 12,00 

For one ton Iron Blooms made at this point$38,75 
These figures may be applied as a basis of calculation for in- 
vestments in the iron manufacturing business at St. Louis, with a 
liberal margin for increased profits, for although coal is not now 
so cheap at St. Louis as at Cleveland, yet the position occupied 
by St. Louis to command the iron trade of the United States is 
far superior to that of Cleveland with her Lake Superior ore, as 
St. Louis is within 80 miles of the Iron Mountain of Missouri, 
while Cleveland is over 500 miles from the Iron Mountain of Mich- 

The cost of ore, to make a ton of iron, is now 

at Cleveland $24.00 

The cost at St. Louis 12.00 

Surplus profit at St. Louis $12.00 p. ton. 

But it is said that the ore will in time be brought to Cleveland 
at greatly reduced rates. Grant it, and the St. Louis and Iron 
Mountain R. R. will work a similar result for St. Louis. 

And finally not only Missouri but Illinois also will easily supply 
St. Louis with the desired coal in abundance. 

290 Capital invested in Manufactures in the U. S. 


The following is a statement of shipments of iron made at Ste. 
Genevieve, as furnished us by Mr. John Ziegler, the agent of the 
Iron Mountain and Pilot Knob Companies, from the 1st of June 
last, up to the present month. We regret that no statistic has 
been kept of other shipments made at this place, as we are unable 
to give a full and complete statement of the lead, white sand, lime 
and the agricultural productions of this and the surrounding coun- 

It is well known and established fact, and generally acknowledged 
by business and steamboat men, that Ste. Genevieve is the largest 
and most extensive shipping point on the river between St. Louis 
and Memphis. We are fully prepared to substantiate and prove 
beyond all shadow of doubt the correctness of this statement. 


Up Ohio river 2,119 tuns. 

To St. Louis 1,317 " 

Total, 3,436 


Up Ohio river 11,097 pieces— 1,313,857 lbs. 

To St. Louis 4,089 " 691,923 lbs. 

Total 15,185 2,005,780 lbs. 

There is at the landing over 3,000 tuns pig metal, and 400 
tuns blooms, which is all sold and will be shipped as soon as 
freights are reasonable. — [Plamdeale?', 24. Dec., '53.] 


The entire capital invested in the various manufactures in the 
United States, on the 1st of: June, 1850, not to include any estab- 
lishments producing less than the annual value of $5o0 — 
Amounted in round numbers, to.... $530,000,000 

Value of raw material 550,000, 000 

Amount paid for labor 240,000,000 

• Value of manufactured articles 1,020,000,000 

Number of persons employed 1,050,000 

Rtne. 291 





{Li Continuation.) 
By the Junior Editor. 

'Venerable and smiling Italy offered me innumerable master- 
works of art. With what holy and poetic awe I wandered through 
those vast buildings by the fine arts consecrated to religion! What 
a labyrinth of columns ! What a succession of arches and of vaults! 
How sweet are those sounds one hears among the domes, like the 
roar of the waves on the ocean, the murmur of the winds in the 
forest, or the voice of God in his temple! The architect embodied, 
as it were, the ideas of the poet, and made them touching to the 

'In the meantime what have I learned even with so much troub- 
le? Nothing certain among the ancients, nothing beautiful among 
the moderns. The past and the present are two imperfect statues: 
the one has been all marred by the wreck of ages ; the other has 
not yet received its perfection of the future.' 

'But indeed, my old friends, you above all, dwellers in the des- 
ert, are you not surprised that, in this recital of my travels, I havt 
not once entertained you with the monuments of nature? 

'One day I was standing on the summit of Etna, a volcano 
which burns in the center of an island. I saw the sun rise from 
the vast expanse of the horizon below me, Sicily contracted as a 
point at my feet, and the sea unrolled far off in the distant space. 
In that lofty view of the scene around me, the rivers seemed to me 
only like geographical lines traced on a map; but, while on the one 
side my eye perceived these objects, on the other it plunged in the 
crater of Aetna, where, in the interim of the ebullition of black 
vapor, I discovered its heart on fire.' 

'A young man full of passions, seated on the mouth of a volca- 
no, weeping over mortals whose dwellings beneath his feet he could 
scarcely see, is it not doubtless, venerable men, an object 
worthy only of your pity ; but, whatever you may think of Rene, 
this scene presents to you the picture of his character and his ex- 
istence; it is thus that all my life I have had before my eyes at the 
same time a world vast and inscrutable and an abyss yawning at 
my side.' 

292 Rent. 

Pronouncing these last words, Rene was silent, and fell sudden- 
ly in a revery. Father Souel looked at him with astonishment ; 
and the old blind Sachem, who heard the young man speak no 
more, knew not what to think of this silence. 

Rene had fixed his eyes on a band of Indians who were crossing 
the prairie at leisure. Suddenly his countenance was changed, 
tears flowed from his eyes; he exclaimed: 

'Happy Savages! Oh! that I could enjoy the peace which you 
always possess ! While with so little satisfaction I ran through so 
many lands, you, seated quietly under your oaks, you let the days 
unnumbered flow along. Your thought was only for your wants, 
and you arrived, better than I, at the result of wisdom, like a 
child between sports and sleep. If that melancholy which produces 
excess of happiness sometimes reaches your soul, you soon spring 
from that transient sadness, and your glance raised toward heaven 
seeks with solicitude a mysterious charm, which soothes the poor 
savage. * 

Here the voice of Rene again ceased, and the head of the young 
man fell upon his breast. Chactas, stretching out his arm in the 
darkness, and taking the arm of his son, said to him with a 
troubled voice: 'My son! My dear son!' At these tones the brother 
of Amelie coming to himself again, and blushing at his agitation, 
begged his father to pardon him. 

Then the old Indian said: 'My young friend, the movements of 
a heart like thine, know not how to be uniform ; only subdue that 
nature which has already made you so unhappy. If you, more 
than any other, suffer the ills of life, it need not surprise you : a 
large soul should contain more sorrow than a small one. Continue 
thy recital. Thou hast led us through one portion of Europe. 
Make us acquainted with thy home. Thou knowest that I have 
seen France, and what tics have bound me there ; I would love to 
hear you speak of that great chief,* who is no more, and whose 
glorious cabin I have visited. My child, I see no more, except by 
memory. An old man with his memories is like a dying oak in 
our woods: the oak is no longer adorned with its own foliage, but 
its naked form is sometimes covered with strange plants which 
grow on its aged branches.' 

The brother of Amelie calmed by these words, resumed thus tho 
history of his heart : 

* Louis XIV. 

Rene. 293 

'Alas i my father, I am unable to entertain you with that great 
era of which I saw only the end in my infancy, and which was no 
more when I returned to my native land. But a change more 
astonishing and more sudden has not occurred with any nation. 
From the pride of genius, respect for religion, dignity of manners, 
there was a universal and rapid fall to meanness of spirit, to im- 
piety, to corruption. It was wholly in vain that I had hoped to 
find at home some gentle spell to calm that restlessness, that 
urdor of desire which followed me everywhere. From the study of 
the world I had learned nothing, and moreover I had lost the bliss 
of ignorance.' 

'My sister, by a mysterious conduct, seemed to take pleasure in 
augmenting my ennui. She left Paris a few days before my ar- 
rival. I wrote to her that I intended to go and rejoin her ; she 
quickly answered dissuading me from this project, under the pre- 
text that she was uncertain about where her affairs would call her. 
What sad reflexions did I not then make on friendship, which 
presence cools, which absence effaces, which does not resist mis- 
fortune, and is even lost in prosperity!' 

'I was soon more lonely at home than I ever had been in a for- 
eign land. For some time I wished to mingle in a world which 
said nothing to me, and which did not understand me. My soul, 
which no passion had yet impaired, sought for an object to which 
it could become attached; but I found that I gave more than I re- 
ceived. Neither an elevated language nor a profound sentiment 
did they desire me to bestow. I was busy only in shrinking up my 
life, to place it on a level with society. Characterized throughout 
with a romantic spirit, ashamed of the part I was playing, disgust- 
ed more and more with things and with men, I resolved to retire 
in a faubourg, to live there wholly unknown.' 

'At first I found pleasure enough in that obscure and indepen- 
dent life. Unknown, I mingled with the crowd, the vast desert of 
men !' 

'Often seated in a church, frequented by a few, I spent hours 
and hours in meditation. I saw poor women come and bend in 
adoration before the Most High, cr sinners kneel at the altar of 
penitence. Not one goes away from those places without a coun- 
tenance more serene ; and the deafening clamors which one hears 
in the streets seem to be the waves of passions and the storms of 
the world which beat and die at the foot of the Temple of the 

294 Rene. 

Lord. Great God, who saw secretly my tears flowing in those 
sacred retreats, thou knowesfc how many a time 1 cast myself at 
thy feet praying that thou wouldst free me from the load of life, 
or change the Adam within me ! Ah! who has not felt sometimes 
tli3 need of regeneration, of renewing himself by the waters of the 
torrent, of refreshing his soul at the fountain of life? Who has 
not sometimes been overwhelmed by the weight of his own un- 
worthiness, and incapable of doing anything grand, noble, just ? 

'When the evening was come, regaining the path from my re- 
treat, I stopped on the bridge to see the sunset. The star, illu- 
minating the smoke of the city, seemed to oscillate gently in a 
fluid of gold, as the pendulum of the clock of ages. I then retired 
with the night, through a labyrinth of solitary streets. Observing 
the lights which shone in the abodes of men, I wafted myself away 
on the wing of thought amid the scenes of grief and of joy which 
they brightened, and I felt that, under all the roofs of those in- 
habitants, I had not one friend. In the midst of my reflexions, 
the bell began, with solemn sound, to toll the time in the tower of 
the gothic cathedral ; it was repeated with blended tones, and to 
remote distances, from church to church. Alas ! each hour in so- 
ciety opens a grave, and makes the tears flow.' 

'This life, which at first had enchanted me, soon changed into a 
source of my misery. I grew weary of the repetition of the same 
scenes and of the same ideas. I began to search my heart, and 
to ask of myself what I desired. I knew not what; but on a sud- 
den I thought that some charm might be found in the woods. At 
once I resolved to end in a wild exile a career scarcely begun, and 
in which I had already wasted many years.' 

'I embraced this project with the ardor which I infused in all 
my designs ; I left hurriedly to seclude myself in a thatched cot- 
tage, as I had gone heretofore to make a tour of the world.' 

'Some accuse me of having inconstant tastes, of being unable 
to enjoy the same fancy for a long time, of being the prey of an 
imagination which siezes hold of the foundation of my pleasures, 
as if it was tired of their endurance ; others accuse me of always 
passing by the goal which I reach: #las! I seek only an unknown 
good, of which the intuition impels me. Is it my fault if I find 
limits everywhere, and no longer any interest in what is once done? 
However I feel that I love the monotony of the sentiments of life; 

Rene. 295 

and if I have yet the madness to believe in happiness, I will seek 
for it in accordance with my custom.' 

'Absolute solitude, the appearance of nature, pluDged me soon 
into a condition which almost baffles description. Without parents, 
without friends, one might say all alone on the earth, having never 
yet loved, I was overwhelmed with a superabundance of life, some- 
times I would blush suddenly, and I would feel something flowing 
in my heart like streams of burning lava; sometimes I burst forth 
with unvoluntary screams, and the night was troubled equally with 
my dreamings and my watchings. Something was wanting to fill 
up the abyss of my existence : I descended into the valley, I as- 
cended the mountain, appealing with all the power of my emotions 
to the ideal object of a future flame ; I embraced it in the winds, 
I thought I could hear it in the moaning of the waves; this imag- 
inary phantom was everything, yes, the stars in the skies, and 
even the principle of life in the universe.' 

'Yet this condition of repose and of trouble, of poverty and of 
opulence, was not without some charms : one day I was amusing 
myself by stripping off the leaves from the branch of a willow by 
the brook side, and attaching an idea to each leaf which the cur- 
rent drew away. A king who fears he may loose his crown by a 
sudden revolution, does not feel anxieties more lively than were 
mine at each circumstance which threatened the destruction of my 
branch. weakness of mortals! infancy of the human heart, 
which never grows old ! Behold ! to what depth of puerility our 
proud reason can descend ! And yet is it true that very many men 
bind their destiny to things of as little i-nportance as my leaves of 
the willow.' 

'But the croud of fleeting sensations which I experienced in my 
walks cannot be expressed. The tones which passions produce in 
the void of a lonely heart are like the murmurs which the winds 
and the waves arouse in the silence of the desert : one may enjoy, 
but he cannot describe them.' 

'Autumn surprised me amid these uncertainties: I entered with 
rapture upon the mouth of the tempests. Sometimes I wished to 
be one of those warriors wandering through the storms, the clouds 
and the phantoms ; sometimes I envied the lot of the herdsman 
whom I saw warming his hands at the little bramble fire which he 
had kindled in a corner of the woods. I heard his melancholy 
songs, which reminded me that in all lands the natural song of 

296 Bene. 

man is sad, even when it expresses happiness. Our heart is an 
unfinished instrument, a lyre whose cords are untuned, and with 
which we are compelled to utter the accents of joy by tones conse- 
crated to sorrow.' 

'During the day I wandered over the broad meadows bounded by 
the forests. The slightest thing excited my revery ! a dry leaf 
which the wind chased before me, a hut whose smoke arose over 
the hill stript of trees, the moss which trembled at the breath of 
the north-wind on the trunk of an oak, a broken rock, a lonely 
pond where the faded rush was mourning! The solitary steeple 
raising itself at a distance in the valley, has often drawn my at- 
tention ; often have 1 followed the eyes of the birds of passage 
which flew above my head. I fancied the unknown shores, the 
foreign climes where they resort ; I wished I could fly with them. 
A secret instinct tormented me, I felt that I myself was a voya- 
geur ; but a voice from heaven seemed to say to me : 'Man, the 
season of thy migration has not yet come ; wait till the wind of 
death raises thee: then thou shalt display thy wings, and wend thy 
way to the unknown realms which thy heart longs to inhabit.' 

'Arise soon, ye rapturous storms, and transport Rene into the 
spheres of another life!' Speaking thus, I walked with rapid steps, 
face glowiDg, the wind sighing through my locks, feeling neither 
rain nor frost, enchanted, tormented and seemingly possessed by 
the demon of my heart.' 

'At eight, while the north- wind was shaking my cottage, when 
the rain fell in torrents on my roof, when through my window I 
saw the moon ploughing through the huge broken clouds, like a 
white sailing vessel laboring amid the waves, I felt life redoubling 
from the bottom of my heart, I felt within me the power of the cre- 
ation of worlds. Oh! that I could impart to another the extasies 
I experienced! O God! hadst thou but given me a wife after my 
own heart ; if, as to our first father, thou hadst brought to me by 
the hand an Eve fashioned from myself * * * * * 
Heavenly Beauty, I would have knelt in adoration before thee ; 
then, clasping thee in my'arms, I would have prayed the Eternal to 
consecrate to thee the remainder of my life.' 

[Continuation forthcoming.] 

Self Intellectual Culture. 297 

Some Thoughts on Self Intellectual Culture. 


Continued from page 224. 

The exercise of intellect, and the improvement of language, are the 
two means by which we must lift ourselves and our race up to great- 
ness and power and independence: how clear and vast and pervading 
are these; how infinite (heir powers; how stupendous their results ! 
Just so it is with all human knowledge when reduced to its original 
elements; when analyzed and logically classed: simple, beautiful, easy 
of acquisition. All knowledge is science in the abstract. Science is 
the accumulated knowledge of many reduced and arranged, so as to 
be comprehensible to one. Art is nothing but the practice of science. 
Science has reference to mind: to matter and to morals; hence its pri- 
mary division into abstract science and natural and moral science; the 
first, embracing metaphysics, letters and language; the second, phys- 
sics, chemistry, physiology, and to which may be added mathematics, 
or the science of quantity ; and the third, covering an examination of 
our complex duties to our God, our country, our fellow-men and our- 
selves in all the relations and responsibilities, in which it is possible 
for us to be placed. These primary divisions may be subdivided so 
as to embrace every department of human knowledge of whatever 
character or description. 

Again : all knowledge is composed of simple ideas, and the under- 
standing of their agreements and their disagreements with each oth- 
er; and every new idea we acquire, and make our own, is a new and 
unquestionable advance in education. This may appear to be a rather 
homely and familial way of viewing the arts and sciences and litera- 
ture; but rest assured, it is the only intelligent and practically eorrect 
way. There is a disposition too prevalent, to throw around philos- 
ophy, in its enlarged sense, a veil of mystery and an aspect of auster- 
ity not belonging to it. It is contemplated by many as iorbidding in 
its appearance and complex in its structure, and as legitimately be- 
longing to a favored few, and beyond the reach of the great masses. 
It is supposed that opulence and illustrious birth and brilliant genius 
and the smiles of fortune, are indispensable in some way to become 
distinguished as scholars acd statesmen and jurists and divines. The 
history and circumstances of celebrated individuals are imagined to 
be different from those of others, as though some undefinable charm 
and uninterrupted prosperity and superior spirit presided over their 

Think ye, all those eminent men of this and other times, whose 
philosophy has enlightened, and whose eloquence has electrified, have 
never experienced the vicissitudes and trials and sorrows of life ? 
Think ye, their course from childhood to the grave, has been marked 
by cloudless sky and balmy breeze? Have storm and tempest and 
rock and billow, never shattered their tiny barks, or endangered their 
eventful lives, or shipwrecked some of their dearest hopes ? Had we 
leisure to draw aside the curtain, and look a little into the private 
history of a few distinguished individuals, who have flourished in 


298 Self Intellectual Culture. 

various countries, and at different periods of time ; and whose genius 
and scholarship have contributed so essentially to the improvement 
and happiness of our race ; and r-ee if theirs was a life of affluence 
and sunshine, or of trial and vicissitude, if I am not exceedingly mis- 
taken, we would find that very many of the most beloved and honored 
and gifted of men, have suffered with an intensity almost inconceiv- 
able ; have struggled with difficulties, which would appeal and over- 
whelm the mass of mankind, and have emerged from an obscurity and 
a poverty, that had they been ours, would have crushed forever our 
wavering resolutions and half developed energies. We would learn 
further, that dazzling genius and fertile imagination have less to do 
with eminence and tolid acquirement, than an iron resolution and in- 
domitable perseverance, These belong to all; are within the reach of 
all, and are indispensable to, and inseparable companions of all intel- 
lectual greatness. The corruscations of genius may startle by their 
brilliancy, and the creations of fancy compel our admiration, yet their 
existence is brief and evanescent unless they are supplied at the liv- 
ing fountains of knowledge by the untiring hand of industry. 

A narration of the early difficulties and struggles of eminent men 
in the pursuits of learning, and in their career to honor and renown, 
would furnish a truly rich and valuable lesson. The field of observ- 
ation is an extensive one, replete with interesting examples, and fur- 
nishing powerful motives of encouragement to all. If our youth 
would bestow a few moments of serious thought, upon their own so- 
cial position, their multiplied means of improvement, the numerous 
advantages they possess, and the respectable talents with which they 
are endowed, I think, they would avail themselves of every occasion 
and opportunity to devote themselves in the scale of intelligence. If 
our young men would diligently and earnestly cultivate all their ment- 
al powers, they would become respected, enlightened, and honored. 
If they would avoid scenes of dissipation, trifling conversation, and 
the formation of vicious habits; and by a judicious distribution of their 
time, and an unbroken determination, pursue a fixed and systematic 
course of instruction, they must and would ultimately rise to useful- 
ness, eminence and great learning. 

Every man, I care not what may be your situation, your age, your 
poverty, your associations, if you are true to your own powers, true 
to your country, true to your best interest, true to the cause of hu- 
manity, true to your own highest happiness, true to the genuine im- 
pulses and immortal responses of your own soul? you can rise above 
the mists of ignorance and prejudice to the bright, upper sky of phil- 
osophy and public usefulness. Though the morning of your life be 
dark and gloomy, full of crushing dispiur and perilous trial, yet its 
noon will become clear and beautiful, and the evening of your days 
will be bathed in the gorgeous splendors of an unbounded sun whose 
rays will illume your path with honor and glory. 

The poet has beautifully alluded to the stern energy required for 
success and distinction in life. 

"Thus at the flaming forge of life, 
Our fortunes must be wrought, 
Thus, on its sounding anvil shaped, 
Each burning deed and thought." 

Self Intellectual Culture. 299 

The examples furnsshed in the lives of distinguished persons will 
also prove highly interesting to the pale and thoughtful student, whose 
brow is lined with the deep traces of mental toil; whose days present 
one unbroken scene of conflict, and whose nights are consumed in si- 
lent secret, yet eloquent converse with the illustrious dead; they will 
cheer him on, and buoy him up in his trying journey, stimulate his 
jaded energies to renewed exertion, and present to him in distant 
prospect the noble rewards that will crown his efforts. Young man, 
"Look not mournfully into the past, it comes not again. Wisely im- 
prove the present, it is thine. Go forih to meet the shadowy future, 
without fear and with a manly heart." And 

"Men of thought be up and stirring, 

Night and day; 
Sow the seed — withdraw the curtain, 

Clear the way: 
Men of action — aid and cheer them, 

As ye may." 

In the pursuit of learning, it will be well to i?iquire, what studies 
hold a superior claim upon our attention. The departments of know- 
ledge are so numerous, and their details so nice and diversified, that 
it is impossible for any one mind to master all; and indeed among the 
large mass of the people a few only can be properly explored and 

On this branch of my subject I can only refer to a few subjects of 
study which appear to me to be invested with a more prominent and 
practical importance than others. 

A first leading principle would seem to be to pay particular atten- 
tion to that branch of knowledge most intimately connected with our 
condition and pursuits in life. That which relates to our business or 
profession is invested with a pervading and practical importance. It 
not only affects deeply our respectability in life, but involves largely 
our competent discharge of duty. By adopting a business or profes- 
sion, we hold ourselves out to the world as qualified in every respect 
for its faithful and intelligent discharge, and upon which presumption 
and reasonable expectation of ability and skill, axtensive and delicate 
interests are intrusted to our care: interests, perhaps, which involve 
the fortunes, the reputation, the lives and the happiness of others. 
To possess imperfect attainments here, or to be negligent in the study 
and mastering of the art and science of our calling, evidences a wan- 
ton disregard of our own highest interests and of the most serious 
duties of life. To be respectable in our profession, deserves no par- 
ticular praise ; for it involves a simple, plain, practical discharge of 
duty ; to be unqualified in our profession and interpose no efforts to 
redeem ourselves from our position, manifests gross neglect, and is 
deserving the most severe and unqualified animadversion. We ought 
then, by all means, and at every sacrifice, to master our business, un- 
derstand its philosophy, study its history, and become familiar with 
its art and mystery. This is indispensable to our respectability, pros- 
perity and happiness. Self-respect and all laudable ambition will be 
destroyed, unless we lay the foundations of our success in life, broad 
and deep, in a thorough appreciation of its principles und practice 
I would therefore urge most earnestly upon every young man, what- 
ever may be his calling in life, whether mechanical or commercial^. 

300 Self Intellectual Culture. 

professional or agricultural, to learn well and study deeply that cal- 
ling, investigate its reasons and elements, and master all its depart- 
ment and difficulties. He will thus experience a pride and consci- 
ousness of ability and mental wealth, that will inspire him with con- 
fidence and enable him to command the sincere respect and esteem of 

Another very essential branch of education is the study of the his- 
tory of our country and its civil and political institutions. In a Re- 
public like ours, where every citizen possesses political rights and 
influence, which may be exercised for the honor or disgrace of his 
country, the necessity of political information and a thorough com- 
prehension of the organization and purpose and end of government, 
cannot be too profoundly or earnestly impressed. No education can 
be valuable or complete without this. 

The history of our republic extends over a \erj brief period of 
time, but it is rich in heroic achievement, replete with sound political 
philosophy, and enters deeply into the whole structure of government 
and the rights of man. In the annals of no nation, have the nature 
and obligation of the social compact been so searchingly discussed, 
and the true institution and design of civil society so fearlessly can- 
vassed and accurately defined, as in our own. The bold and manly 
doe'rines avowed by the colonies in their remonstrances to the tyran- 
nical aggressions of Great Britain, the learned and elaborate exposi- 
tions of government by the revolutionary fathers on the adoption of 
the articles of confedeation, and the most comprehensive, accurate and 
exhausting investigations, which the nature and structure, the insti- 
tution and purpose of all human government underwent on the fram- 
ing and acceptance of the federal constitution, furnish lessons full of 
instruction and wisdom, and are invaluable to the patriot and states- 
man. No individual can be supposed capable of legislating intelli- 
gently for his country, or of participating in the administration of its 
laws with a profound conviction of his responsibility, unless he has 
drank deeply of these fountains of knowledge, and imbued his mind 
with their wisdom and generous spirit. The history of our revolu- 
tion is replete with illustrations of heroism and devotion to country, 
not surpassed in that of any other nation. Whatever adorns the hu- 
man character, whatever sustains human fortitude, whatever conse- 
crates lofty patriotism, whatever emblazens military renown, or what- 
ever evidences sterling virtue and a self-sacrificing, self-sustaining 
spirit amidst cloud and darkness, is manifested in the history of our 
Struggles and our triumphs in the cause of civil and religious liberty. 

The story of Grecian valor, and of Roman virtue, is celebrated in 
verse and in song, the chivalrous deeds of England's heroes and Sco- 
tia's kings adorn the pages of their history, and live in the traditions 
of their people; and the iron discipline and enduring fortitude of Rus- 
sia's soldiery, have become themes of wonder and admiration. But 
their struggles were the mere struggles of men for power and of 
kings tor prerogative. Tlieir revolutions were simply to elevate one 
class of tyrants upon the ruins of another; and their hard fought bat- 
tles and blond stained fields brought nought of civil freedom and re- 
deemed condition to a suffering people. The soldier poured out his 
blood and received his pittance and remained a slave; the general with 

Self Intellectual Culture. 301 

laurels crowned, bent his knee in servile homage before his lord and 
emperor. But the American revolution gave birth to an enlightened 
and regulated liberty. It was the offspring of redeemed mind, anim- 
ated by a sense of its oppression, and conscious of its rights, its pow- 
ers, and its duties. And the history and result of that revolution il- 
lustrate the determined purpose, the unquestionable zeal and the tri- 
umphant power of the people. And when the story of Greece and 
Rome shall be forgotten, the achievements of England and of Scotia 
remain unsung, and the crushing despotism of the haughty Muscovite 
be only remembered in the legends of tradition; the illustrious and be- 
loved name of Washington, and the gallant deeds of the other heroes, 
of the revolution will be Hsped by every tongue, and heard in every 
clime. And the battle-fields of our own country, and of wild, ro- 
mantic Switzerland, and of poor, degraded Poland, and of heroic, gen- 
erous, betrayed Hungary, now prostrate beneath the weight of the 
imperial empire; when the blood of the martyrs in the cause of liberty 
was shed, and their last expiring groans were heard, will become 
Sacred spots dear to the heart and hallowed in the memory of every 
free man. 

Let us then study most thoroughly, and love most devotedly our 
country. Let a knowledge of her institutions rank equal with her 
household gods. Let us teach our children to repeat the tale of her 
birth and the vicissitudes of her sufferings, and let their young and 
pliant minds be impressed with a sense of the value of their civil and 
social privileges. And that country so dear to us, securing so many 
blessings, preserving so many precious rights, and cherishing so many 
anxious hopes, may her union be eternal ; not a star striken out, not 
a stripe torn; her flag uniurled to the winds of heaven, and floating in 
peace and in triumph — now and forever, over a free, a united and a 
prosperous people. 

In this connection, I would urge the propiiety of the study of civil 
liberty as illustrated in the history of the past. It will warm our love 
of country, and teach us the value and use of freedom. It will en- 
lighten and liberalize our minds, and enlist our sympathies and our 
hopes in behalf of suffering humanity. 

I weuld also most earnestly commend to the most attentive consid- 
eretion of the enlightened youth the study of the moral sciences. 
They instruct us in the nature and value of our domestic and social 
relations, and the rights and duties springing therefrom. We ought 
to remember that in the exercise of our rights, and in the perform- 
ance of our duties, we will frequently come in conflict with others, 
who also have rights to be exercised and duties to be performed. And 
it becomes a matter of serious reflection and of conscience with us to 
respect those rights, and not do violence to those duties. We ought 
likewise to respect the opinions and feelings of those with whom we 
may have intercourse, however they may conflict with our own, for 
we all know the infirmities of our nature, the fallibility of our judg- 
ments, and the mutual dependence that exists among us. If we are 
ffxed in our opinions, and indignantly reject injury to our feelings, so 
are others equally fixed in their opinions, and sensitive in their feel- 
ings. And God has transferred to no man the right to pass judgment 
upon me, or to pronounce an idle sentence of condemnation upon any 

302 Self Intellectual Culture. 

paiticular views which I may sincerily cherish. These are matters 
between man and his Maker. 

The want of a thorough comprehension of the limitations of human 
responsibility, has led, and now leads, numerous well-meaning and 
orderly disposed citizens into an improper interference with the rights 
of others. Many reason from abstract principles without relation to 
the real condition of things, and thus attempt the justification of ac- 
tions and conduct which is neither approved hy the spirit of religion, 
nor sanctioned by the instructions of sound reasoning or experience. 
The conduct of certain classes of society would lead us to suppose 
that none others possessed rights and consciences excepting them- 
selves, that they wero exclusively right, and all others as exclusively 
wrong ; and that God held them responsible for all the sins of omis- 
sion and commission of the whole world. Let me, in a spiri: of kind- 
ness, most earnestly assure all such persons, whereever they may 
exist, or in whatever circle they may move, that each individual in 
society has a mind and conscience of his own, which he will exercise 
in determining upon his duties, their nature, extent and limitation ; 
and that lie alone will be responsible for their appropriate, honest and 
judicious exercise. Let them recollect that peradventure others may 
be ahle to see as clearly, to reason as profoundly, to judge as correctly 
and to draw conclusions as accurately as themselves ; and that a love 
of country and a christian spirit are best evidenced in the practice of 
mutual forbearance, in the exercise of a disinterested charity, in the 
cultivation of a spirit of conciliation and harmony, and in sacredly re- 
specting the rights, duties and privileges of others. These are in- 
dispensable to the well-heing of our government, and accord with the 
genius of our civil and social institutions. Our political union was 
the result of a noble and sublime spirit of compromise, concession and 
forbearance ; let the influence of that same spirit rest upon us, and 
prevail over us, now and always, in the discharge of our civil, social 
and religious obligations. 

In reaching the concluding portion of my subject, I regret that the 
length of the article will not permit more than a brief allusion to it. 
My previous observations will prove comparatively useless unless I can 
to some extent, interest or endeavor to interest the young mind in the 
pursuits of learning by referring to the encouragements that animate 
and the rewards that most assuredly follow all intellectual effort when 
judiciously directed and diligently pursued. 

The theme is an inspiring one. It appeals earnestly, eloquently to 
us all. I would love to dwell upon it. I would love to expatiate 
upon its merits, sketch i r s outline with graphic pencil, and paint in 
vivid colors its dazzling glories. I would love to trace the unfolding 
of the mind from prattling infancy brilliant in the sunshine of hope 
and innocence, to eloquent and venerable old age, ripe in years and 
honors. I would love to watch the growth of its youthful hopes, its 
early efforts, its maturer years and its last advances to greatness and 
to power. I would love to recite the simple, yet thrilling tale of the 
crushed hopes, the agonizing sorrows and the perilous vicissitudes of 
genius ; its rise, its progress, and its splendor : how it labored and 
struggled for its existence; how it toiled in the field and in the work- 
shop; how the cold chill of disappointment nipped its young and ten- 

Self Intellectual Culture. 303 

der blossoms ; how the cruel world scowled upon it in its first suc- 
cessful dawnings into active life; how it alternated between hope and 
fear midst the bosom of cloud and storm and darkness ; how, at last, 
it triumphed over every adversity, overthrew every barrier that ob- 
structed its progress, and burst in its full and matured majesty upon 
the vision of an astonished world. I would love to call back to this 
life the spirits of those illustrious dead whose works are consecrated 
in our memories and in our affections, and ask them if they would ex- 
change the glories and triumphs of learning for the richest jewels and 
the mightiest honors of earth. I would love to penetrate the youthful 
mind with the value and beauty of knowledge ; to expatiate upon its 
nature, its personality, its intransmissibility and its permanence; 
to illustrate and enforce the necessity of perseverance and energy, 
and to point out the respectability and honor and distinction invariably 
attendant upon all steady, well directed and resolute effort ; and thus 
enlist his affections and animate his exertions and cheer and establish 
his hopes in the cause of human progress. In the course of our pre- 
vious remarks some of these subjects have been incidentally alluded 
to, and this article is already extended to a greater length than orig- 
inally intended. 

I have written warmly and earnestly in behalf of individual educa- 
tion. My design has been to awaken an interest in this important 
subject, and to arouse the young mind to a sense of the absolute and 
overwhelming necessity of its early and careful cultivation. How far 
I have succeeded I know not; perhaps the time employed in the effort 
might have been more profitably expended ; yet, if I have stirred up 
one mind to thought and action: if I have thrown abroad a single sen- 
timent which may be caught up and rendered useful; if I have elicited 
a single ray of light to illume the dark and lone path of the care worn 
student in his wanderings to honor and to fame ; if I have touched 
though with a rude hand the string in which the soul's harmonies are 
wrapped up, so that ifs vibrations pour forth that soul's music, if 
there is one mind which after reading this, feels more of renewed 
effort, more of awakened hope, more of re-animated energy to perse- 
vere in his toils, then I am amply repaid and satisfied. 

I wish to see the fabric of mind built up and unfolded in all its 
massive grandeur and beautiful proportion. I wish to diffuse the 
lights of learning, to enthrone the majesty of genius, and to lay broader 
and deeper the foundations of the greatness and opulence and splen- 
dor of a country so dear as is our own to every American heart, and 
which promises in the lapse of centuries untold happiness to countless 
millions. Esto perpetua. 

There is one more thought connected with this exciting theme to which 
I must allude. It is near and dear to my heart. It has been cherished 
as the miser, his hoarded treasure or the young mother, her first- born. 
It has again and again cast forth its heaven light, dispersing the sur- 
rounding darkness, and cheering and reanimating my desponding 
hopes. It is the eternity of mind. Aye, its eternity of existence. The 
massive structures of art may crumble into dust, and the noblest 
achievements of genius lie prostrate beneath the storms of time ; yet 
the mind, the immortal mind will survive with all its mysterious fac- 
ulties, its rich possessions and its glorious endowments. Genius and 

304 Self Intellectual Culture. 

imagination, taste and sensibility, science, literature and the arts, all 

that elevates and refines and ennobles and adorns our spiritual nature, 

they, too, will survive ; and justice herself will survive with all the 

relations on which her existence depends, she has her abiding place 

on earth, her' throne in heaven, and her existence in intelligent mind. 

Not more giftedly than sublimely has the poet sung ; when speaking 

of the immortality of* the human mind, he exclaims: 

"The stars shall fade away, the sun himself 
Grow dim with age, and nature sink in years; 
But thou shalt flourish in immortal youth, 
Unhurt, amid the war of elements, 
The wreck of matter and the crush of worlds!" 

We live in a period of time where powerful and organized and un- 
exampled efforts are making to multiply the means of education, and 
render purer and moje enligh'.ened the public sentiment. Mighty 
agents and controlling elements are at work everywhere where Chris- 
tianity and civilization have sown their seeds and planted their stand- 
ard : and if we do not act with decision and energy, we shall soon be 
left very far behind those aroui d us. We cannot pause, if we would. 
There is no time for deliberation. Surely as water seeks its level, 
surely as to-morrow's sun will rise, surely as civilization elevates the 
human race, and religion consecrates the best affections : so surely 
will we be driven into the back ground, if we are not active and in- 
telligent and persevering in our efforts. 

We must conduct ourselves as individuals conscious of our position 
in society and resolved to perform our duty. The age is full of inter- 
est, excitement, hope, change ; and we must imbue our minds and 
hearts with its spirit and genius, and launch our enterprize with a 
generous confidence upon the current of passing events, if we really 
hope to preserve our learning, our religion and our civilization. There 
is no other means of progress, no other means of advancement in the 
arts and sciences, no other means of attaining perfection in all which 
adorns human character, and imparts value to social intercourse. To 
these we must look, and upon these we must rely. Come cloud or 
sunshine, prosperity or adversity, liberty or revolution, we must, we 
are bound by the most solemn considerations, we are invoked by the 
spirit of eternal justice and the genius of the loftiest patriotism to 
sustain all those means, and strengthen and sanctify all those institu- 
tions, religious and eleemosinary, literary and scientific which confer in- 
dividual happiness, develop the social virtues, and establish and per- 
petuate national freedom and independence. 

I cannot more appropriately conclude this article than by quoting 
the lofty sentiment and beautiful language of one of our mostprofound 
statesman and gifted orator, himself a splendid illustration of the in- 
fluence of individual effort and free institutions in elevating: the man 
from the obscurity of private life to the proudest and most command- 
ing position in our republic : 

"Our proper business is improvement. Let our age be the age of 
improvement. In a day of peace, let us advance the arts of peace and 
the works of peace. Let us develop the resources of our land, call 
forth its powers, build up its institutions, promote all its great inter- 
ests, and see whether we also in our day and generation may not per- 
form something worthy to be remembered. Let us cuttivate a true 

Valley of the Ohio. 305 

spirit of union and harmony. In pursuing the great objects which our 
condi'.ion points out to us, let us act under a settled conviction and an 
habitual feeling, that these thirty-one States are one country. Let 
our conceptions be enlarged to the circle of our duties. Let us ex- 
tend our ideas over the whole vast field in which we are called to 
act. Let our object be our country, our whole country, and nothing 
but our country. And by the blessing of God may that country it- 
self become avast and splendid monument, not of oppression and ter- 
ror, but of wisdom and peace and of liberty, upon which the world 
may gaze with admiration forever." 

Valley of the Ohio. 


Continued from page 228, vol. XI. No. 68. 

In despite of these dangers and difficulties so graphically and truth- 
fully pourtrayed by the historian Marshall, who had acted his part in 
all these vaiious scenes, struggling for life with the wilderness and a 
wily and savage foe, "there were from a review of the records" more 
improvements, as cultivation and buildings are expressively termed, 
"with a view to future settlement in this year (1776), than in any 
other." Nor were these dispersed parties in so wide a territory so 
generally exposed as in the fixed and notorious forts. 

After the fort at Boonesborough had been completed, Boone re- 
turned to North Carolina, a second time, in order to bring his family 
to Kentucky. He had attempted this in 1773, "in company with five 
families and forty men who joined," as he says, "in Powell's valley, 
150 miles from the now settled parts of Kentucky. But on the 10th 
of October, 1773, says the same brave old woodsman, "the rear of our 
company was attacked by a number of Indians, who killed six men and 
wounded one; of those my oldest son was one that fell in the action."* 
This severe repulse had deterred the party from prosecuting 
their daring enterprise, until the time just mentioned. When 
MeGary's party had arrived at the head of Dicks river, Boone, 
with twenty-one men, went to Boonesborough, and left his pre- 
vious associates to find their way, as well as they could, by his 
directions, through the pathless forest to Harrodstown. At the time 
of our narrative, there were but four cabins at this place, and five 
old soldiers in them, who had followed James Harrod from the Mon- 
ongahela country. This distinguished explorer, (of whom so little is 
known beyond the kind, affectionate character given him by Mc 
Humphrey Marshall,) had likewise settled a place known as Harrod's 
station, about six miles east of Harrodsburg, on the present road from 
that place to Danville 

* Filson. 

306 Valley of the Ohio. 

The families with McGary, having got bewildered, while the hors- 
es and cattle were left with the boys, James Ray, John Denton and 
John Hays, then between 14 or 15 years of age, opposite to the mouth 
of Gilbert's creek, on the east side of Dick's river, the residue of the 
party attempted the route by themselves ; but McGary, finding no 
passage at the mouth of Dick's river for the families, on account oj 
the precipitous cliffs which overhung the river, went by himself to 
explore the way. By accident he fell on the path between Harrods- 
burg and Harrod's station, and taking the eastern end, it brought him 
to the latter place, where he got Josiah Harlan, of lamented memory, 
to pilot the families, as well as the three boys, (who had been left 
behind to watch the stock of ca'tle,) in safety to Harrodsburg. Thus 
was formed the first domestic circle of Harrodsburg by Mrs. Denton, 
Mrs. McGary and Mrs. Hogan with their families; where was lately 
the resort of the gayest of the gay among the fashionables of the West 
and the South. 

The younger woodsmen of whom mention had been made, were 
not, however, relieved until three weeks had elapsed, instead of three 
days as first promised them by McGary, when they were left on this 
forlorn hope. Does it not speak volumes for the hardihood of the 
times, that three boys of such immature years should be left for three 
weeks bv themselves in an Indian wilderness ! To add to their dis- 
tress, they could not have forgotten the fall of three other beys, the 
eldest hopes of three families, who had been killed by the Indians in 
1773, at the first attempt of Boone and his company to remove their 
families to the wilderness of Kentucky. They had been left, almost 
under similar circumstances, to collect some stray horses in Powell's 
Valley, when on their route. One of those premature victims to In- 
dian hostility had been a playmate of James Ray, in North Carolina. 

During the winter of 1775 and 1776, was begun the fort of Har- 
rodstown, (or Harrodsburg, as it is now better known,) of enduring 
importance in the early history of Kentucky. 

The second attempt of Boone to remove his family to Kentucky 
just mentioned, seems to have been made about September, 1776. 
It was in company with a party consisting of Hugh McGary, [after- 
wards so notorious,] Richard Hogan, and Thomas Denton, with their 
families, constituting together with Boone and his mere immediate 
companions, in the language o( the times, twenty-seven guns ; that is 
equivalent to twenty-seven fighting men. This party assembled at 
Powell's Valley, on the head of Holsfon river, after having waited 
three months for the junction of Boone's company. They had sent 
one John Harman before them to raise a crop of corn at Harrodsburg. 
This labor lie performed, in a field east of the present town, where 
John Thompson lived in 1833. This party seems to have been un- 
molested; and Boone only says: "we arrived safe without any other 
difficulties than such as are common to this purpose ; my wife and 
daughter being the first white women that ever st^od on the banks of 
the Kentucky river." When McGary's parly had arrived at the head 
of Dick's river, [a tributary of the Kentucky,] they separated! rom 
Boone, who with twenty-one men took their course to the new fort, 
at Boonesborough; leaving their previous associates to find their way 
to Harrodstovvn. 

Valley of the Ohio. 307 

At the time of our narrative, there were about four cabins at this 
latter place, one of which was alone inhabited, and five old soldiers in 
it, who had followed James Harrod from the Monongahela country. 
This distinguished explorer had likewise settled a place, known as 
Harrod's station, about six miles south-east of Harrodsburg. 

Scarcely had the fort of Boonesboro' been roughly and loosely con- 
structed, certainly not finished, till the 14th of June, 1775, than these 
hardy pioneers carrying- with them into the wilderness the manly 
principles of their British ancestors, undertook to organize a form of 
government in these distant and almost uninhabited forests. This is 
an interesting portion of western history little dwelt on, and not suf- 
ficiently known. It has not received the slightest notice from the 
earliest historians, not even from the well informed Blarshall. The 
whole affairs of Henderson & Co. seem to have been ignored by this 
author. But, however unfounded the claims of the company were ; 
they issued grants of land to a great extent; so that by the 1st of De- 
cember, 1775, 560,000 acres of land were entered, as is presumed, 
in their office. Deeds of great formality were issued by (his compa- 
ny, calling themselves "Proprietors of the Colony of Transylvania." 
By these deeds, the grantees under the company, bound themselves 
to pay them "one moiety or half part of all gold, silver, copper, lead 
or sulphur mines; and moreover to pay the company a rent, as might 
be agreed on "yearly and for every year." The pertalty for not pay- 
ing this rent, was provided for by a covenant, "that if no sufficient 
distress can be found on the premises, wdiereon itshall be lawful for 
said company to levy such rent, or arrears, with full costs, charges 
and expenses in making and levying the same, then the present grant 
and all assignment shall be void and of none effect." The company 
then reserved a right, "to reenter into the said lands, and regrant the 
same to any other person or persons whatsoever."* Had this com- 
pany retained its title, they would, within their purchase, have been 
under a quit rent to those great proprietors forever. 

It is, however, much to be doubted whether the high temper of the 
western people amidst the vast wilderness of uncultivated land, would 
have submitted to a state of things which had been a constant source 
of heart burnings in the elder colonies, and has continued to our own 
times in the State of New York. Sooner, indeed, than have been 
anything less than fee simple or allodial proprietors, the hunters of 
the West, (had they not risen in arms,) would have abandoned the 
country to those land proprietors for lands to be freely obtained, in 
terms more suitable to their interests and their feelings. Symptoms 
of slight hold these terms had upon the hearts of the people, may be 
inferred from the fact that upon the earliest manifestations of Indian 
hostilities, 300 men are said to have left the country by July, 1776. f 
Col. Clark intimates the same, in his memoir, which will hereafter 
invite the reader's attention. In this, he remarks, that the company 
took great pains to ingratiate themselves in the favor of the people ; 
but, too soon for- their own interest, began to raise upon their lands 
which caused many complain." 

* Deeds of the Transylvania Company, in the Henderson Papers. 
f Correspondence of Col. Floyd. 


Fragment of Faust. 

Notwithstanding these discontents incident to frontier life, the set- 
tlers under the company soon proceeded to organize a governmen 
for the infant colony. Nor is it one of the least curious in the history 
of our pioneers, while engaged amidst the perils of wilderness life. 

Fragment of Faust. 


mahgaret's room. 

Margaret at the spinning- wheel, alone 

My heart is sad, 
My rest is o'er ; 
1-11 find it never, 
No, never more. 

The grave'a my lot 3 
Where he is not ; 
To me the world 

'S in ruin hurl'd. 

Oh my poor head 
Is all amazed, 
And my poor sense 
Seems to me crazed. 

My heart is sad, Sec. 

But for him look I 
Through the window out, 
But lor him go T 
From home about. 

His lofty gait. 
His smiling lips I prize, 
His noble figure, 
His fove-lit beaming eyes. 

His words of magic, 
Thrilling bliss, 
His pressing hand, 
And Ah ! his kiss ! 

My heart is sad, Sec. 

To be near him, 
My breast presses. 
Did 1. not Tear him, 
With wild caresses, 

My heart confesses, 
Clinging, kissing, I 
Would, kisses, 

Be glad to die. 

©rctcfrcng <§tuJ&c* 

©ret d) en am ©pin urate all tin, 

3Heme SRuiV ift hut, 
9Jiein £>cr, if! fdnrev ; 
3d) fmte fie rummer 
Uut mmnrcrmel r. 

38o id) itnt nid)t haV 
3 ft nitr bag ftjrab, 
"Lit sanje SOelt 
3ft mit uevijdtif* 

9J?cin armet Sopf 
3ft rrttr bemidtt, 

9)iein armer Sinn 
3ft mir jerftiict't. 

SSJJeine SRutT «tf &«»V «• 

91 ad) ilmt nuv fcfeau' icb 
Sum 5cnftcr lu'iuuu?, 
9cact) i!m nuv gel)' id) 
Shi* bent $aus, 

©em l^ohcr 63aug, 
©cine cbie ©eftalt, 
(Sn'ncs? 2Jtunbe$ VacMtt, 
©einerShnjcu (SJcivait. 

llnb friner Jftebe 
3a utcrflMtj, 
©em ^firrbebrucf, 
Uut net) fern ftufj ! 

s»ictnc9?ut) tft Irn jc. 

fBWti SBufen brjinjt 
iRict) nadj ihn tin, 
2!ri) tiirfte id) faffen 
Hub linlten t$n !- 

Unb fiijffii il'it 
©o tote id) toottt ! 
21 n fcincn ftiiffeit 
8Sergei)en foltt't 



VOL. XI. February, 1854. No. V. 

Article I. 
River and Harbor Improvements by the States. 

The proposition to improve rivers and harbors by authorizing 
individual States to collect tonnage duties for those objects, has 
recently assumed a prominence which seems to challenge investi- 
gation. It is about two years since this new system was first sug- 
gested : and though, as we believe, it received no encouragement 
from the people of the West — the region where improvements are 
most needed — we nevertheless find it shadowed forth in the Presi- 
dent's' Message to the First session of the Thirty-third Congress, 
and subsequently more fully developed in a communication from a 
western Senator to the Governor of the State of Illinois, with a 
request that the subject should be submitted to the Legislature of 
that State for its consideration. 

Assuming that the communication of Senator Douglas was de- 
signed as an expose of the evils of the present system, and also to 
point out the means of accomplishing the improvement of rivers 
and harbors, in a shorter period, and at less expense, than if left 
under the control of the General Government, we propose to sub- 
mit some reflections of our own to the serious consideration of 
western men. 

We most fully agree with Senator Douglas in repudiating, "as 
unreasonable and unjust, all injurious discriminations predicated 
upon salt water and tidal arguments," and furthermore "insist 
that if the power of Congress to protect navigation has any exists 
ence in the constitution, it reaches every portion of the Union 
where the water is in fact navigable, and. only ceases where the 
fact fails to exist." The author proceeds to say "this power has 
been affirmed in some form, and exercised to a greater or less ex- 


310 River and Harbor Improvements 

tent, by each successive Congress and every administration since 
the adoption of the Federal Constitution." 

But it is now proposed to transfer this power to the individual 
States with authority to collect tonnage duties, to enable them to 
make such improvements in their rivers and harbors as the wants 
of commerce may require. The reasons assigned for this change 
of system are, the vacilating policy of the General Government in 
respect to the improvement of rivers in the West, and harbors on 
the northern lakes ; the difficulty of obtaining appropriations for 
proper objects without embracing others which ought to be reject- 
ed; and the want cf efficiency, on the part of the government, in 
prosecuting all works of this nature. 

We acknowledge the full force of these reasons, and many are 
the evils which the West has suffered in consequence of their exist- 
ence. But if there were no legal objections to the scheme pro- 
posed, and were it certain that all the States would agree to co- 
operate and enter upon the work without delay, yet there are suf- 
ficient reasons, as we believe, why the Western States should not 
consent to the change proposed. 

In noticing some of the objections which seem to have been 
ur»ed against the system, the author says: "No matter who is in- 
trusted with the construction of the works, somebody must foot 
the bill." And in another place he says : "inasmuch as the ex- 
pense of constructing river and harbor improvements must, under 
either plan, be defrayed by a tax upon commerce in the first in- 
stance, and finally upon the whole people interested in that com- 
merce, I am of the opinion that the burdens would be less under 
the system referred to in the message than by appropriations from 
the Federal treasury." This may be true as a general proportion 
embracing the entire circle of domestic and foreign commerce, but 
it appears obvious to our view that were the Western States to un- 
dertake the improvement of their own rivers by collecting tonnage 
duties to defray the cost, a much larger portion of the burden 
must be borne by them than by the consumers of their products, 
either in the Eastern States or in Europe. A duty on tonnage 
affects exports as well as imports, and the producer who should 
pay one dollar for the privilege of landing a hogshead of tobacco 
in St. Louis, would never find a market at home or abroad where 
he could sell the commodity for anything more than if it had been 
entered iree of duty. In this case the tax is not upon commerce) 

by the States. 311 

but upon the producer, upon agriculture. It is true, if Missouri 
were to undertake the improvement of her own rivers and harbors, 
the amount of national revenue required to be collected would be 
less than if the work were done at the charge of the General Gov- 
ernment; but, under the new system, Missouri would bear the entire 
burden of the improvement, and still contribute her full proportion 
to the revenue collected by the nation for all other objects. In- 
deed this would be a most humiliating acquiescence in all the "in- 
jurious discriminations predicated upon salt water and tidal argu- 
ment," which have been made since the adoption of the Federal 
constitution. The people of the West have been paying taxes for 
more than sixty years to aid in making improvements on the At- 
lantic Coast, and now it is proposed to give them the privilege of 
making their own improvements by taxing themselves. And this 
too, at a time when the accumulation of money in the national 
treasury is a source of embarrassment to the government as well 
as to commerce. 

The duties on the commerce of the United States are collected 
chiefly at New York, and other eastern cities, and a just policy 
would seem to require that the disbursements from the national 
treasury should be distributed as equally throughout the Union as 
the nature of the case, will admit. In a financial view, this new 
system would operate with decided effect against the Western 
States: for whilst the duties paid on the foreign merchandize which 
they consume would be disbursed in other parts of the country, 
they would be compelled to withdraw a portion of their finances 
from commerce and other objects to carry on their works of im- 

One of the principal arguments in favor of this system is based 
upon the immediate necessity of improving western rivers and har- 
bors, and the delays incident to the prosecution of all such works 
by the General Government. But when will the Territories and 
new States bordering on the Missouri and upper Mississippi pos- 
sess a sufficient amount of commerce to improve the navigation of 
those rivers within their borders ? Contending with all the priva- 
tions incident to the settlement of new countries ; remote from 
the great markets; producing but little to export, and paying high 
prices for their imports; is it reasonable or just to expect that they 
would add still more to. their privations and burdens by collecting 
a tonnage duty to improve their rivers ? The case of these nerc 

312 River and Harbor Improvements 

districts is a just illustration of the principle which pervades the 
whole plan: a principle which discriminates in favor of the strong 
and against the weak. 

But all these objections to the policy of the measure aside, we 
hold that the plan cannot be carried into effect without conflicting 
with the rights of the States. The 6th clause of section 9, article 
1, of the Constitution of the United States declares that "No pre- 
ference shall be given by any regulation of commerce or revenue 
to the ports of one State over those of another : nor shall vessels 
bound to, or from, one State be obliged to enter, clear, or pay 
duties in another." Now it is possible that an astute legislator 
might contrive some way to evade this very plain clause of the 
constitution, but we are persuaded that it would be exceedingly 
difficult to devise an efficient plan that would be sustained by the 
courts. It is true, the States, by consent of Congress, may lay a 
duty of tonnage ; nor does the third clause of the tenth section 
of the first article, in which this provision is found, limit this priv- 
ilege to any particular class of vessels : indeed there would have 
been no propriety in doing so, for the limitation is contained in 
the sixth clause of section ten. Hence, it is most obvious that the 
power to lay a duty of tonnage by consent of Congress is limited 
to foreign vessels. 

But more than this, the compact entered into between the State 
of Missouri and the United States, when the former was admitted 
into the Union, provides "that the river Mississippi, and the nav- 
igable rivers and waters leading into the same, shall be common 
highways, and forever free, as well to the inhabitants of the said 
State as to other citizens of the United States, without any tax, 
duty, imposts, or toll, therefor imposed by the said State." This 
is something more than an act of Congress. It is a compact be- 
tween two governments entered into and executed by the parties — 
it can neither be repealed nor modified by Congress. Similar 
provisions are contained in the acts authorizing the admission of 
Louisiana, Mississippi, and Iowa into the Union. 

In view of these facts, we do not hesitate to affirm, even against 
the opinions of the President and Senator Douglas, that Crngress 
possesses no power to authorize any State to lay and collect ton- 
nage duties on boats or vessels navigating the river Mississippi or 
its tributaries, for the purpose of improving the navigation thereof, 
except in case of foreign vessels. 

by the States. 313 

But should we be mistaken in respect to the power of Congress 
and of the States over the subject, we are persuaded that it would 
be as difficult to bring the States to act in concert, as it has been 
or as it will be in future, to obtain appropriations from the nation- 
al legislature. Nor would there be much gained, we believe, in 
the economy of either time or money by transferring the work to 
the States; for in general they have not shown more efficiency or 
economy in such matters than the General Government. 

But again, let it be admitted that there is no question in re- 
spect to the power of Congress over the subject ; that the States 
will agree to act promptly, and that the work can be accomplished 
in a reasonable time and at the least possible expense; yet, we ask, 
would the people of the Western States accept of the poor privi- 
lege of taxing themselves to enable them to do what it is the duty 
of the nation to perform ? Are they, as American citizens, willing 
to acknowledge before the world that their government is not only 
incapable of accomplishing a reasonable undertaking, but that it 
obstinately persists in refusing to do justice to its constituents ? 
Are they willing that the commerce and general prosperity of the 
new States and Territories adjacent to the waters flowing into the 
Mississippi should be crippled and impeded for the want of navi- 
gation, until under all their difficulties and privations they grow rich 
enough to make their own improvements? Are they prepared toadopt 
a policy calculated to foster and add still more to the money pow- 
er of the East by compelling our produce and imports to take the 
railroads to and from eastern markets instead of taking the na- 
tural channels by water ? 

We cannot believe that the people of the West would blindly 
stultify themselves by the adoption of such a system as that pro- 
posed by the President, and advocated by Senator Dougias, even 
if it were not in violation of the constitution and laws of the coun- 
try. We trust they will persist in claiming justice at the hands of 
Congress without abatement of their rights. The difficulties and 
delays which have been encountered in obtaining appropriations 
for the improvement of rivers and harbors, in times past, arose in 
a great measure from a lack of cordial and earnest co-operation 
on the part of western men and western politicians. Have they 
not abandoned and sacrificed their interest to party discipline, di- 
vided their strength between northern and southern parties, lead 
on by fanatics on one hand, and political abstractionists on the 

314 River and Harbor Improvements by the States. 

other ? If so. let us not charge Congress with injustice, but our- 
selves with folly. The North, the East, and the South, have each 
a sectional policy and local interests to promote, and whatever be 
the politics of the people, their public policy is shaped with refer- 
ence to their respective interests: the West has local interests, but 
her people have never agreed upon a western policy ; hence she 
can exert but little power in the councils of the nation in favor of 
western measures. We deprecate sectional or local legislation; 
but from the nature of our institutions, it is philosophical and just 
that each important section of the Union should form their public 
Policy in reference to their own peculiar interests. And we are per- 
suaded that until the social and moral condition of men shall at- 
tain to a higher standard, this is the only principle upon which 
justice can be obtained by all the various sections of the Union at 
the hands of the national legislature. 

We charge no individual with neglect of western interest. The 
acts of our public men are matters of record; it is no part of our 
present design to examine them. But we must be allowed to ex- 
press our regret that one of the champions of the West and of west- 
ern interests has felt himself compelled to acknowledge, in effect, 
that it is folly to indulge the hope that Congress will ever do just- 
ice to the Western States in respect to the improvement of their 
rivers and harbors. And who can hope when the heart of Senator 
Douglas fails? We know he has labored long and valiantly in the 
cause, and though dismayed, we hope to see him return again to 
the charge. We trust, however, that his communication to the 
Governor and Legislature of Illinois will do good to the cause: it 
may be the means of awakening an inquiry into the true reasons 
why justice to the West has been so difficult to obtain, andsolong 
delayed, and induce them to resolve with one consent to make all 
party considerations subservient to their claims upon Congress for 
ample appropriations to improve their rivers and harbors. Let 
them do this, and be firm, and our word for it, we shall never 
again have a reasonable cause to charge Congress with injustice to 
the West in respect to the subject of river and harbor improve- 

The Cotton Trade. 315 

Article II. 

[From Hunt's Merchants' Magazine.] 

The Cotton Trade. 


In presenting to your readers the statistics of the cotton trade 
for the past year, I am compelled by unavoidable circumstances to 
omit any remarks or suggestions they might present to me. The 
figures, however, will not be dry or uninteresting, so numerous 
and varied are the interests connected with this branch of our agri- 
culture and Commerce. 

Consumption.— In England the demand for 1853 has been less 
than for the preceding year, but only a little less. In the first 
half of the year the amount worked up by the mills was really 
larger than in 1852; but the Turkish troubles, and the high price 
of corn, has reduced the consumption very considerably. The 
Liverpool deliveries to the trade, which constitute more than 95 
per cent, of the whole purchases of the manufacturers, have been 
for the two years as follows : — 

Liverpool Delivery. Weeicly Consumption. 

1853. 1852. 1853. 1852. 

Bales Bales. Bales. Bales. 

May 6 683,000 630,000 38,000 35,000 

June 3 833,270 870,140 37,900 39,500 

Julyl 989,550 1,000,610 38,100 38,400 

August 5 1,202,650 1,194,400 38,800 38,500 

September 2.... 1,306,420 1.340,000 37,300 38,400 

October 7 1,429,740 1,520,040 35,700 38,000 

November 4.... 1,545,250 1,701,470 35,100 38,700 

" 11 1,578,150 1,718,700 35,100 38,200 

" 18 1,609,500 1,731,100 35,000 37,600 

For the whole year the consumption of Great Britain for 1852 
was 1.861,200 bales, against 1,663,400 for 1851, and 1,514,500 
for 1850, and 1,474,420 for the average of the five preceding 
years. The falling off for 1854 is not so great as would appear 
by the reported deliveries, since the stocks in the hands of the 
manufacturers were estimated to be 50,000 bales more than usual 
on the first of January last, and at the present time they are sup- 
posed to be uncommonly low. 

The demand for the coming year must decline. The high price 
of food must seriously interfere with the domestic consumption or 
Great Britain. When the cost of the English quarter of wheat is 
now [according to the average of the 12th of November] 73s. Id. 
against 40s. for 1852, the portion of their wages which the laborer 
and artisan can spare for clothing is much diminished. The scarc- 
ity of moaey, as indicated by an advance in the rate of interest 
from 2 to 5 per cent., must also discourage the wants of the home 

316 The Cotton Trade. 

trade. The favorable circumstances, such as the high price of 
iron, the general advance in wages, the abundance of work for the 
laborer, the diminution in the number of paupers, will be alike 
operative for both years. The export trade will be seriously em- 
barrassed by the war between Turkey and Russia. The calicoes 
sent to Turkey and the Levant, including the plain, printed, and 
dyed, approach 100,000,000 yards per annum, which is 10 or 12 
per cent of the whole export. The cotton yarn is 7 or 8 per cent. 
The calicoes bought by Russia are few. but the yarn is nearly as 
much as that sent to Turkey. The demand from both these coun- 
tries must be very much decreased by the war. From Austria and 
the other German States a decline must be expected from the same 
cause. The revolution in China will seriously interrupt the ex- 
ports to that country. The cotton cloths sold by Great Britain 
alone to this populous empire are larger than what is taken by Russia 
and Turkey together. The possession of Nankin, and the control 
of the great canal by the rebels, the occupation of Amoy and 
Shanghai, two of the five open ports, by lawless usurpers and 
robbers in whom the merchants place no conSdence, the famine at 
Pekin, and the alarm and distrust at Canton, will largej curtail 
the English exports to the Celestial Empire. From Australia and 
India, the United States and Canada, no falling off may be anti- 
cipated ; but if we notice the very large business done with these 
important countries for the year 1858, no increase can be expect- 
ed for 1854. The failure of the harvests in Lombardy, France, 
and Germany, and the high price of food in all parts of the con- 
tinent of Europe, will lessen the demand for English cottons. Ev- 
erywhere, both at home and abroad, the prospects of the English 
manufacturers are discouraging. 

Under these circumstances, it maybe expected that the increase 
in the consumption of 1852 and 1853 over previous years will be 
entirely lost, and that the wants of Great Britain for 1854 
will not much exceed the average of 1849, 1850, and .1851, which 
was 1,589,400 bales. It may reach 1,700,000, but its probable 
limit is 1,600,000 bales. 

In France the consumption for 1853 is nearly as large as for 
1852, and both are decidedly above those of previous years. The 
deliveries at Havre up to the 10th of November were 349,045 
bales, against 367,587 for 1852, and 275,764 for 1851. Our ex- 
ports to France for 1852 and 1853 have been 421,375 and 426,- 
728 bales ; but the stocks on the 16th of November were 36,716 
bales in excess of last year, and 37,200 bales over 1851. This 
would indicate a probable consumption of American cotton for the 
present year of 390,000 bales ; but on account of the unfavorable 
circumstances at the close of the year, this amount will scarcely 
be attained. The very great deficiency of the French harvest will 
lessen the demand for 1854: but as past experience shows that the 
consumption in the French factories is much more regular than in 

The Cotton Trade. 317 

England, the wants for the coming year of American cotton will 
not probably fall below 350,000 bales. 

The demand for United States cotton on the continent of Europe 
has not declined for the year 1853. Our exports to those coun- 
tries are larger than ever before, and the same is true of the Eng- 
lish exports. Ours have been 364,812 bales, against 353,522 for 
1852, and 269,000 for 1851. The exports from Liverpool, up to 
November 18th, were 237,540 bales, those of 1852 having been 
219,430. The sum of these two for the whole year 1852 was 
636,322 bales, and for 1853 they will be larger. The consumption 
in the German States, and even in Russia, will suffer but little de- 
cline as the demand has for many years been advancing with great 
steadiness and regularity. For 1854, these countries will probably 
require not less than 600,000 bales. 

For the last year the consumption of the United States has ad- 
vanced from 603,029 bales to 671,009. The general prosperity 
of the New England manufacturers and of the country at large, 
warrants the anticipation of an increase in this demand. The 
stringency in the money market and the decline in the probable de- 
mand for exportation to China, will be more than made up by the 
increased population of our country, the prosperity of the farmers 
on account of the high price of breadstufi's, and the abundant crops 
which have generally rewarded the labors of the husbandman. For 
the coming year the wants of our manufacturers will probably 
reach 700,000 bales. 

The following table comprises the consumption of 1851 and 
1852, the probable result for 1853, and the estimate for 1854: — 

Result for Estimate for 

1851. 1852. 1853. 1854. 

Hales. Bales. Rales. Bales. 

Wants of G. Britain. ..1,063,000 1,861,000 1,700,000 1,600,000 

» France 310,000 410,000 375,000 350,000 

" United States.. 404,000 603.000 671,000 700,000 
" other countries. 538,000 636,000 650,000 600,000 

Total 2,915,000 3,510,000 3,396,000 3,250,000 

Supply. — In the U. S., a falling off in the receipts will be every- 
where experienced; but the deficiency will not be large. The prom r 
ise in the early part of the year was good, in every part of the 
country. Up to July the season had been dry ; but the drought, 
though disastrous to the corn, did but little damage to the cotton. 
On the uplands, the weed was stunted, but on the good lands, es- 
pecially on the river bottoms and in swampy localities, the fields 
could not look better. The abundant rains that set in during July 
and August stimulated the plant on the uplands, and appeared to 
help it ; but the new fruit thus produced was generally cut off by 
the frost on the 25th of October. On the low grounds where the 
weed was thriving, on the appearance of the rains the squares 

318 The Cotton Trade. 

dropped very extensively, and the late fruit in some places was 
ruined by the frost. In very many places, however, the plant was 
not killed, and the fine weather that followed the frost brought out 
the crop most wonderfully. It was feared that the excessive wet- 
ness of the season would encourage the production of the caterpil- 
lar and the boll-worm; and on many plantations, indeed, they 
made sad havoc ; but they did not appear so extensively as was 
feared, and their ravages were not general. 

From South Carolina and Georgia a considerable decline might 
be expected. The first crop of boils was small, on account of the 
drought; the second was lessened by the rains; and the third was 
generally cut off by the frost. But many places have escaped one 
or the other of these calamities ; and the deficiency of the receipts 
at Charleston and Savannah will be made up in part by increased 
shipments from Columbus and the Tennessee River. Instead of 
813,000 bales for past year, 750,000 may be expected for 1854. 
From Florida the falling off will be small. The crops on the Flint 
and Chatahoochee rivers are much better than they were last year, 
and were it not for the Muscogee Railroad, there would be an in- 
crease rather than a decline. The worm and caterpillar have done 
some damage. But the planting has been larger ; they have had 
no disastrous storm; and the October frost did not everywhere stop 
the growth of the plant. The estimate for 1854 may be put at 
160,000 bales. From Alabama the reports are various and con- 
tradictory. Up to July the promise was never better. The wet 
weather brought the bell-worm on many plantations, and its rav- 
ages at some places were very great. The forms fell off very rap- 
idly: many blossoms were killed. The fine prospects of the sum- 
mer were by this time injured. The frost then came and destroyed 
all hope of the late crop of bolls : but in many districts the growth 
of the cotton was not interrupted by this frost, and during the whole 
month of November the fine weather for opening and gathering the 
late crop favored the planters very much. 

For Mobile the receipts may be anticipated to be about the same 
as for the last two years. Similar remarks apply for the most part 
to New Orleans. The worm w3s more disastrous in Mississippi 
and Louisiana, than it was in Alabama; and the malignancy of the 
yellow fever interrupted at many places proper attention to the 
crop. A slight decline may be anticipated, therefore, for New Or- 
leans. From Texas, on account of the increased number of plant- 
ers and the favorable seasons, a small increase over last year may 
be looked for. From the whole country the receipts may be put 
at 3,000,000 bales, as in the table below. The great falling off in 
the receipts for the first part of the season, would appear at first 
si^ht to warrant the prediction that the whole crop would be very 
small. But last year the rivers were very favorable to early ship- 
ments from the plantations to the seabord ; and the extraordinary 
continuance of the yellow fever at the Gulf ports, and its unusual 

The Cotton Trade. 319 

malignity, have, for the present season, discouraged the planters 
and steamboat owners from forwarding to an early market, the 
cotton that was otherwise ready for shipment. 

Crop of Estimate for 

1851. 1852. 1853. 1854. 

Bales. Bales. B;,les. Bales. 

Texas 46,000 64,000 86.000 90,000 

New Orleans 933,000 1,373,000 1,581,000 1,400,000 

Mobile 452,000 549,000 545,000 545,000 

Florida 181,000 189,000 179,000 160,000 

Georgia 322,000 326,000 350,000 325,000 

South Carolina 387,000 477,000 463,000 425,000 

Other places 34,000 37,000 59,000 60,000 

Total 2,355,000 3,015,000 3,263,000 3,000,000 

The supply from the East Indies will be large. The troubles in 
China, whither a large portion of their exports is directed, have 
diverted an unusual amount of cotton from Canton, to Liverpool 
and London. The imports into Liverpool alone from Surat, Mad- 
ras, and Bengal, were, on the 18th of November, 277,544 bales, 
against 124,306 for the year 1852. The whole English*receipts 
were 221,500 bales for 1852, and 328,800 for 1851. Of these 
amounts the Liverpool receipts were 156,673 and 232,100. If the 
same proportion yet prevails between the Liverpool and the Lon- 
don imports, the receipts for Great Britain of East India cotton 
for 1853, will exceed 400,000 bales. For the year 1854, the re- 
volution in China will produce a more decided effect on this diver- 
sion of the trade, than it has hitherto done. The English prices 
which always influence very largely the amount of Indian imports, 
do not promise so favorably as last year. Balancing these two 
causes, the estimate for 1854 may be put at 400,000 bales. 

From Egypt, Brazil, and the West Indies, the supply has been 
on the increase for the last four or five years. For the two years, 
1847 and 1848, it averaged 136,450 bales. For 1849 and 1850 
it was 25] ,350. For 1851 and 1852 it was 263,850. For 1853 
the receipts at Liverpool up to the 18th of November were 219,- 
451 bales against 244,939 for the preceding year. As the whole 
English receipts for 1852 were 346,700 bales, the smallness of 
the decline at juiverpool authorizes the expectation that at the end 
of 1853 they will reach 300,000 bales. 

Will this be lessened for the incoming year? No serious falling 
off can be expected in the South American and West India ex- 
ports. These constituted for 1851 and 1852 more than half of 
the receipts, and for 1853 tbey were two-thirds. In the Egyptian, 
a decline may be expected on account of the Turkish troubles. 
But as the planting of the crop took place before these difficulties 
became serious, the deficiency of the present year will be but slight. 

320 The Cotton Trade. 

Not less than 250,000 bales may confidently be anticipated for 

The simply then from all these sources will probably reach 3,- 
650,000 bales, against nearly four millions for 1853, as appears 
from the following table : 

Result for Estimate for 

1851. 1852. 1853. 1854. 

Bales. Bales. Biiles. Bales. 

United States 2,355,000 3,015,000 3,263,000 3,000,000 

East Indies 329,000 221,000 400,000 400,000 

Other places 181,000 347,000 300,000 250,000 

Total 2,865,000 3,583,000 3^96.3,000 3,650,000 

Prices. — As this estimate is 400,000 bales above the probable 
demand at present prices, according to the estimate given above, 
it would seem impossible to sustain the rates at which cotton is 
now selling. The stocks are already large, on account of the im- 
mense production of last year. On the first of September the 
amount of old cotton in our ports was 135,648 bales against 91,- 
176 for the year 1852. On the first Friday of October it was in 
Liverpool, 770,770 bales against 506,670 in 1852. At Havre it 
had increased by October 14th, to 53,586 bales over the preceding 
year. The accumulation at these places having advanced more 
than 350,000 bales during 1853, farnisnes a proof that the large 
crop of the past year has not been consumed. The great defici- 
ency in our receipts at the seabeard, for the early part of the pre- 
sent season, and of our exports to foreign countries, does not per - 
mit the enhanced amount of stocks to be now so apparent as it 
otherwise would be. 

Since then the stocks increased largely in 1853, and promise to 
continue to advance still more for the present year, it would seem 
impossible that the market price for cotton should continue above 
the average rates. For the last fourteen years, from 1840 to 
1853, the average price has been 8 cents and 7 mills. The ex- 
ports to foreign ports for the first ten of these years, amounted in 
all to 7,128 millions of pounds; for the last four they have been 
3,570 millions. The value of the first ten was 552 millions of 
dollars: of the last four, 381 millions. For the whole period, 10,- 
698 millions of pounds were exported for 933 millions of dollars, 
giving the average price just mentioned. The present price at 
Charleston, [December 9th, 1853,] for middling is 9}, and for 
good middling 10 cents. These rates being decidedly above the 
average, cannot well be maintained, in the face of the large sup- 
ply and the diminished demand, while food remains dear and mon- 
ey scarce, while actual war is raging between Russia and Turkey, 
and imminent danger of general hostilities impends over the prin- 
cipal states of Europe. The large demand in the United States, 
both for the raw material and for English cotton goods, the im- 

The Vineyards of Ohio. 321 

mense trade opened in Australia, and the general prosperity in the 
English colonies and in Mexico and South America, will prevent a 
serious decline. But that prices must fall below the average of 
past years appears to be plainly foreshadowed by the history of 
the past and the circumstances under which the new year opens. 

Article III. 
The Vineyards of Ohio. 

The following statement of grape culture and wine making in 
the vicinity of Cincinnati furnished by R. Buchanan, Esq., to the 
Columbian and Great West, exhibits a most encouraging account 
of this interesting branch of industry. 

It would afford us great pleasure to receive from some of our 
Missouri friends a similar statement of the progress of grape grow- 
ing in our own State. 


OF 1853. 

At your request I present you with the following account of this 
year's vintage in the vicinity of Cincinnati, and statistics of vine 
culture in the West, prepared from data in the possession of the 
Cincinnati Horticultural Society and the Wine Growers' Associa- 
tion of this city, and from my own personal knowledge and ob- 
servation. It may be relied on as nearly accurate. 

Within a circle of twenty miles around Cincinnati, about 1,200 
acres are planted with the vine, some 800 acres of which were in 
bearing this year, and produced on an average 400 gallons to the 
acre, an aggregate of 320,000 gallons of wine. Some of the best 
vineyards yielded 600 to 800 gallons to the acre, but others, in 
localities where the "rot"' prevailed, did not average over 150 gal- 
lons per acre. The season was considered very favorable, and the 
crop unusually large. 

The new wine sells at $1 to $1.10 for the best, 75 to 90 cents 
for second quality, and 40 to 50 cents per gallon for inferior. The 
average yield for a series of years may be safely estimated at 2U0 
to 250 gallons to the acre from the vineyards in this vicinity. 

322 The Vineyards of Ohio. 

Product of a few of the vineyards the present year : 

Sebastian Blintz, 5J acres, 5,300 gallons. 

T. H. Yeatman 7£ " 5,600 

H. Duhme, 16 " 10,000 

Jacob Mument, ]i " 1,224 


R. H. Houges, 1 " 830 »* 

R. Buchanan, 5 " 4,236 " 

Dr. Rehfuss, David Ross, Mr. Brandt, Mr. Sleath, and soma 
others make about the same average. This shows what the vine 
can be made to produce in good seasons by careful attention and 
judicious cultivation. 

Estimated number of acres in vineyard culture in the Ohio Val- 
ley : 

Cincinnati and vicinity 1,200 acres. 

Ripley " 110 

Maysville, Ky. " 50 

Louisville, " 30 

Vevay, la. " 20 

Charleston, " 180 

Intermediate places 110 



1,700 acres. 
Mississippi Valley. 

St. Louis, Mo., and vicinity, 40 acres. 

Hermann, " 450 

Bellevdle, 111. " 20 

Other places 50 



Wine Cellars of Cincinnati and vicinity. — Sparkling Wines, 
Bottled in 1853, and estimated for 1854. 

1X53. 1R54. 

Cellars. Bottles. Bottles. 

H. Longworth 3 151,000 200,000 

G. &B Bogen 2 39,000 50 000 

M. Werk 1 10,000 30,000 

McConkey & Morsell .. 1 26,000 

Carneau & Son 1 5,000 

Total 8 234,000 280,000 

Still Wines. 1853. 1854. 

Bottles. Bottles. 

Longworth & Zimmerman 75,000 80,000 

G. &P. Bogen 10,000 20,000 

McConkey & Morsell, L. Rappo- 
sa, T. II. Yeatman, Corneau& 

The Vineyards of Okie. 323 

Son, H. H. Soutbgate, J. D. 

Park, and others, supposed. ..120,000 

Total 205,000 

What is not bottled is sold by the cask in this city and elsewhere 
generally within a year or two after it is made, at from $1 to $1. 
50 per gallon. So great has been the demand for these wines that 
it is difficult to find any old wine for sale. The consumption keeps 
pace with the production, and instead of the increased cultivation 
reducing prices, they are rather on the advance. 

It may be safely assumed that this branch of agriculture will ere 
long take rank as an important item in American industry. 

Many persons believe that the introduction of pure light wines 
of native growth, at cheap rates, will do more to aid the cause of 
temperance than stringent legislative ena:tments ; but this is a 
matter of opinion, in which, of course, the ultra temperance men 
will not coincide. 

Vineyard Culture, Statistics, Position and Soil. — A warm 
hill-side, a ridge, or any undulating surface, is preferred to a flat 
one, and a dry calcerous loam, rather than a rich soil. Good un- 
der- drainage is essential. 

Planting, 8,'C. — The ground is trenched with the spade, 2 feet 
deep, or worked deeply with a sub-soil plow. Cost of spading $50 
to .$150 per acre, of plowing, much less. 

The vineyard is planted in April, with cuttings (cost $2-50 per 
1000), or roots one year old (cost $25 per 1000), usually three 
feet apart by six feet in the rows; 2,420 vines to the are. 

Culture. — The first year after planting, in March the vine is 
cut down to a single eye, or bud; the second year to two, and a 
stake, or 7 feet long, driven down by each vine; the third year, 
a small crop may be expected ; and the fourth year a good one. 
The ground is kept clean with the iron plow or cultivator, the vines 
tied up close to the stakes, and superfluous shoots removed. After 
the fourth year, the bow and spur system is adopted. 

The vine bears no fruit on the wood of the preceding year's 
growth; two shoots are always trained forbearing the ensuing year. 
One of these is cut down in the spring to six or ten joints, and 
bent in the form of a bow, and fastened to the stake with a willow 
tie. This is to bear the fruit. The other is cut back to two joints, 
as a spur, to produce bearing wood for the next year, and also a 
few bunches of grape. Summer pruning and hoeing requires 
prompt and judicious attention. A bushel of grapes in bunches 
will weigh about forty-five pounds, and the average yield of juice 
is three and a half gallons to the bushel. 

The whole cost of a vineyard up to the fourth year will range 
from $200 to $550 per acre. 

324 Cast Iron Rails jor Railroads. 

Gathering the fruit and making the wine may form subject mat- 
ter for another article, if desired. The Catawba is our great wine 
grape. Scarcely any other variety is now planted here. It is a 
native of North Carolina, was introduced into notice by Major Ad- 
lum, at Washington City, and by Mr. Longworth in the West, 
thirty- three years ago. Of this grape, we make two kinds of wine 
— the sparkling and the still or dry wine, The first resembles 
Champagne, and to make it requires very deep, well arched stone 
cellars, large casks of 1,000 to 5,000 gallons — the supervision of 
an experienced wine cooper from Europe, and a large outlay of 
capital. The effervescence in this wine is caused by arresting the 
second fermentation, and sweetening with syrup of rock candy. It 
takes a year to ripen, and the usual breakage is about ten p. cent. 
The price is $12 per dozen. 

The still wines are generally the pure juice of the grape, with- 
out any admixture. The bottling requires but little art, and the 
wine will keep sound in any good, common cellar. The cost is 
$5 to £8 per dozen, as to quality. 

Mr. Longworth is the father of successful vineyard culture in the 
West. He took it up after others had failed, and by means of his 
large capital and indomitable perseverance, after numerous exper- 
iments with foreign and native vines, he was enabled to point out 
the true course to be pursued, and which all now follow. The wine 
growers of the West owe him a debt of gratitude which can never 
be cancelled. 

Article IV. 

(From the Mining Magazine.) 

Cast Iron Rails for Railroads. 

Why cannot cast iron rai's be used for railroads? is a question 
which lias been examined at considerable length by Mr. R. W. 
Hughes, the able and accomplished editor of the Richmond (Va. ) 
E.vai/uui r. We are not able to go over the whole ground in the 
present number of this Magazine, but will notice the important 
considerations in favor of cast iron rails, with the intention of re- 
turning to the subject again. — After speaking of the importance 
of the subject, Mr. II. proceeds : 

If this be so in reference to roads now in course of construction, 
the difficulty will be increased with the growing demand for other 
roads. These facts, together with the present high price of rail- 
ion 1 iron, constantly press the question upon the intelligent rnind 
— "Why cannot cast iron rails be used on railways ?" 

Cast Iron Rails for Railroads. 325 

This fact is daily before our eyes, that cast iron is made to bear 
the heaviest burdens that can be imposed. It forms a part of al- 
most all machinery, and is subjected to enormous strains. With 
it we construct houses and build bridges. It is given the prefer- 
ence over wrought iron for railroad car wheels, which when running 
at sixty miles an hour, make about nine hundred revolutions per 
minute — the Gast iron wheels thumping the road with the momen- 
tum due to that velocity. All these things are constantly present- 
ing the important inquiry, whether cast iron rails may not be safely 
used on roads? It is known to be vastly cheaper than rolled iron, 
and can be made at a profit for one third the pries of rolled iron. 
It requires no very great expenditure to prepare the works requi- 
site for its manufacture, but may be run into bars directly from 
the ore, which abounds along many of the projected railway lines 
of Virginia. 

Supposing its substitution practicable, no limit can beset to the 
industry and enterprise it at once calls into being. It invites pop- 
ulation into our mountain land, now waste and barren, yet teem- 
ing with iron. It multiplies their value to owners, and increases 
the fund for taxation of our State. It projects railroads by en- 
abling them to be built by persons along their lines, who, by labor 
alone, could convert their iron lands and ore into active capital. 
By doing these things it would so far cheapen railroad transporta- 
tion, as to make those works far greater beneficiaries to the pub- 
lic, than they now can be. 

Indeed, no single result could be imagined which would tend so 
much to develope the resources of Virginia, and stimulate her en- 
terprise, as the adoption of cast iron rails on her projected rail- 
ways. It would advance internal improvements in the State at 
least twenty years, and afford a cheaper, and it is believed more 
durable structure, than we now have. 

But the advantages which must result from the successful appli- 
cation of cast iron rails to railway tracks, are far too numerous to 
be detailed. They suggest themselves to every reflecting and in- 
telligent citizen. The question is, can cast iron be advantageously 
used on railways? 

Whether all our ores will be suitable for the purpose, we shall 
not undertake to decide; but that we have large bodies of iron ore 
which, directly from the blast, will make more durable rails than 
many we now import, we have not the slightest doubt. The Lynch- 
burg and Tennessee Railroad runs through the county of Wythe, 
and within five or six miles of a body of iron ore, equal, if not 
superior, as it has often been competently pronounced, to any in 
the world. It is better than the Swedish — it is better than the 
Pennsylvania Juniata. It is unlimited in quantity, and may be 
gathered from the surface of the earth. Wood in abundance, and 
mountain streams for driving machinery are at hand ; and withal, 
the iron is of so tough a texture, that castings, such as pots and 


326 Cast Iron Rails for Railroads. 


ovens, made for the neighborhood, have frequently been tried by 
being pitched some ten or fifteen feet, several times, into a pile of 
stones, by the foundryman himself, under which severe test very 
few instances have been known of their being broken. Yet a rail- 
road is to run for miles along this great iron deposit, the rails of 
which are ordered from England! 

Descend one of those English mines, where for ages the work of 
excavation has been going on ; go down a thousand feet or more, 
traverse these caverns for miles under the earth, until you are told 
the ocean is rolling above your head, and at the farthest extrem- 
ities of these infernal caverns you will find men plying the pick- 
axe, and extracting iron ore. You will find railway tracks through- 
out one of these abodes of Pluto and Vulcan, leading to the shaft. 
Here a car is filled with ore. Inquire the destination of this car. 
The answer — calculated to astonish a citizen of Wythe — would be 
this : It is to be sent several miles to the shaft ; then to be raised 
up a thousand feet to the surface of the earth; 'then hauled to the 
foundry to be made into pig metal ; then to the rolling mill to be 
converted into bars , then to the sea-coast to be shipped to the 
other continent. After crossing the Atlantic Ocean, some three 
thousand miles, it is to go up James and Appomattox Rivers ; to 
be discharged at Port Walthal ; to be hauled by railroad to Rich- 
mond, and thence by wagons from the depot to the canal; thence 
along the canal to Lynchburg, and thence by railroad and wagons 
to Wythe county, Virginia, to be distributed along the Lynchburg 
and Tennessee Railroad, which runs over great iron deposits of 
that country, where iron lies upon the surface, of a much superior 
quality, and has to be removed out of its way in excavating for 
its track ! 

This case is similar to hundreds of others — and the practical 
remedy for this state of things is the adoption of cast iron rails. 
Public opinion at first obstinately pronounced that cast iron wheels 
could never be used — that they would break under the velocity re- 
quired of them. Economy rendered it absolutely necessary to try 
them, and they have been found not only cheaper, but, in fact, to 
wear longer than wrought iron wheels. 

Strange as it may seem, all the early writers concur in stating, 
that cast iron rails were used before the wrought, and that the lat- 
ter were introduced chiefly on the ground that they were cheaper 
than cast iron rails — cheaper for the reason as then contended, 
that wrought iron rails being not so likely to break, might be made 
much thinner and lighter than cast iron, and would be more econ- 
omical in that way. Since it has been found necessary to increase 
the thickness and weight of the rail, for the purpose of firmness 
and steadiness in the superstructure, it has never occurred to the 
engineer to return to the cast iron rails. 

Experience has shown that wrought iron rails wear out rapidly, 

Cast Iron Rails for Railroads. 327 

and this although they are now made heavier than it was supposed 
would be requisite even for cast iron. 

From an essay on this object, by Ellwood Morris, Chief Engin- 
eer, Philadelphia, published in the Journal of the Franklin Insti- 
tute, in the year 1841, we extract the following observations on 
this subject : 

"We are informed in Wood's treatise upon railroads, that in 
the early part of the seventeenth century, railroads were first used 
in England, and they were then formed of wood; the wooden rails 
used for about one hundred years, when in 1767, cast iron rails 
were first introduced and thereafter continued for a period of near- 
ly fifty years, to be used instead of any other materials; but in the 
year 1815 malleable iron rails were devised, and after Mr. Birk- 
inshaw, in 1820, had obtained his patent for an improvement in 
the form of such rails, and applied the rolling mill to their manu- 
facture, they were very extensively adopted, and subsequent to 
that period of time have been almost exclusively used. The chief 
reasons which seem to have induced engineers, both here and 
abroad, so much to prefer malleable before cast iron rails, as to 
exclude the latter from use, appear to have been originally a be- 
lief that 

"1. Malleable iron rails were cheaper than those of cost iron. 

2. Malleable iron rails being made in longer lengths caused 
fewer joints. 

3. Malleable iron rails were less liable to fracture from concus- 

4. Malleable iron rails were thought to be somewhat more du- 

The writer then takes up these reasons seriatim, and shows how 
little they are worth when tested by experience. 

That the first and principal reason for the introduction of mal- 
leable iron rails, their greater cheapness, has no foundation in 
truth — is apparent to everybody at all conversant with the iron 
business ; and yet all the early writers on this subject, concur in 
stating this as the chief reason for their introduction at the time. 

Secondly. That cast iron rails may now be made from sixteen 
to twenty feet in length, about as long as the rolled we are accus- 
tomed to see. 

Thirdly. While malleable iron rails, of equal weight, may be 
less liable to fracture from percussion than cast iron rails, yet there 
is no such impinging direct force on the rails in working a road 
suitably constructed, as would be likely to produce this. He com- 
pares the relative strength of the two metals, and makes the cast 
iron rails proportionably heavier. He denies that the liability to 
fracture, at high velocities, is greater than when going slow, but 
shows the greater the velocity the less will be the vertical pressure, 
and says upon the same principle it is that a musket ball shot par- 

328 Cast Iron Rails for Railroads. 

- — i ■ ■ ■ « 

allel along a horizontal plane, so as barely to touch it tangentially 
will not press upon the plane at all within the limits of its level or 
point-blank range. 

Whether these views agree or not with those commonly enter- 
tained concerning fast trains on railways, they are nevertheless, 
legitimate deductions from the established doctrine of forces, and 
serve to account for the small effect produced by the ordinary in- 
equalities of a railroad, as shown in the results displayed by the 
following direct experiments touching this matter, which were made 
by Professor Barlow, and recorded in his work on the "Strength 
of Materials," English edition, 1837. These experiments are con- 
clusive, and establish beyond question the fact, that the vertical 
stress imposed on a railway by the transit of locomotive engines 
of velocities ranging from twenty-two to thirty-two miles an hour, 
is but little, if any, in excess of that produced by a quiescent load 
of the same weight. 

More experiments by Professor Barlow were made with an in- 
genious and accurate instrument, to determine the deflection of 
rails under trains running at high speed, and as the deflection of 
the material under a strain is as the insistant weight, the vertical 
pressure upon the rails is by this means accurately indicated. 

Again he says, after quoting largely from Professor Barlow's 
experiment: "These experiments having demonstrated as they dis- 
tinctly do, that the vertical stress of trains at speed surpasses so 
little the effect of quiescent loads of the same weight, that it is on- 
ly necessary to proportion the rails of railroads to resist quiescent 
and not concussive forces, to change the whole face of the question 
between cast and wrought iron rails — they strike away all the ob- 
jections heretofore urged against the brittleness of cast iron, for it 
docs not admit of doubt, that a beam of that material, of suitable 
proportions, is quite as competent to carry a quiescent load, as 
one of malleable iron." Again : "A cast iron rail will yield suf- 
ficiently to impart a return to its proper level the moment it is re- 
lieved of the weight of a train — for it is well known that its elast- 
icity and power of restoration after deflection, is within certain 
limits so perfect, that owing to its regularity in that respect, it was 
even proposed by Tredgold to use beams of cast iron as weighing 
machines, measuring the weights imposed by the deflections pro- 

From the various experiments made, he deduces that the pro- 
portion between wrought and cast iron rails, should be 1 : 1 3-10 
— and says these calculations refer to rails supported at intervals 
only, but if the plan of continuous bearings should be adopted on 
railways, the propriety of which has been strongly urged by Eng- 
lish engineers, as a perfect remedy for acknowledged defects — all 
objections against cast iron rails must wholly vanish. 

An elaborate and able report was made by a select committee of 
the Pennsylvania Legislature in 1843. on the propriety of relaying 

Cast Iron Rails for Railroads. 329 

the State railroads with cast-iron rails. This report, together with 
the facts and arguments in our former article, we deem conclusive 
as to the commercial and practical adoption of cast-iron rails. It 
is impossible to controvert them with argument, and we feel just 
as confident that actual experience will confirm the deductions of 
the report. 

The rapid destructableness of wrought- iron rails has been more 
and more apparent from the day the report was made, up to the 
present time. This results from two causes : first, from the in- 
creased weight of the locomotive, and secondly, from the great 
demand for railroad iron. This latter cause induces a demand for 
all material which can be made into railway bars ; and the conse- 
quent hurry in which they are made, withdraws from them that 
special attention which was devoted to their manufacture in earlier 

We therefore repeat our conviction, that cast-iron rails may be 
made which will prove better, in all respects, than most of the 
English rails we are daily importing. 

Why have not cast-iron rails been generally introduced ? To 
this there are several answers, and not one affects their fitness for 
this purpose. Since the introduction of railroads, the world has 
never stood still long enough to think. A railway mania pervades 
the land, and it has crushed every obstacle which has opposed it. 
Reflection would have required time, and none of the persons or 
States which have been engaged in the eager race of internal im- 
provement, would consent to exercise it, but preferred imitation. 
Hence the fact, that the railway system has undergone no positive 
changes since its first introduction — with the exception of the now 
universal adoption of cast-iron wheels instead of wrought iron 
— a matter taken up, as it were, on the wayside, in order to sup- 
ply the absolute demand for constant repairs resulting from the 
use of wrought- iron wheels. 

Secondly. Whose duty was it to introduce cast-iron rails ? 
That of chartered companies, in which it was every man's business 
who had a personal interest in the road — and what is every man's 
business, is generally regarded as nobody's. 

The construction of roads is always left to the engineer, and 
Suggestions as to the mode of building them would be expected to 
come from him. But he, like the rest of the world, has had little 
time for study and reflection, and, deriving a comfortable living 
from the present plan of railway, would not be apt to originate 
suggestions where failure would involve him in loss of professional 

Captain Moering, an engineer in the service of Austria, writing 
upon this subject, says "he eagerly sought, in this country, from 
engineers and others conversant with the subject, information re- 
lative to cast-iron rails, and after a deliberate examination of the 
questions which arose, he was impelled to the conclusion that cast 

330 Cast Iron Rails for Railroads. 

ron rails had not been rejected from the American railways 
in consequence of any defect inherent in that material ;" but 
that "this rejection, or omission, appears to have resulted partly 
from the surprising celerity with which these works were simultan- 
eously urged forward; partly from the inexperience of many of the 
engineers, necessarily employed, in consequence of the great de- 
mand at the time for men of that profession having induced a num- 
ber of unqualified persons to throw themselves into it; partly from 
a want of due deliberation consequent upon the rapid progress of 
the railways, which favored imitation, rather than reflection; part- 
ly from the vigor with which rolled-iron rails, then exempt from 
duty by law, were pushed into use in every quarter of the coun- 
try by interested parties ; and partly from a long chain of fortuit- 
ous circumstances, which conducted to the results we have witnes- 
sed, without deciding the merits of the technical questions in- 

If railroads were private enterprises, we have no doubt cast-iron 
rails would long since have been brought into use; for the projector 
being the owner, upon him alone would full the failure ; but with 
chartered companies, each member is unwilling to take the re- 
sponsibility of suggesting anything new, for fear of failure. 

Upon an examination of the report, as well as our references in 
a former article, it will be seen that the only suggestions hereto- 
fore made, and deemed sufficient to render cast-iron rails entirely 
suitable for railways, were, first, to lay them on continuous wooden 
sills ; secondly, to increase the weight of the cast-iron over the 
wrought-iron rail, in the proportion of 6 to 7 ; and, to make as- 
surance doubly sure, as it is expressed, to cast, as suggested by 
Mr. Morris, a small wrought-iron rod in the top table of the cast- 
iron rail, so as to keep the parts together in the event of fracture. 
At first view this seems a great additional safeguard, and ought 
to have insured the adoption of cast-iron rails; but we are assured 
by one who has paid a great deal of attention to the subject, that 
the suggestion was impracticable — the rod, upon coming in con- 
tact with the melted iron, being twisted by expansion out of line 
with the cast iron at many points. Besides, it is questionable 
whether so small a rod would not itself become so much hardened, 
as to impart but little additional strength to the cast iron. That 
the rod would not be kept in line r one time in ten, when merely 
laid in the mould, he satisfied himself by actual experiment. This 
may have had its effect on the recommendation contained in the 
report we publish. 

But the other suggestions render the use of cast-iron rails en- 
tirely practicable ; and we have lately seen a section of cast-iron 
rails, with a wrought-iron rod cast throughout their centre — a feat 
which has been rendered practicable by a very simple device, and 
which enables the road to be so constructed that it is impossible, 
even in the event of a fracture of one of the rails, for it to get out 

Pacific Railway Through Texas. 331 

of place. If, therefore, the rails be laid on continuous wooden 
bearings, the fracture of the rail would only make another joint to 
it, and nothing more. There is thus provided, what we believe 
every practical man will pronounce, who will examine it, a far bet- 
ter and more economical material for our railroads than the pres- 
ent wrought-iron rails. 

We, therefore, in this substitution of cast-iron for wrought-iron 
rails, propose a protective tariff, such as no one can reasonably 

We say the State, in building her railroads, should U3e for that 
purpose her own iron, particularly when she has often to dig it up 
out of her way to locate the track, of a far better quality than she 
can import. 

And while she may not deny to her railroad companies the priv- 
ilege of using what iron they please, or buying it where they choose, 
she can simply say, I caunot be a partner with you, unless you 
agree to use cast-iron, after demonstration of its fitness for rail. 

Article V. 

[From the American Railway Times.] 

Pacific Railway Through Texas. 

The following is an act lately passed by the Texas Legislature 
to provide for the construction of the Mississippi and Pacific Rail- 

Sec. 1. Be" it enacted by the Legislature of the State of Tex- 
as, That for the purpose of aiding in the construction of a Rail- 
road from some point on the eastern boundary line of the State of 
Texas, not north of the town of Fulton, in the State of Arkansas, 
to a suitable point on the Rio Grande, at or near the town of El 
Paso, there be and is hereby appropriated and set apart to any 
company or companies who may undertake and construct said road, 
twenty sections of land, of six hundred and forty acres to the sec- 
tion, for each and every mile of said road which maybe construct- 
ed and put in complete operation according to the terms of this 
act, to be selected and patented, in the manner hereinafter pro- 
vided for. 

Sec. 2. That a right of way not exceeding three hundred feet 
in width, be and the same is hereby set apart and granted along 
the entire length of said road, through the public lands of the State 
of Texas, to be held and enjoyed for the uses and purposes of said 
road forever, and that all earth, stone, timber and other material, 
of whatsoever character and description, on the public lands, so 

S32 Pacific Railway Through Texas. 

p ■■ -. — i 1 1 

long as they shall remain the property of the State, in the vicinity 
of said road, be and the same are hereby made subject to the uses 
and purposes of said road, as well in the construction thereof as 
with supplying the same with the necessary furniture and machin- 
ery, to be made available as occasion may require, by those em- 
ployed in the construction, management or working said road ; 
provided, That said Company shall jiot bt allowed to use any tim- 
ber which maybe upon the alternate sections reserved to the State, 
except upon the three hundred feet granted as the right of way, 
after the completion of the road. 

Sec. 3. That the said road shall be constructed throughout in 
a thorough, substantial and workmanlike manner, with all neces- 
sary drains, culverts, bridges, viaducts, crossings, turnouts, sid- 
ings, stations, watering places and all other appurtenances, in- 
cluding equipment of locomotives of sufficient speed and capacity, 
commodious and comfortable passenger cars and freight cars ad- 
apted to the business to be done, and equal in all respects and at 
all times, to a road of the first class when thoroughly organized 
for business ; to be under the constant supervision of a sufficient 
number of skillful engineers, to be employed by the Directors of 
said road; the rails to be of the best quality, weighing not less than 
sixty-four pounds to the yard; fifty miles of said road to be finish- 
ed and put in complete operation within eighteen months after en- 
tering into the contract hereinafter provided for, and at least one 
hundred miles thereof to be finished and put in operation in like 
manner every year thereafter, until the whole shall be completed. 

Sec. 4. That it shall be the duty of the Governor of the State 
immediately afcer the passage of this act, to advertise in such 
public newspapers as he may judge proper, not exceeding twelve 
in number, inviting proposals from companies or individuals for 
the construction of said road, which proposals shall be filed in the 
office of the Secretary of State, at such time as the Governor may 
direct, provided said bids are made on or before the first day of 
August next; and shall specify the time at which the work shall 
be commenced ; the number of miles to be finished and placed in 
running order within the first eighteen months and each year there- 
after, and at what time the entire road shall be completed, togeth- 
er with the amount proposed to be deposited in the Treasury of 
this State, according to the terms of this act, to be forfeited in 
case fifty miles of said road shall not be completed within eighteen 
months from the time of entering into the contract hereinafter pro- 
vided for. 

Sec. 5. That it shall be the duty of the Governor, as soon as 
practicable, to select from the proposals so made, that one which 
in his judgment, under all circumstances of the case, shall offer 
the strongest assurances and guaranties that the road will be 
promptly and substantially built in its whole length, according to 
the provisions of this act, and to enter into contracts for the con.- 

Pacific Railway Through Texas. 333 

struction of the same, which contracts shall so cover in detail, all 
the provisions of this act, as to secure the construction and main- 
tenance of a road, at all times equal in all respects to a road of 
the first class when thoroughly organized for business; and in case 
those whose proposals may have been accepted, fail or refuse to 
enter into the contract, then the said Governor may contract with 
any company or individuals for the construction and maintenance 
of said road according to the provision of this act. 

Sec. 6. That said contractors, their associates and successors, 
and those who may become stockholders in said company shall be, 
and they are hereby declared to be, a body corporate for and du- 
ring the term of ninety-nine years, by the name and style of the 
Mississippi and Pacific Railroad Company, and under that name 
capable of suing and being sued, impleading and being implead- 
ed in law and equity, in all Courts and places whatsoever, in like 
manner and as fully as natural persons, and by said corporate 
name and style shall be capable in law of contracting and being 
contracted with ; shall have the power of acquiring by purchase, 
donation or otherwise, real and personal estate, holding and con- 
veying the same, and all other powers, immunities, rights and 
privileges necessary to carry into full effect the provisions of this 

Sec. 7. That said corporation is hereby authorized and em- 
powered to survey, locate, construct, complete, alter, maintain and 
operate a railroad, with one or more tracks or lines of rails from a 
point not north of the town of Fulton, in the State of Arkansas, 
to some suitable point on the Rio Grande, at or near the town of 
El Paso ; and for the purpose of effecting the desirable and na- 
tional object of constructing a continuous and national railway 
from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean, said company are 
hereby authorized to form connections and enter into agreements 
with such other companies as they may see fit, and where such 
companies are united by such agreements properly entered into 
and recorded in the office of Secretary of State of this State, they 
shall be regarded as one corporation, with all the rights, immun- 
ities and privileges necessary to accomplish the object, not incon- 
sistent with the constitution and laws of the United States, or any 
of the States through which the said road may be constructed. 

Sec. 8. That the capital stock of the company shall be twenty 
millions of dollars, which may be increased from time to time to 
any sum not exceeding the entire amount expended on account of 
said railroad, divided into shares of one hundred dollars each, 
which shall be deemed personal property, and may be subscribed 
for, issued and transferred in such manner and at such times and 
places as may be prescribed in the by-laws of said company. 

Sec. 9. That said contractors shall have power to organize 
said company by calling a meeting of the stockholders, at such 
time and place as they might deem expedient, to elect a Roord of 

334 Pacific Railway Through Texas. 

Directors, to consist of not exceeding fifteen members, one of 
whom shall be chosen by the Directors to act as President, and 
said Directors so elected shall have power to appoint such other 
officers and agents as they may think proper, and to adopt such 
by-laws as may be necessary, not inconsistent with the Constitu- 
tion of the United States, nor the Constitution and laws of the 
State of Texas, a copy of which by-laws shall be filed with the 
Secretary of State, and published in at least three newspapers in 
the State ; to provide for the meetings of the Board of Directors ; 
appoint and dismiss officers and agents ; regulate the manner of 
voting of stockholders; direct the manner in which the shares shall 
be sold, transferred or forfeited ; to establish from time to time 
rates and charges for the transportation of freights and passengers; 
to make, have and use a common seal, and alter the same at 
pleasure; issue bonds of not less than five hundred nor more than 
one thousand dollars; to borrow money upon the bonds of the com- 
pany or otherwise, for the purpose of constructing said road, with 
power to mortgage the same to secure the payment of said bonds 
and loans with the interest thereon: provided, that at the first elec- 
tion of Directors as herein provided, the Directors shall regulate 
the manner in which stockholders shall vote. 

Sec. 10. That said company may construct its road over or 
across any stream or body of water, road, highway, or across any 
other railroad, and through any lands owned by individuals or cor- 
porations, and in all cases where lands belonging to individuals or 
corporations shall be taken by said company, it shall be lawful for 
the owner or agent of such person or corporation to appear before 
the District Court of the county where such lands are situate when 
the damages claimed amount to one hundred dollars or more, or 
before the nearest Justice of the Peace, when the damages are one 
hundred dollars or less ; and said suit shall proceed and be con- 
ducted according to the laws in force regulating proceedings in the 
District Court and in Justice's Courts, as the case may be, and 
the question of damages shall be tried by jury, sworn and empan- 
nelled as usual in said Court, to assess the damages caused by 
taking such lands, and said jury in rendering their verdict shall 
take into consideration whether the enhanced value of the residue 
of the land belonging to such person or corporation has not been 
by means of said road increased in amount equal to the damages, 
and if so they shall render a verdict in favor of said company, 
otherwise against it, for the amount of damages which he, she or 
they may have sustained, provided that in no case shall said com- 
panybe bound to pay costs, if it satisfactory proves that an amount 
equal to the damages assessed by the verdict of the jury, was tend- 
ered to the party suing before institution of the suit, and the pay- 
ments of such damages, before or after a judgment, shall operate 
so as to vest in said company a full and complete title to such 
land not exceeding three hundred feet width. 

Pacific Railway Through Texas. 335 

Sec. 11. That said company, after they have commenced re- 
ceiving toll on any section of fifty miles of said road, shall be 
bound at all times to have the same in good repair, and a suffici- 
ent number of suitable carriages and vehicles for the transporta- 
tion of persons and property. 

Sec. 12. That said company, person or persons, shall within 
sixty days after entering into the contract, as herein provided for, 
deposit with the Treasurer of the State of Texas, at least three 
thousand dollars in gold or silver, or evidence of debt of the State 
of Texas, or other good par stocks, as a guarantee that fifty miles 
or more of said road shall be constructed and in complete order 
for business within the term of eighteen months from the date of 
said contract, and if fifty miles or more of said road shall be con- 
structed and in complete order for business within the term of 
eighteen months from the date of said contract, and if fifty miles 
or more of said road be completed according to the contract, then 
the Governor shall cause the said money or stock to be returned to 
said company; and in case of a failure upon the part of said com- 
pany, then such money or stocks to be forfeited to and become the 
property of the State of Texas ; and in case of failure to deposit 
said amount, within the time prescribed, said contract shall be null 
and void, and the Governor is hereby authorized to enter into an- 
other contract, as near as maybe in the terms of this act with any 
other company or individuals for the like purposes. 

Sec. 13. That it shall be the duty of the company, so soon as 
tho track of said road may be selected, to cause the vacant lands 
to be surveyed into sections of six hundred and forty acres each, 
for thirty miles on each side of the same, and as soon as said com- 
pany shall have completed fifty miles of said road according to 
the terms of the contract, they shall be and are hereby authorized 
to select and designate to the Governor an amount of land to be 
taken in alternate sections, so that no two sections so selected shall 
join each other except at one corner, equal to twenty sections for 
every mile of road so finished, which lands so selected and design- 
ated to the Governor, shall be patented to said company or their 
assigns, free of all costs; and in like manner for each and every 
section of said road, until the whole shall have been finished; pro- 
vided, that said road shall cross the Rivers Trinity, Brazos and 
Colorado as near the 32d degree of north latitude as practicable. 

Sec. 14. That all of the vacant and unappropriated public 
lands belonging to the State of Texas, east of the 103d parallel of 
longitude west from Greenwich, and embraced between the parallel 
of latitude 31 degs. and 33 degs. north, and all of the vacant and 
unappropriated lands belonging to the State, west of the 103d 
deg. of longitude, and embraced between the parallels of latitude 
30 deg. 30 min. and 32 deg. north latitude, be and the same is 
hereby held in reserve by the State, for the purposes herein set 
forth, until the track of said road is located by said company; from 

336 Pacific Railway Through Texas. 

and after which time there shall be held in reserve by the State, 
for the purposes above set forth, all of the vacant and unappropri- 
ated land belonging to the State, lying within thirty miles on each 
side of said road, until the same is surveyed and located in accord- 
ance with the provisions of the 13th section of the act ; provided, 
that if there should not be a sufficient amount of vacant and unap- 
propriated land belonging to the State embraced in the above last 
reservation to fully satisfy the amount of land to which said com- 
pany may be entitled by virtue of a compliance with the provisions 
of this act, that the Governor cause to be issued by the Commis- 
sioner of the General Land Office, certificates for six hundred and 
forty acres each, to said company, for the balance they may be en- 
titled to, which may be located upon any other vacant and unap- 
propriated land belonging to the State, in such manner that no 
two sections shall join, except at one corner, at the proper cost 
and charges of said company or their assigns, which shall be pat- 
ented to said company as other lands; provided, that the alternate 
sections herein reserved to the State, shall so continue to be re- 
served to the use of the State until otherwise directed by law; and 
further provided, that said survey shall be made in a square, and 
those adjoining the road shall front one mile thereon and no more, 
unless prevented by surveys made previous to the passage of this. 

Sec 15. That should the said company fail at any time to finish 
the length of said road contracted to be completed within the term spe- 
cified in the contract, the said contract, with the powers, privileges 
and immunities, together with such parts of the road as may have been 
constructed with all its machinery and appurtenances, shall be for- 
feited to and become the property of the State of Texas, reserving, 
however, to said company the right to prosecute and defend all suits 
and rights or liabilities which may have accrued or been incurred prior 
to such forfeiture. 

Sec. 16. That should the said contract become forfeited, it shall be 
the duty of the Governor of the State, to re-advertise and re-let the 
said road to other contractors, conforming himself in all respects as 
near as may be, to all the terms and conditions of this act, and such 
subsequent contractors shall be fully invested with all the powers, rights, 
privileges and immunities of the first contractors, and subject to the 
same terms and conditions. 

Sec 17. That the lands granted to said company by this act, shall 
be alienated by said company, as follows : one-fourth in eight years, 
one-fourth in ten years and one-fourth in twelve years, after the same 
shall have been selected and located by said company. 

Sec 18. That the sum of one thousand dollars, or as much thereof 
as may be necessary, be and the same is hereby appropriated out of 
any money in the Treasury, not otherwise appropriated, to enable the 
Governor to carry into effect the provisions of this act. 

Sec 19. That this act shall not be so construed as to affect any 
right of location or entry, pre-emption right or survey heretofore ac- 
quired in the district of country reserved and set apart for the use of 
said road; and that this act take effect from and after its passaga. 

Hybridizing. 837 

Article VI. 

[From the American Agriculturist.] 


The annexed article on hybridizing we take from Mcintosh's Book 
of the Garden, now publishing in parts in Edinburgh. It is said to 
be from the pen of Mr. Anderson, one of the most scientific and skill- 
ful operators in Great Britain. 

To those who would attempt the hybridizing or cross-breeding of 
plants, I will now offer some suggestions for their guidance. It is 
an essential element to success that the operator be possessed of in- 
domitable patience, watchfulness, and perseverance. Having- determ- 
ined on the subjects on which he is to operate, if the plants are in the 
open ground, he will have them put into pots, and removed under 
glass, so as to escape the accidents of variable temperature, wind, 
rain, and dust, and, above all, of insects. A greenhouse fully ex- 
posed to the sun is best adapted for the purpose, at least as regards 
hardy and proper greenhouse plants. Having got them housed, se- 
cure a corner where they are least likely to be visited by bees or 
other insects. The plants which are to yield the pollen, and the 
plants which are to bear the seed, should be both kept in the same 
temperature ; but where this cannot be managed, pollen from an out- 
side plant, in genial summer weather, may be used, provided it can 
be got; for there is a class of insects which live exclusively on pol- 
len, and devour it so fast after the pollen-vessels open, that, unless 
the plant is under a handglass, [which I would recommend, ] it is 
scarcely possible to get any pollen for the required purpose. To se- 
sure against chances of this nature, a sprig with opening bloom may 
be taken and kept in a phial, with water inside, where it will get 
sufficient sun to ripen the pollen. But here, too, insects must be 
watched, and destroyed if they intrude. An insect like, but smaller, 
than the common hive bee, which flits about by fits and starts, on ex- 
panded wings, after the manner of the dragon-fly, is the greatest pest, 
and seems to feed exclusively on pollen. The hive bee, the humble 
bee and wasp give the next greatest annoyance. All these may be 
excluded by netting fixed over apertures from open sashes or the like. 
Too much care cannot be bestowed on excluding- these intruders, 
whose single touch, in many cases, might neutralize the intended re- 
sult ; for the slightest application of pollen native to the parent plant 
is said by physiologists to supersede all foreign agency, unless, per- 
haps, in the crossing of mere varieties; and the truth of this observa- 
tion consists with my own experience. Without due precaution now, 
the labor, anxiety, and watchfulness of years may issue in vexation 
and disappointment. As a further precaution still, and to prevent 
self-fertilization, divest the blooms to be operated on not only of their 
anthers, but also of their corollas. Remove also all contiguous blooms 
upon the plant, lest the syringe incautiously directed, or some sudden 
draft of air, convey the native pollen, and anticipate the intended oper- 
ation. The corolla appears to be the means by which insects are at- 

338 Hybridizing. 

tracted; and though, when it is removed, the honey on which they feed 
is still present, they seem puzzled or indifferent about collecting it ; or 
if, haply, they should alight on the dismantled flower, (which I never 
have detected,) the stigma is in most cases safe from their contact. It 
will be some days — probably a week or more, if the weather be not 
sunny — ere the stigma is in a fit condition for fertilization. This is in- 
dicated by many families, such as Ericaceae, Rosacea, Scrophularineae, 
Aurantiaceae, &c, by a viscous exudation in the sutures (where these 
exist) of the stigma, but generally covering the entire surface of that 
organ. In this condition the stigma may remain many days, during 
which fertilization may be performed; and this period will be longer or 
shorter as the weather is sunny or damp or overcast. In certain fam- 
ilies, such as the Malvaceae, Geraniaceae, ike, where the stigma divid- 
es itself into feathery parts, and where the viscous process is either 
absent or inappreciable by the eye, the separation of these parts, the 
bursting of the pollen, the maturity of the stigma, and all which a little 
experience will detect, indicate the proper time for the operation, sun- 
ny or cloudy weather always affecting the duration of the period during 
which it may be successfully performed. As to the proper time and 
season best adapted for such experiments, a treatise might be written; 
but here a few remarks must suffice. As for the season of the year, 
from early spring to midsummer I would account the best period; but, 
as I have just observed, I regard all cold, damp, cloudy, and ungenial 
weather as unfavorable. On the other hand, when the weather is 
genial, not so much from sun-heat as at times occurs from the atmos- 
phere being moderately charged with electricity ; when there is an 
elasticity, so to speak, in the balmy air, and all nature seems joyous 
and instinct with life; this, of all others, is the season which the hyb- 
ridist should improve, and above all, if he attempts muling. The hyb- 
ridist should be provided with a pocket lens, a pair of wire pincers, 
and various-colored silk threads. With the lens he will observe the 
maturity of the pollen, and the condition of the stigma, whether the 
former lias attained its powdery, and the latter (if such is its nature,), 
its viscous condition. If he find both the pollen and the stigma in a fit 
state, he will, with the pincers, apply an anther with ripened pollen, 
and by the gentlest touch distribute it very thinly over the summit of 
the stigma. The operation performed, he will mark it by lying round 
the flower stalk a bit of that particular colored silk thread which he 
wishes to indicate the particular plant which bore the pollen, and at 
the same time tie a bit of the same silk round the stem of the latter,, 
which will serve till recorded in a note-book, which should be kept by 
every one trying experiments on a large scale. 

It is quite unnecessary to offer any directions as to the results to be 
effected. If it is desired to reproduce the larger, finer-formed, or 
higher-colored bloom of a plant having a tall, straggling, or too robust 
a growth, or having too large or too coarse foliage in a plant without 
these drawbacks, I need not suggest to select in another species of the 
same family, a plant of an opposite character and properties — say of 
dwarf, compact growth, handsome foliage, and free-flowering habit ; 
and if such can be obtained, work with it, making the latter the seed- 
bearer. Or, if it be desirable to impart the fragrance of a less hand- 
some kind to another more handsome, I would make the cross upon the 

Hybridizing. 339 

latter. I cannot speak with certainty from my own experiments, how 
far perfume may be so communicated ; but I have some things far ad- 
vanced to maturity to test it ; and I entertain the hope that fragrance 
may not only be so imparted, but even heightened, varied, and im- 
proved. Or if it be desired to transfer all or any valuable property 
or quality from a tender exotic species to a native or hardy kind, work 
upon the latter; for so far as constitution goes, I agree with those who 
hold that the female overrules in this particular. I would offer this 
caution to those who wish to preserve the purity of certain flowers 
for exhibition, especially those having white grounds, not to cross such 
with high-colored sorts. I once spoiled a white bloomed Calceolaria 
for exhibition, by crossing it with a crimson sort ; all the blooms on 
those branches where the operation had been performed beino- stained 
red, and not the few flowers merely on which the cross was effected. 
In this note, already too long, I cannot further illustrate my remarks 
by recorded experiments in the various tribes upon which I have tried 
my hand ; but I cannot leave the subject without inculcating, in the 
strongest manner, the observance of the rules I have laid down to pre- 
vent vexatious disappointments. If any doubts arise about the cross 
being genuine or effectually secured, let not the seeds be sown. Three, 
four, live, and even six years, must oftentimes elapse with trees and 
shrubby things ere the result can be judged of; and if eventually it 
prove a failure, or even doubtful, it is worse than labor lost, inasmuch 
as it may mislead. If there is no great departure from the female par- 
ent, the issue is to be mistrusted. It is singular, if well accomplished 
how much of both parents is blended in the progeny. Gentlemen em- 
inent as physiologists have read nature's laws in these matters a little 
differently from what my own humble experience has taught me, and 
assigned to the progeny the constitution and general aspect of the one 
parent, while they gave the inflorescence and fruit to the other. I 
have crossed and inverted the cross, and can venture to give no evid- 
ence on the point, except, perhaps, as to constitution, to which the 
seed-bearer, I think, contributes most. A well-managed hybrid should 
and will blend both parents into a distinct intermediate, insomuch so 
as to produce often what might pass for a new species. If the lean- 
ing be to one more than another, it is probably to the female, though 
this will not always be the case. Again, it is asserted that a proper 
hybrid — i. e., one species which is separate and distinct from it — will 
produce no fertile seeds. This does not accord with my observations. 
Dr. Lindley has remarked very justly, (Theory of Horticulture, p. 
69,) "But facts prove that undoubted hybrids may be fertile." My 
hybrid, Veronica Balfour iana, (an intermediate between V. saxatil- 
lis and V. fruticulosa,) seeds, I would say, more abundantly than 
either parent; and the progeny from its self-sown seeds I find to be 
of various shades of blue, violet, and red, rising in my garden, some 
having actually larger, finer, and higher-colored blooms than the par- 
ent bearing the seed; and I am familiar with the same result in other 
things. Yet I am far from asserting fertility in the produce between 
two members of allied but distinct genera — such, for example, as in 
the Brianthus, which I have found to be unproductive, whether em- 
ployed as male or female parent. As above conjectured, its parents 
were far too remote in nature's own arrangement. The hybridist has 

340 Banks and Banking in Massachusetts. 

a field before him ever suggestive of new modes of acting. He may- 
try, as I have dene, what may be effected under various-tinted glass. 
My persuasion is, that I effected from a pale yellow, a pure, white- 
grounded Calceolaria, by placing the plants under blue-shaded glass, 
by which the sun's rays were much subdued. He may also apply 
chemical solutions to plants with ripening seeds. Nature, in producing, 
as it sometimes does, plants with blooms of colors opposite to those of 
the parent, must be governed by some law. Why may not this law be 
found out ? For example, under what influence was the first white 
Fuchsia, the F. Venus Vidrix, produced, the purest yet of all the 
race, and the source from which all the whites have been derived ? 

Article VII. 
Banks and Banking in Massachusetts. 

We publish the following article which appeared in the Boston At- 
las, of 24th ult., for the purpose of showing our western readers the 
nature of the basis upon which the Massachusetts Bank notes now in 
circulation here, have been issued. It will be seen that in October,, 
1853,, the Banks of Massachusetts, out of Boston, 108 in number, had 
a circulation of more than twenty-five dollars in paper for one of spe- 
cie in their vaults; and yet more applications are before the Legislature 
for increasing of banking capital. We have no desire to depreciate 
the paper of the Massachusetts banks, but we are constrained to ex- 
press the opinion that a currency resting upon a basis so artificial and 
slender, is not entitled to the confidence of people residing beyond the 
limits of the State in which it is issued. — Sen. Ed. 

"It will be seen by the proceedings of the Legislature, that num- 
erous petitions have been presented for an increase in bank capit- 
al. VVe know that, until the last session of the Legislature, there 
had been but little increase of bank capital for several years, al- 
though there had been a great increase of business. During the 
last session there was an increase of more than ten millions. 
Ten millions is a large sum for a single year. There are already 
numerous applications for bank capital this session, and no doubt 
there will be others. The granting of one charter will be the signal 
for other applications. We presume that some charters will be 
granted, and the capital of some of the existing banks will be in- 
creased. But we trust that the Legislature will move with caution. 

We agree fully with the opinion expressed by the Executive, that 
the present policy of Massachusetts is a 'wise policy, 5 and that it 
has proved 'safe;' but this system, like every other, maybe carried 
too far. It is wise and safe while it is kept within reasonable 
bounds ; but if it is pressed beyond that, it will prove both unwise 
and unsafe. The ability of the banks to redeem their bills, rests 

Banks and Banking in Massachusetts. 341 

not upon the specie in their vaults, but upon the securities they 
hold — that is, upon the notes of individuals and corporations taken 
for money loaned. So long as discounts are made with care and 
prudence, the banks will be able to redeem their bills. But when a 
large amount of bills of any bank are in circulation, and the notes 
held by the bank shall, from any cause, prove worthless, it is clear 
that they must have something else on which to fall back, or they 
will be unable to redeem their bills. Our banking law contemplates 
that the banks will have specie in their vaults to meet such an em- 
ergency. But how stands the case at the present time. By the 
bank returns, made in October last, it appears that the 143 banks 
in the State, with a capital of $48,050,000, and a circulat'on of 
30,400,000, had only $3,731,000 of specie in their vaults. And 
this was the state of things on a given day, when they were pre- 
pared to make the most favorable show. Ordinarily, we presume, 
that the amount of specie would be still less, and the circulation 
more. We presume, that, at this very moment, the specie in the 
vaults of the banks would not amount to one twelfth of the bills in 

In fact, the returns show that the 108 banks out of Boston had, 
in October, a circulation of $20,792,083, while their specie amount- 
ed to only $810,609, which is less than four per cent. We could 
select individual cases which would be still more unfavorable. Now 
it is manifest that if there be an increase of bank capital, this 
amount of specie will be proportionately less. A new bank must 
obtain a new set of customers, and must, in certain cases, take 
second or third rate paper, and hence increase their liability to los- 
ses. The Legislature, therefore, should be cautious in ^ranting 
new charters, and in increasing the capital of the banks already in 
existence. We trust that the pleasing hope of obtaining a larger 
revenue from the bank tax will not induce the assembled wisdom 
of the State to grant whatever is asked for. We hope that meas- 
ures will be adopted to secure a larger amount of specie in the 
banks. It would, beyond all question, be a salutary provision of 
law, to require of every bank an amount of specie bearing a certain 
proportion to their circulation, or their capital. Such a provision 
would check, in some degree, the applications for new banks, and 
give, at the same time, greater security to the public. 

In legislating upon this difficult subject, we should look at every 
interest in the community, and interpose such checks as will se- 
cure to the great mass of the people, the bill-holders, the greatest 
safety consistent with the public interest. In a system like ours, 
everything depends upon the character of the individuals to whose 
hands the management of our banks is entrusted. But the State 
should be extremely cautious not to lead even honest men into 
temptation, lest they ruin themselves, injure the public, and bring 
dishonor upon the State. A crisis like that of 1837 would, we 
fear, find our banks unprepared for the emergency." 


342 Exploration of the River Amazon, 

A Sketch of the Exploration of the River Amazon under the orders oi 
the Government of the United States by Lieut. Herndon. 

By Mann Butler. 

Among the contributions to physical geography, so beneficial to 
mankind and honorable to governments, the exploration of the 
river Amazon, under the orders of the government of the United 
States, by Lieut. Herndon, holds a high rank. This most laudabe 
policy was begun by our government, under the presidency of Jef- 
ferson, by despatching Capts. Lewis and Clark, in 1804, to as- 
cend the Missouri river, and explore a route to the Pacific ocean. 
It was followed by the employment of Capt. Pike, to explore the 
waters of the Arkansas; and Doctor Dunbar, of Natchez, those of 
the Washita. Since these early adventures in the infancy of our 
government and the immaturity of American science, reconnaisances 
of the highest geological science have been undertaken under the 
patronage of the government by Nicollet, Doctor Owen, School- 
craft and Fremont. 

Pursuing the same line of enlightened policy, the government of 
the United States, in 1850, directed Lieut. Herndon to undertake 
the examination of the Amazon, and the general resources of its 
country. These orders were received at Lima from the Navy De- 
partment on the 4th of April, 1851, by the hands of Passed Mid- 
shipman Lardner Gibbon. This last mentioned officer was associ- 
ated with Herndon in his perilous commission. The route of the 
expedition was very properly left to the discretion of the officer, to 
be guided by information gathered on the spot. 

On the 20th of May, 1851, these gentlemen set out with Don 
Manuel Ijurra as guide and interpreter, with a few attendants and 
servants, consisting in all of five persons besides the arriero or 
muleteer, and having four saddle- mules with seven burden ones. 
The party left Lima furnished most fully with passports from the 
government of Peru. The road lay on the left bank of the river 
Kimac ; where it passed that river, the bridge was built in the fol- 
lowing rude style: "Heavy rough stone-work is built on each side 
of the river, into which are inserted massive pieces of timber, 
standing out a few feet from the face of the masonry, and hewn 
flat on top. On their ends are laid trunks of trees, crossing the 
river, and securely lashed. Athwart those are laid sticks of wood 
of some two or three inches diameter, lashed down, and covered 

by Lieut. Herndon. 34S 

over with bundles of reeds, mud and stone." At sixty miles 
from the Pacific, the party had crossed the great western divide 
which separates the waters of that ocean from those of the Atlan- 
tic; here one of our countrymen dropped a piece of moss into one 
of the heads of the eastern waters, fancying that "it might meet 
with silent little messengers cast by the hands of sympathizing 
friends and countrymen high upon the head waters of the Missouri 
Or away in the Far West," upon the distant fountains of the Mis- 


But before we are hurried on this most adventurous expedition, 
it becomes necessary to apprise the reader of a most disinterested 
act of self-devotion on the part of these true sons of Neptune. 
Two fellow-countrymen alone, on the distant shores of Peru, off 
the decks of the favorite craft of their profession, amidst foreign- 
ers not too well disposed to Americans, and hordes of savages, 
who after three hundred years of Spanish dominion in South Amer- 
ica, are still unsubdued, filled with the ardor of patriotic duty, con- 
sented to separate from one another, one to explore the Huallaga 
and Ucayalu, branches of the Amazon on the north, the other to 
examine the southern tributaries of the same mighty stream. 

At the head of the valley of Acobamba, near Jurin on the 
map, they parted on their country's noble errand, and until we 
hear from Midshipman Gibbo?i, we will proceed with Lieut. Hem- 
don' 's most exciting report. 

About three miles from Morocaocha a fine view of the mountain 
of Puy-puy, said to be higher thanChimborazo, itself 21,440 feet, 
or over four miles, above the surface of the ocean, was obtained. 
So destitute of timber is the western slope of the Andes that, as 
in our own Plains, nearer home, the fuel is the tac/uia, or dried 
cattle manure, felicitously denominated by our hunters buffalo 
chips. Our travellers could not at first overcome a "fastidious- 
ness in objecting to a mutton chop broiled on a coal of this kind." 
On the 5th of June, our party arrived at Tarma, a town of about 
7000 inhabitants, 148 miles from Callao; the head of its valley was 
11,270 feet above the level of the sea, and in latitude 11°, 25', 
5", S. By July 6th tne travellers arrived at Ooro Pasco, about 
13,802 feet above the level of the sea, with a population varying, 
according to the yield of the silver mines, from 6,000 to 15,000 
souls. This is in the heart of the mining country. These mines 
are said to have yielded "about two millions of dollars a year,. 

344 Exploration of the River Amazon, 

nhich is nearly equal to the yield of all the rest of the mines of 
Peru together. From the date of the discovery of these mines, in 
1630, to the year 1849, 475,000,000 of dollars are calculated by 
M. Castelnau, from all the data within its reach, to have been pro- 
duced, making an annual average of $2,170,000. After leaving 
the mass of accumulated suffering from disease, want of provisions, 
and every discomfort of life, in these secluded and lofty repositor- 
ies of the precious metals, the party left the western Cordillera or 
ridge of the Andes. From this lofty elevation, by a sudden de- 
scent from rugged mountain peaks, where no cultivation flourishes, 
the travellers were, in fifteen minutes, brought to fruit trees and 
patches of sugar cane; they had now got on the banks of the Hu- 
allaga or middle branch of the Amazon, between the Maranon, 
[a name sometimes applied to the whole stream,] and the Ucay- 
aCi, an eastern branch of the great mountain stream. Three hund- 
red and thirty-five miles from Lima brought our party to the Tin- 
go Maria, that is, the junction of two streams, which in this in- 
stance were the Manzon and the Huallaga. 

It was now the first of August, and the party had to pass the 
gigantic course of the great continental river of South America, 
reaching by its windings 4,000 miles, and 2,600 direct to the 
ocean. The distance from Lima to Tingo Maria may be passed 
with loaded mules in twenty-one days by one route, and in nine- 
teen by another, direct from Lima to Cerro Pasco ; our travellers 
Went round by Tarma. Mules may be had at Lima for 75 cents 
per day, their feed 12 J cents; their load will average 260 pounds 
each. From Tcngo Maria, our travellers proceeded down the 
vast river before them, in two canoes, the largest about forty feet 
by two and a half broad, hollowed out from a single log, and man- 
ned each by five men and a boy. By this conveyance they would 
make about forty-five miles a day, averaging five miles an hour, 
with the current at 3| miles per hour, and the rowing at one and 
a half an hour, for nine hours a day. Monkeys, parrots and 
pumas or American tigers swarm along the banks ; clouds of in- 
sects, sand-gnats and musquitoes infestthe air, covering both nat- 
ives and strangers with cataneous sores of a malignant character. 
The vampyre bat measuring two feet across the extended wings, 
abounds ; and though its blood-sucking is not doubted in its own 
country, Lieut. Herndon only heard of its being called in question 
when he got home. lie describes it as "a very disgusting look- 

by Lieut. Herndon. 345 

ing animal, though its fur is very delicate, and of a glossy, rich 
maroon color. Its mouth is amply provided with teeth looking 
like that of a miniature tiger. It has two long and sharp tusks in 
the front part of each jaw, with two smaller teeth, like those of a 
hare or sheep between the tusks of the upper jaw and four (much 
smaller) between those of the lower ; there are also teeth back of 
the tusk, extending far back into the mouth. The nostrils seem 
fitted as a suction apparatus. Above them is a triangular, cartil- 
aginous snout, nearly half an inch long, and a quarter broad at 
the nose; and below them is a semi-circular flap as nearly the same 
breadth, but not so long. - " Still the Lieutenant never saw these 
bats in the act of sucking blood, nor did he enquire of the Indians, 
whether they had done so; though he saw the horses bleeding from 
the supposed bite of the bat. 

To balance this account of wild animals and poisonous insects, 
and snakes, it is only fair to mention the capacities of the country 
for cocoa, coffee, sugar, cotton, and the richest and most varied 
woods ; the minerals of the mountains are too familiar, and their 
precious value too well known to dwell on. 

By the 25th of September, the party started to ascend the Un- 
cayali. This is the longest known tributary of the Amazon above 
the Brazilian boundary, and is sometimes called the main trunk 
of the Amazon. Our travellers limit this name, however, to the 
stream formed by the junction of the Maranon and the Huallaga. 
This ascent was difficult on account of the rapidity of the stream, 
and the high stage of water. The navigation of this stream is well 
believed to extend for 1,040 miles, making a total to the ocean of 
3,360 miles: while that of the Huallaga from the Pongo de Chas- 
uta to the sea is 2,815 miles. Our party was stopped at Saray- 
acu, 270 miles from the mouth, and yet had cost them twenty- 
three days in' the ascent. Here the scarcity of hands and provi- 
sions, but what was still more fatal to our enterprising country- 
men, the fear of the Infidels, or unconverted Indians, utterly pre- 
vented the further examination of this great branch of the Ama- 

Many interesting particulars respecting this stream are given 
from the account of M. Castelnou. 

This gentleman set out on the 21st of July, 1846, from Cuzco, 
in lower Peru, with a considerable party, and enjoying the patron- 
age and assistance of the Peruvian government ; and after seven 

346 Exploration of the River Jfhnazon, 

days' travel, and passing the Andes at a height of 14,840 feet 
above the sea. arrived on the Urabamba, Vitcomayo, Vikano- 
la, or Yucay, as it is variously termed. The difficulties of this 
descent were so great, on account of the rapids, that the party 
took thirteen days to descend 180 miles, with a powerful current 
in their favor. Here was the first impassable barrier to the ascend- 
ing navigation. Our travellers returned to the Amazon, and pro- 
ceeded on their way amidst hardships and difficulties, which must 
be read to be appreciated. 

As a specimen, however, of the want of even substantial food in 
this tropical land of profusion, they did not taste wheaten bread 
for five months, being the time passed between Huanaco in Alto 
Peru, and Egas in Brazil, about midway between Loreto on the 
Peruvian frontier, and Barra on the lower Amazon. 

At this latter point, the party arrived on the Gth of January, 
1851. The town is built on the left bank of the Negro. This is 
another of the wonderful streams of this wonderfully watered coun- 
try. It derives its name from the very dark color of its waters, 
giving the color of the Bohemian glass, without its bri liancy, to 
bodies dipped in it. Brazil embraces both banks of the Amazon 
to Tambathiga, and extends about two degrees north of that riv- 
er, to the confines of the Guianas, French, Dutch and British; and 
has communications into New Granada and Venezuela. In the 
latter country the Negro interlinks with the Cassiquiari, a natur- 
al canal between it and the mighty Orinoco, a twin-brother of the 
Amazon. It is navigable for ships of almost any draught for 400 
miles to the rapids, and requires fifty-one days, or about 800 miles 
of navigation, to reach San Fernando on the Orinoco. ''Most of 
the vessels which ply forth on the Negro and Orinoco, are built at 
or near San Carlo, the frontier port of Venezuela, situated above 
the rapids of the Negro, and are sent down those ra*pids and also 
up the Cassiquiari and down the Orinoco to Angostura" [p. 279.] 
There is another communication with the Orinoco, passing above 
the mouth of the Cassiquiari by the cano or of Pimi- 
chim ; and a portage of six hours brings the traveller to the Ata- 
bapo, a tributary of the Orinoco. The capacities for social and 
physical development which this country presents, justly throw our 
Lieutenant into the following ecstasies at the contemplation: "We 
have here a continent divided into many islands, [for most of its 
great streams inosculate] whose shores produce, or may be made 

by Lieut. Herndon. 347 

to produce, all that the earth gives for the maintenance of more 
people than the earth now holds. We have also here a fluvial 
navigation for large vessels by the Amazon and its great tributar- 
ies of [in round numbers] six thousand miles, which does not in- 
clude the innumerable small streams that empty into the Amazon, 
and which would swell the amount to ten thousand; neither does it 
include the Orinoco with its tributaries on the one hand, nor the 
La Plata with its tributaries on the other ; the former of which 
communicates with the valley of the Amazon, by the Cassiquiari, 
and the latter merely requires a canal of six leagues in length over 
very practicable ground, to do the same thing." [p. 281.] In 
these bright anticipations of the future of South America, Lieut. 
Herndon is fully corroborated by "Humboldt the greatest cosmo- 
grapher that the world has yet known." "The Cassiquii are," 
says that illustrious explorer, "as broad as the Rhine, and the course 
of which is 180 miles in length, will no longer form in vain a nav- 
igable canal between two basins of rivers, which have a surface of 
190,000 square leagues. The grain of New Grenada will be car- 
ried to the banks of the Rio Negro ; boats will descend from the 
sources of the Napo and the Ucayali, from the Andes of Quito and 
upper Peru to the mouths of the Orinoco — a distance which equals 
that from Timbuctoo to Marseilles. A country nine or ten times 
larger than Spain, and enriched with the most varied productions, 
is navigable in every direction by the medium of the natural canal 
of the Cassiquiari and the bifurcation of the rivers." [p. 281.] 
Well does our enterprising and patriotic countryman observe that 
"a glance at the map, [and most extensive maps accompany this 
account,] and a reflection upon the course of the trade winds will 
show conclusively that no ships can sail from the mouths of the 
Amazon and Orinoco without passing clos<? by our southern ports* 
Here, then, is the natural depot for the rich and varied productions 
of that vast region. Here, too, can be found all that the inhabit- 
ants of that region require for their support and comfort ; and I 
have not the slightest doubt that, if Brazil should pursue a manly 
policy, and throw open her great river to the trade of the world, 
that the United States would reap far the largest share of the ben- 
efits to be derived from it." 

The next great branch of this world of waters is the Purus; this 
stream, at the distance of 250 miles from the mf>uth, communic- 
ates by a succession of lakes and the Parana Pishuna with the 

348 Exploration of the River Amazon,, 

Madeira branch of the Amazon. It has other connections with the 
Madeira, higher up the stream. This Brazilian province of Am' 
azonas, the most westerly on the great river from which it derives 
its name, abounds in the most profuse variety of valuable woods : 
there are "twenty-three varieties of palms, all more or less useful, 
some for cordage, for the manufacture of hammocks and for thatch- 
ing. "Roofs of houses thatched with the gigantic leaves of the 
Bupa will last more than ten years." [p. 285.] Of trees fitted for 
nautical construction there are twenty-two kinds; for the construc- 
tion of houses and boats thirty-three; for cabinet work twelve, some 
of which, as the tortoise shell wood, are very beautiful." 

The Tarpagos river becomes the next most interesting stream 
owing to its connexion with the La Plata to the south. This in- 
ter-communication of great rivers (so rare out of South America) 
whose mountains are almost all thrown upon its western edge, pro- 
ceeds thus. From Santarem, one mile from the mouth, to Itai- 
tuba, the navigation is good for large vessels for 200 miles ; then 
for boats of six or eight tons, by paddling, poling or warping, to 
the Rio Preto. On this stream it takes two months to the head 
of navigation ; then a portage of 15 miles reaches the village of 
Diamantino, on the dividing ridge between the northern and 
southern streams. This is a country rich in diamonds and min- 
erals of the most precious kind; from Diamantino to Cuiaba the 
distance is 90 miles, the road crossing the Paraguay sometimes 
fordable for mules. Cuiaba is a town of 10,000 inhabitants, on 
the river of the same name, a confluent of the Paraguay, itself 
navigable for the large vessels to the ocean, without any impedi- 
ment. Another communication with the Cuiaba river exists by 
the river Jlrinos, a tributary of the Tarpajos, within 18 miles ; 
and there so level as to admit of hawling the boat over by oxen to 
a point above the city where the stream is navigable, we may say 
to the Atlantic ocean. Of this diamond region many particulars 
are gathered by our explorer; but at a length which the reader had 
best consult in the original text, as indeed the whole presents a 
mass of intelligence, spirit and patriotism most honorable to Lieut. 
Herndon and the gallant service to which he belongs. 

The last stream that will be noticed in this "world of waters," 
is the Tocantins, or if we take the largest and most direct branch, 
the tdraguy. This has a course of 420 leagues, and after unit- 
ing with the Tocantins, one of 113 leagues more, making a total 

by Lieut. Herndon. 349 

of 1,599 miles. This stream is navigable at all seasons, within 
150 miles of the city of Goyas, and in rainy seasons within a few 

On the 11th of April, 1852, our explorer reached the city of 
Para, about 80 miles from the mouth of the Amazon, or its Para 
mouth, the end of his most meritorious labors. This city is the 
capital of the province of Para, and contains a population of 9,- 
284 free persons and 4,726 slaves. It is the chief place of the 
province, in command, as in government. 

But Brazil holds tenaciously to the exclusive navigation of the 
Amazon which belongs to her territory for so great a length as 22 
degrees of longitude, close to the equator, or between 1,500 and 
2,000 miles by the meanders of the river. Such has been the 
jealous policy of all the European sovereignties on this continent, 
and still continues with Great Britain as to the St. Lawrence. A 
brighter day seems to be dawning on the States situated on the 
upper water and collateral streams of this, indeed, sea-like river. 
Peru has most liberally united with Brazil to patronize the estab- 
lishment of steamboats on their enormous navigation of the Ama- 
zon stretching at once from the very margin of the Pacific to the 
Atlantic. Bolivia stoutly refuses her assent to any monopoly of 
her waters, and Ecuador has recently opened her waters to the 
commerce of the world. If Brazil could from the activity and ca- 
pital, of her subjects supply the mighty demands of this new world 
of waters and exuberant climes, it might be well to keep it in the 
hands of her own people. But she is manifestly incompetent to 
so gigantic a task, and which has enhanced in difficulty and amount 
beyond all compulsation by the free spirit breathed into the almost 
inanimate provinces of Spain and Portugal. The commercial world 
at large, can only do the work. The rights of the upper States 
must accumulate in a mass that will, like their own mountain 
avalanches, overwhelm all obstruction by war, if not removed in 
peace. The proposition that the owners of the mouth of any great 
river are competent to control the lower navigation to the detri- 
mentof States and people on the upper waters on the same stream, 
is too monstrous a barbarity to be tolerated by any people able to 
defend their rights. The ocean, the maritime world, and free ac- 
cess to it, are the gifts of God; they are matters of right and sacred 
justice, which ought never to be surrendered, tamely or willingly. 
Such was the doctrine of our own country, when Spain possessed 
the whole right bank of the Mississippi and the left up to the Wal- 
nut Hills; such is still our claim to the navigation of the St. Law- 
rence. On the Columbia we have recognized the right of naviga- 
tion to the British from their upper provinces. 

This sketch of this most interesting exploration cannot be con- 
cluded without expressing a profound conviction of its high value 
to the world and signal honor to the naval service as well as the 
government which ordered it. 

350 Commercial Record. 


February 15th, 1-854. 

Owing to the suspension of navigation, by reason of ice, the receipts 
of produce and merchandize have been very small since the date of 
our last monthly report ; and were it not that we desire to preserve a 
connected history of the commerce of St. Louis, the business of the 
month would scarcely be worth recording. 

But, notwithstanding our city has been cut off from trade for a sea- 
son, the commercial facts which have occurred abroad in the mean time 
are not the less interesting or valuable. The river is now free from 
ice from Alton south. The first arrivals of boats from below and from 
Alton were on the 11th instant, and should the weather continue mod- 
erate, we may expect the navigation of the river.s above to be fully open 
by or pei haps before the first of March. 

It is not to be supposed that the prices quoted during a period when 
navigation was closed, and the stocks of some of our leading staples 
were exhausted, are entitled to the same degree of consideration as at 
other times ; but we have carefully examined the reports of such sales 
as have been made public, and give the facts as we iind them. 

Flour. — At the date of our last report we quoted country superfine 
in lots of from 50 to 100 barrels at from $5.75 to $6.00, and cily ex- 
tra at $6.50 to $7.00 per barrel. The steamer Atlantic which sailed 
on the 11th January from Liverpool brought intelligence of an advance 
in the price of breads! tiffs which occasioned considerable feeli